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Libraries and educational institutions have given this work so cordial a reception, 
taking its contents as their guide instead of its primary title, that I have bound a 
few hundred copies with the originally subordinate name of The Encyclopedia of Foods and 
Beverages glorified to a main title on its covers. 

I feel that this new title is appropriate, for it describes more than nine-tenths of 
the contents. 











Grocers and General Storekeepers 

C O M P I I. E L) B Y 


Formerly Editor ok 

"The National Grocer' 

• ■') s 


Copyright by Artemas Ward, ion 
Entered, Stationers' Hall, lull 



A N D 













•'If you can till the unforgiving minute 

With sixty seconds' worth of distance run." 

— Kipling. 

This book is the product of many such minutes stolen out of the hours of a very 
busy life, at irregular intervals, during a period of about thirty years. ' 

In 1882, realizing that the Grocers and General Storekeepers of the United States 
greatly needed a book giving information on many points relating to their business, I 
attempted to supply that want, and issued The Grocer's Handbook. Time and money, 
as well as personal experience and proper co-operation on the part of others, were 
denied me, and it is with a feeling of shame that I refer to that crude but well intended 
effort. Perhaps the present volume is its best apology. 

I have never abandoned the hope of issuing a better book — have steadily collected 
scraps of information — noted points of value — laid plans and considered costs. Iu 
the past two years application for information has been made to producers and manu- 
facturers in all parts of the world. So carefully detailed were the communications 
that return postage was provided in stamps of the countries of the recipients, even 
those of China and Japan, yet in numerous cases several letters had to be written before 
any attention was secured, and, too frequently, the replies were indifferent — perhaps it 
was found difficult of belief that anyone intended to publish a creditable book for 
Grocers ! 

Probably the indifferent ones would now gladly give pictures, details and other 
information, but I was obliged to fulfill my purpose without their aid — to obtain, by 
personal search and often in odd ways, photographs and other illustrations, some of 
them rare and difficult of access, and to develop many of the most interesting features 
from crude commercial reports. 

My thanks, and those of the readers of this book are, on the other hand, due to 
the many leading houses of the world who kindly aided in making it what it is. Per- 
sonally, I must acknowledge the industry and accuracy of Mr. Charles Martyn, 
formerly Editor of The Caterer, without whose efficient aid the work would have been 
too heavy for me. 

In so wide an undertaking errors and omissions will no doubt be discovered — I 
shall try to correct them in future editions. In several instances, prominent houses 
sent in absolutely contradictory statements on important subjects, while high author- 
ities disagreed with the Department of Agriculture. In one case, a great company, 
unquestionably the greatest of its kind in the world, ridiculed our submitted text — and 
a month later its own chief chemist endorsed it as complete and accurate. 

The color plates, by The American Colortype Company, tell their own story of 
modern color printing and a well executed order. 

My connection with the Grocery Trade has continued unbroken during the thirty 
years in which this Encyclopedia has been taking form — for twenty years in editing The 
National Grocer (absorbed by the American Grocer in 1894) — from 1884 to 1909 as 
General Manager for Sapolio, and still glad to aid all its interests — and now, in 
presenting the completed work, I find pleasure in the though! Hint I am si ill serving my 
friends in the Trade. 

Artemas Ward. 


This Encyclopedia attempts to give some information on every article of food and 
drink, and also touches on many other interesting items handled by General Store- 
keepers. The t'nst aim is so extensive as to approach the impossible — and to describe all 
the varied goods of a general stock would be impracticable — but its pages treat on more 
than twelve hundred subjects. The first item in the text. Abalone, tells of a shellfish 
of the Pacific Coast now growing in favor — the last line lists Zivetschenwasser, a 
German liqueur. Gunpowder, Nails, Rope, shot and other articles are given space, and 
a few points of legal or commercial import are briefly considered — as, -Trade- marks, 
Partnerships, Oood-toill, Power of Attorney, and, at greater length, Window Dress- 
ing, and the origin of the trade, under Grocer. 

The number of new fruits which during the last few years have found their way 
into our markets; the large, and constantly increasing, variety of other foods and food 
delicacies, both domestic and imported, now offered for popular consumption, ami 
the noteworthy growth of public interest in, and knowledge of, food values, make it 
essential that the modern grocer keep himself thoroughly informed and up-to-date. It 
is this service which the Encyclopedia is designed to render. Where reference is made 
to seasons, the character of the general demand, etc., it must be borne in mind that the 
book is published in the northeastern part of the United States and that therefore it 
may not in such particulars accurately report conditions on the Pacific Coast, the 
Gulf of Mexico or abroad. 

The Grocer who does not think better of his calling in life as he glances over this 
book, is not worthy of it. Eorest and Ocean, Land and Sea, the Animal and the Veg- 
etable Kingdoms — the earth and its fullness — are all tributary to his trade. Vinegar 
ma\ In a i rifle, but he shall see train-loads of tank-cars carrying it to factories. Under 
Wines lie will find twenty pages of helpful information, including a catalog of types and 
varieties embracing nine hundred ami sixty-eight items and more complete than any 
hitherto published. 

There .ne eighty full-page plates in color, and four hundred and forty-nine illus- 
trations in all. Twelve pages on Cheese contain descriptions of forty-eight varieties. 
Twenty on Coffee include a color-page showing twelve varieties of leading beans, so 
natural that they might be mistaken for real samples. Seven pages on Oi/sters are illus- 
trated by a color-page and three full-page, ami several smaller, half-tone plates. One 

shows the oyster in its various sizes, from the "seed" to a seven-year-old "giant," while 
others furnish views of planting and gathering in the United States and France. Min- 
eral Waters gives thirty-nine different Springs, their locations and their specific 
qualities. Tea, richly illustrated, fills sixteen and a half pages, and Rice is shown in 
cultivation and gathering in many lands. 

If the dealer wishes to add fresh meats to his business he will find assistance in 
the large space accorded to Beef, Mutton, Veal and Pork, showing by colored plates 
and plain diagrams all the principal cuts. And his troubles are met in several direc- 
tions, from Awnings to the Ants and Cockroaches which annoy him. 

Many extraordinary subjects are touched upon. Kangaroo Tails, as a new meat 
supply, is immediately followed by Karvten, a Japanese isinglass, and Kosher treats of 
Jewish food restrictions important to those who have Hebrew customers. Bacteria, 
Microbes and Yeast tell in plain terms the latest facts of modern scientific discovery in 
relation to foods, their flavor, digestion, development and decay, while Food Values 
devotes six and a half pages to that important topic. Mushrooms, six pages and illus- 
trations of fourteen varieties, is covered thoroughly. 

Every dealer should be interested in the liberal articles on Labels, Markets, Res- 
taurants and Guilds — in the fund of information given under the heads of Cigars, 
Chewing Gum and Sponges — and should be glad to learn more about Cold Storage, 
Adulteration, Cookery, Preservation and such subjects as Fermentation and Distilla- 
tion, and how to defend himself against Mold and Maggots. 

The Appendix, of thirty-nine pages, contains a list of five hundred and nineteen 
words used to describe foods, drinks, etc., with their equivalents in French, German, 
Italian and Swedish, which should prove valuable to dealers born in those countries — 
who, even when well acquainted with English, find many a puzzling question put to 
them over the counter— and should greatly aid dealers born in English-speaking lands 
whose trade lies with foreign-born customers. This dictionary is carefully repeated 
in each language, as "French-English," "German-English," "Italian-English" and 
"Swedish-English." As the majority do not use more than four hundred words from 
the cradle to the grave, these vocabularies of over five hundred words in one line of 
business must be very complete. 

The Appendix contains, next, a list of two hundred and fifty- five of the most 
common Culinary Terms, which explains how the well known staples sold by the Grocer 
at such low prices masquerade under French names to justify an enormous advance 
in price when they appear on Menus or Bills of Fare. 

Valuable tables of Weights and Measures are also included. 


Oppoaiti /'-'•/• 

- 16 


Aitles. Plate I 

Plate II - - - 

A.8PARAGU8 - .... 

li\N \ \ \^ 

Beef Cuts. Plate I 
Plate II - 
Plate III - - 
Plate IV - 
Berries. Blackberries, Currants, Huckle- 
berries, Blueberries, Dewberry, Raspber- 
ries, Cranberries, Gooseberries, Straw- 

Bread. Plate I — Cottage, Domestic, Gra- 
liam, French - 

Plate II — Pumpernickel, Rye, Twist. 

\ ienna, New England - - - - 

Brussels Sprouts ----- 


Cheese. Plate I — Pineapple, Neufcbatel, 
Limbnrger, Kmmenthaler ("Swiss") 

Plate II — Camembert, Cheddar, Cream, 


Cherries - 


Cocoanut - - ... 

Coffee. Plate I — Branch 

Plate II — Beans ... - 
Corn. Plate 7— Red 
Plate 11— Sweet 

Cucumbers - 

Dates - ----- 

Ducks (Wild). Canvasback, Mallard, 

Ruddy - 

Eggplant ----- 

Fig Tree 

Fish. Plate I — Sea Bass, Striped Bass, 
Flounder, Kingfisb, Whiting 

Plate //—Cod, Haddock. (lake. Hali- 
but. Pollack ----- 
Plate ///— Bluefish, Butterfish, Mack- 
erel (l mmon), Pompano, Smelt, Span- 
ish Mackerel ----- 
Plate IV— Salmon. Shad, Brook 
Trout, Weakfish - 
• .wit Birds. Ruffed Grouse, Prairie 
ken, Quail, Woodcock 

Plate I — Barlev, Buckwheat, 


Plate //—Oats, Rye, Wheat 












- 540 




GRAPES. Plate I — Catawba, Concord 
Plate II — Delaware, Niagara - 
Grape Fruit ------ 

Honey ----- 

kl mquats and loquats 

Lamb Cuts - - . - 

Lemons - - - - - - 

Licorice - - - - - 


Macaroni - 

M wgo - - 

Maple Sugar - 


Muskmelon - 

Mutton Cuts - 

Nuts. Plate I — Brazil Nut, Butternut, 
Walnut, Black Walnut - 

Plate II — Almond, Chestnut, Filbert, 
Hickory Nut, Litchi Nut, Paradise, 
Pecan, Pignolia (Pine), Pistachio - 

Olives ------- 

Oranges. Plate I — Branch 

Plate II- Florida, Navel, King, Tan- 
gerine - - - - 

Oysters - 

Oyster Plant 

Peaches - 

Peani rs 


Pepper and Capsicums - 

Persimmons - - - 

Pineapple - 

Plums - - 

Pomegranate - 

Sausages. Bologna, Cervelat, 
ters. Head Cheese, Mortadelli 

Shellfish. Lobster, Crab, 
Prawns, Shrimps - - - 

Smoked Meats. Bacon, Hams, 
Shoulder - - 

SPICES. Cinnamon, Cloves, Ginger, Mace. 

St. John's Bread - 

Sugar Cane - - - 


Tobacco - - - 

Tomato ------- 

TROPICAL Fruits. Cashew, Guava, Man- 
gosteen, Star- Apple, Sweet Sop 

Turtle - 

Vanilla ------- 

Veal Cuts ------ 

Watermelon - - - 


, Salami - 


Pog t 







- 346 







(2) Neufchatel 
I Imburger 

( 1 ) Pineapple 

(4) Emmenthaler ("Swiss") 




This Encyclopedia covers all articles ordinarily handled by Fancy and Gem red Grocers, and, in 
addition, a wide range of information on other subjects more or less closely allied to their trade, or 
to that of the General Storekeeper. The text has been made as concise as possible, while retaining 
the most interesting points on the cultivation, manufacturing, marketing, etc., of the pi 
staples. As it is designed chiefly for trade and public reference, purely technical terms — ch 
botanical, etc. — have been avoided, except where they are needed to evade the confusion which would 
result from the employment of contradictory popular titles or terms. 

The Appendix, commencing on page 710, contains a dictionary of all common food names, in 
five languages, an explanatory list of the principal French Culinary and Bill-of-Fare words 
phrases in general use. and Tables of Weights and Measures. 

ABALONE: an immense univalve shellfish common on the Pacific Coast. It some- 
what resembles the eastern scallop but has only one shell. Its flesh, which corresponds 

in general character to that of the oyster, was 
formerly eaten only by Chinese and Japanese 
fishermen, but white residents of the Coast 
States are beginning to appreciate and relish 
it. It is sold fresh, dried and canned; in the 
two latter cases cut into pieces of suitable size. 
The pearly shell is beautiful when polished 
and is much used in the manufacture of 
souvenirs, ornaments, etc. In Japan, the aba- 
lone product is an importanl item in the fish- 
eries industry. 

ABATTOIR (from the French Abaft re, "to knock down") : a public slaughter- 
house. The most notable American abattoirs are those in Chicago, Kansas City, So. 
Omaha and New York. In the larger 
establishments, cattle are killed, skinned, 
cut up and hung in the cooling room in 
thirty-nine minutes — each carcass being 
in that short time handled by twenty men. 
Hogs are killed at the rate of 550 an hour, 
each being handled by twenty-five men in 
thirty-two minutes. Sheep are killed at 
the rate of G20 an hour, the slaughtering 
and dressing occupying about thirty-four 

The wholesale Slaughtering and 
Meat Packing industries of the country 

Drying A.baIone Meat 


T 1 1 i: gbocee's kxcyclopedia 

employ a capital of more than $250,000,000 and 
about 75,000 persons. The value of the output 
is in the neighborhood of a billion dollars, of 
which approximately 85% is in the form of 
edible products — fresh, cured and canned meats, 
laid, etc. — and 15% in various industrial items. 

ABSINTHE: a liquor extensively drunk on 
the Continent, especially in France and Switzer- 
land, and now largely exported to the United 
Slates. That of good quality consists of about 
50% alcohol, distilled with absinthium or worm- 
wood and other herbs, such as balm, fennel, anise 
and hyssop, or their essential oils. To prepare 
it for drinking, the liquor is mixed with water, 
added drop by drop and permitted to fall from 
some height. 

Absinthe drunkenness, <>r even continuous tippling, produces utter derangement of 
the digestive system, ending in paralysis. 

The herb Lbsinthium is employed medicinally for its tonic properties. 

cu..«i iit. inno.i van CO. 

Murk yards, Km- 1- City, Mo. 

ACARUS, or Mite: a species of insects including many varieties, among which the 
Cheese .Mite, the Flour Mite and the Sugar Mite are common to the trade. The Cheese 
Mite is one of the most minute of these pests (see article on Cheese). The Flour Mite 
is covered with long hairs, and is capable of a good deal of motion. The Sugar Mite 
is found in -real quantities in all "raw" or soft sugars, but refined sugar is free from 
it. Brokers handling samples of raw sugar are often troubled by acari, as they bury 
themselves under the skin and cause an irritation simi- 
lar to the itch. The surface of jelly and preserves that 
have been kepi overlong is frequently covered with 
miles, and there is also a variety which lives on vege- 
tables and makes itself especially obnoxious in the 

ACCOUNTS. Family accounts are generally kepi by 

grocers in pass-1 ks. ('are taken before accounts are 

opened, and while they are running, will often aid mate- 
rially in their settlement. In factory districts, it is not 
unusual to obtain written agreements that they shall be 
settled regularly on pay-days. Persons desiring to open 
accounts arc sometimes willing to give security to a 
small amount, or to name references. The latter offer 
should always be accepted, as many who would other- 
wise not mind defrauding the grocer will pay rather 
than have the case reported to those whom they gave 

as references. To add ear], account up every month or 
oftener and presenl a bill, is very important. To write 
plainly in the pass-book avoids misunderstandings A 




duplicate should invariably be kept in the. store. 
In suit for an account, the grocer should be 
prepared to furnish a fully itemized bill. If a 
short note can first be obtained it makes the suit 
simpler even if it is not paid, as it generally pre- 
cludes all question as to the items of the bill. 

ACETIC ACID: which is sometimes employed 
by confectioners in sugar boiling, to stiffen cake 
icing, etc., and, in dilute form, is the principal 
characteristic of vinegar, is, commercially, a pun- 
gent, colorless liquid, obtained chiefly either by 
dry distillation of wood or by the oxidation of 
alcohol by means of ferments. 

Pyroligneous Acid, the crude product ob- 
tained by wood distillation, is the preservative 
principle developed in the smoking of hams, etc. 

mn TIEW CO. 

l'nion Stock-yards, Chicago 

ACETIC ETHER: is obtained by treatment of acetic and sulphuric acids and 
alcohol. It is extensively employed in the manufacture of many imitation fruit extracts, 
particularly cherry, currant, peach, pear, raspberry and strawberry. 

ACIDULATED: rendered acid or sour. "Acidulated drops" are an old-fashioned 
candy similar to the modern lemon and lime drops. 

ACORN: the seed of the oak. Acorns are important now only as an occasional food 
for cattle, but in the early days they served as one of the principal articles of human 
diet in temperate zones, and even in modern times, during periods of scarcity, they 
have been found an acceptable food by European peasants. They are said to be occa- 
sionally poisonous during the autumn months. 


is never an advocate of adulteration. Some manu- 
facturers adulterate for the sake of profit, but 
even then they are generally driven to it unwil- 
lingly by the demand for cheap goods. A fair 
price is necessary to secure pure goods. 

The cry of adulteration goes to great ex- 
tremes; the desire to appear critical and to be 
considered a good judge gives rise to much of it, 
and no sensible dealer will encourage it. Indeed, 
an honest and intelligent investigation nearly 
always proves that at least half the accusations 
are unfounded. 

It should also be remembered that there are 
many food items which are not desirable when 
absolutely pure — mustard is ••adulterated" by 
nearly every large manufacturer by the addition 
of flour, because it is too pungent in its natural 

L'nion Stock-yards. Chicag 


Btate; such "adulteration" is not only harmless but may be defended as perfectly proper 
and justifiable. 

\u.iin, many of the statements with regard to adulteration are rendered alarming 
by the misuse of chemical terms. To tell the average consumer that a table syrup 
is made of "glucose" is to state a mystery; to say that it is made of "starch treated 
with hydrochloric or muriatic acid" would cause alarm — yet the final result is a thor- 
oughly wholesome product whose principal constituents are "sugars" identical with, 
or closely allied to, those into which the sucrose of flowers is converted by bees in the 
manufacture of honey, and all starchy food is converted by the human stomach in the 
ordinary process of digestion. 

If, as modern medicine asserts, a state of dread affords a direct opening to disease, 
the alarmists are as dangerous as the adulterists, and it would seem better to live in 
ignorance than to be frightened out of the world by too critical inquiries as to what 
we eat or drink. 

Much adulteration exists which is deleterious to health, but, unfortunately, it is 
generally where it is least expected and rarely detected. Laws of the most stringent 
character are enforced in Great Britain, and fall very oppressively on retail grocers, 
many of whom purchase goods the purity of which they are unable to determine. 

AERATED BREAD: is that leavened by the addition of carbon-dioxide. See gen- 
eral article on Bread. 

AERATED WATER: is, correctly speaking, distilled water to which purified filtered 
air is added to improve its flavor. The term is, however, frequently applied to Car- 
bonated Waters (which see). 

AGUARDIENTE: a brandy made in Spain, Portugal and several Spanish- American 

ALBUMEN: a thick, viscous substance found in both vegetable and animal matter. 
It is the most valuable component of meat, flour and many other foods (see Food 
Values). The best natural example is the white of an egg, which is nearly pure 
albumen. Chemically pure albumin is almost colorless, odorless and tasteless and is 
insoluble in pure water. In France, large quantities are prepared at the abattoirs 
by drying the blood of the cattle killed. It is used to clarify wine, syrups and other 
liquids, in photography, the textile industries, etc. In cases of poisoning by mineral 
acids the white of an egg is a valuable antidote. 

ALCOHOL, Ethyl Alcohol (also called G-rain Alcohol. Root Alcohol, Spirits of 
Wine, etc., according to the source) : occurs as the result of the fermentation — i. e., 
the effect of the growth of yeast cells, either wild or cultivated (see Yeast) — of liquid 
containing a moderate amount of any one of several forms of "sugar." The sugary ele- 
ment is the result of the conversion of starch, either by natural growth in grapes, sugar 
beets, etc., or by the action of malt diastase, etc., on the starch of grains ( see Whisky i , 
potatoes, etc. The alcohol is extracted from the fermented liquid by the process of 
Distillation i which see). 

Pure alcohol is transparent and colorless, agreeable in odor, of strong and pun- 
genl taste and highly volatile and inflammable, burning with a pale blue or smokeless 


flame. If thoroughly refined, the product is identical — both by chemical analysis and 
in appearance, flavor, etc. — no matter what the source of the original starch. 

Brandy and Whisky generally contain about one-half alcohol in volume. "Proof 
spirit" contains approximately half in weight but somewhat more by volume. 

In addition to its use in spirituous liquors, alcohol is employed in an almost infi- 
nite variety of ways — in the arts, in the electrical world, in the manufacture of arti- 
ficial silk, leather, etc., by perfumers, chemists, extract makers, anatomists, natu- 
ralists, etc. As Denatured Alcohol (see following), its scope has been greatly widened 
within the last few years. 

Denatured Alcohol: is merely ordinary alcohol with special ingredients added in 
order to make it impossible to drink it, the purpose being to cheapen it for industrial 
and commercial purposes by avoiding the heavy government tax on alcohol which can 
be consumed in beverages. The additional ingredients make it injurious to health and 
objectionable in both taste and odor, but do not detract from its commercial efficiency. 
Furthermore, when once denatured, there is little likelihood of it being improperly 
used, as it is both expensive and difficult to extract the foreign ingredients. 

There are two forms of alcohol so treated — one completely denatured and the 
other specially denatured — the latter for uses for which the former would not be suit- 

The most generally approved formula for completely denatured alcohol adds teu 
gallons of wood (methyl) alcohol and one-half gallon of petroleum benzine to each 
hundred gallons of ordinary (ethyl) alcohol. 

Among the many possible additions for specially denatured alcohol are camphor, 
benzol, castor-oil and soda lye, sulphuric ether, etc. 

Alcohol for industrial purposes is in Germany made chiefly from potatoes, in 
France from beets, and in this country from grains, molasses, etc. Its manufacture 
adds appreciably to the wealth of the nation by turning to account damaged and 
spoiled grains, vegetables and fruits — all of which can be converted into alcohol 
thoroughly serviceable for industrial purposes. 

The commercial uses of alcohol, when obtainable at a low price, are almost innu- 
merable. In the household it serves as a clean, cheap and serviceable substitute for 
gas or electricity, for both illumination and cooking. Its possibilities promise to be 
illimitable, for in France a new process has been discovered by which it may be pro- 
duced by chemical synthesis, and it is predicted that the cost of such production can 
be reduced to less than ten cents a gallon. 

ALE. This was apparently the current name in England for all malt liquor before 
the introduction of hops, about 1524. Later, the word "beer" was similarly employed. 

The principal difference in the brewing of modern Ale and Lager Beer is found 
in the process of fermentation. Ale is a "high" or "top" fermentation at about 58° 
Fahr. ; Lager, a "low" or "bottom" fermentation at about 40° Fahr. Each requires a 
special yeast. The percentage of alcohol varies from four to six per cent in ale against 
from three to five in lager beer, the difference being due to the greater quantity of 
malt used in the former. 

In America, ale is brewed chiefly from malted barley, grain, cerealin (a compound 
resembling diastase), grape sugar and hops. All varieties may be grouped under two 
heads: "Present Use" or "Cream" or "Light Draught" ale, intended for immediate 


iption, and "Stock Ale." containing more alcohol and extract, intended to be 
kepi i"i' nths or years, either bottled or in casks. 

•Light Draughl ales arc distinctly an American product, the tendency bere being 
toward clear, light types. In the endeavor to attain this result, some brewers have 
sacrificed much in flavor, but others have been successful in producing a true "Ale" 
with n lager beer finish. 

English and Scotch ales enjoy a high reputation. The latter are distinguished 
by the small quantity of Imps employed ami their marked vinous flavor. India Tale 
Ale derives its name from a variety originally brewed loi' the East Indies market, 
which was especially heavily hopped to better withstand the hot climate. "Hitter Ale" 
i- similarly made- by using a large proportion of Imps. 

"Half & II nl j" is a mixture of half ale and half porter (see Stout). 

"Musty," in Ww England, signifies a mixture of ale and lager beer. 

When properly drawn, ale should he perfectly clear, contain sufficient carbon- 
dioxide (carbonic acid gas) to produce a foam or collar on top and a slight cham- 
pagne effervescence, and have the aromatic smell of hops. It should never be exposed 
to the air in an open vessel, because of its tendency to ferment and sour. 

Winn brewed by the newest methods, ale does not become tm-bid at low tempera- 
tures, and when bottled and pasteurized can be kept indefinitely without sediment, 
remaining clear even when packed on ice. 

Bottled ale should be kept on its side in a cool place — the temperature preferably 
not below 41 nor alcove ."»() l-'ahr. 

ALEBERRY: a beverage made by boiling ale with spice, sugar and bread-sops, the 
last c monly toasted. A domestic remedy for a cold. 

ALEWIFE: an American species of herring, taken along 
the coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Chesapeake Bay. 
It is largely exported after suiting to the West Indies. 

ALKALINE WATERS. See Mineral Waters. Alc " ifc 

ALKANET: the dark red root of a deciduous plant, of blackish appearance exter- 
nally but inside sinewing a blue-red meat, surrounding a whitish core. It readily gives 
up its red color on infusion in spirits, oils, etc., hut not in water, which derives from 
it only a dirty brown color. Alkanet is used by perfumers, etc., and it is also employed 
occasionally to color cheese, to improve the appearance of poor grades of port and 
similar wines, to give the appearance of age to port wine corks, etc. 

ALLIGATOR APPLE: a large, smooth, heart-shaped tropical and sub-tropical fruit. 
The flesh is sweet-scented and agreeable in flavor, but so strongly narcotic that it has 
never attained general popular use 

ALLIGATOR PEAR, or Avocado: a tropical fruit, native to Mexico and northern 
South America but now widely grown also in the West Indies and in Florida and 
other Southern States. 

The tree is a fine spreading evergreen with large leaves of oval shape and bright 
green color, a free producer under g 1 circumstances. The fruit, big and heavy, weigh- 




ing up to four pouuds, consists of a single large 
rugged seed wrapped in a membranous cover, 
inside a firm, buttery flesh of bright greenish- 
yellow color, containing from ten to twenty per 
cent of greenish oil. The outer skin is tough and 
leathery, varying in color, some being bright 
green, others yellow, brownish green, dark purple 
or red, etc. The most common shapes are the 
oval, pear-shaped and round or bell. The large 
green fruits are considered the best. 

Alligator Pears are now obtainable nearly 
all the year round — the first supplies from 
Colombo and other parts of South America reach 
the Eastern markets in January or thereabouts, 
the Cuban fruits following in April and con- 
tinuing through the summer to October, those from Jamaica continuing to November 
and from Trinidad and Granada to January. The Florida supply is heaviest during 
the months of July and August. 

Alligator Pears have advanced considerably in favor during recent years. They 
deserve still greater popularity, as the large percentage of easily digested vegetable oil 
or fat makes their flesh exceptionally nutritious. 

The fruit is served in halves or sections, as cantaloupes, to be eaten with salt, 
and pepper and vinegar if desired, or with a little lime or lemon juice and sugar — 
or the flesh is cut in slices or cubes, similarly dressed or served with French salad 
dressing. If the flesh is cut into little grooves with a sharp knife, the dressing will 
be more easily absorbed. 

The flesh of the ripe alligator pear is of about the consistence of well-made 
butter. The fruit is just right when the flesh will yield gently to a slight pressure of 

Alligator Pears 

the fingers. 

The skin is then easily peeled off the pulp. 

ALLSPICE, also called Pimento and Jamaica Pepper: is the dried fruit of a small 
West Indian tree called the Pimento. It is about the size of a 
pepper, or small pea, and is gathered when fully grown, but not 
ripened, and dried iu the sun. It is called Allspice from irs sup- 
posed resemblance in flavor to a mixture of cinnamon, nutmeg and 
cloves. It is often used in place of cinnamon. 

ALMERIA GRAPES. See article on Grapes. 


ALMONDS : rated commercially among the most valuable nuts, are the kernels of the 
fruit of a tree, which is said to be a native of the East and of Africa but which long ago 
became fully naturalized throughout the whole South of Europe and is now grown 
with equal facility in California. It resembles the peach tree both in size and appear- 
ance. The fruit ripens generally in July and August, and the new nut crop is ready 
for shipment in October. 

Almonds are divided into "Sweet" and "Bitter." only the former being sold as an 
edible nut. Sweet Almonds are subdivided into several types, varying considerably in 
size and shape. In the shell there are three principal grades — Paper Shell. Soft 



Shell and Hard Shell — both imported 
and fr < Jalifornia. 

Of the imported Shelled Almonds, 
the besi Limw n are i he Jordan and 
Valencia, chiefly from Malaga, Spain. 
Jordan Almonds are long and plump 
and pointed at one end — the type 
shown on the Color Page facing page 
414. They are highly esteemed boili 
as a dessert item and for confectionery 
purposes. Valencias are about three- 
eighths of an inch long, round al one 
end and obtusely pointed at the other. 

Hitter Almonds, imported chiefly 
from Mogadore, Morocco, are used only 
for their oils, for flavoring, etc. See 
Almond Oil, following. 

Green Almonds are young sweet almonds. They are often preserved in sugar. 

Burnt Almonds are roasted sweet almonds. They are done up with sugar when 
destined for use as confectionery, being then known also as ••Pralines - ' and "Sugar 
Almonds.'' Roasted plain, they are employed for coloring and flavoring liquors. 

Blanched Almonds are sweet almonds with the skins removed. 

Almonds are also sold Ground (dried and crushed i, Suited, etc. 

ALMOND EXTRACT: is a solution of Oil of Bitter Almonds, about 1% , in alcohol of 
fair si renath. 

Gathering; Almonds. California 

ALMOND OIL: is obtained by expression from the ground kernels or seeds of the 
sweet or bitter almond, apricot or peach. It is largely employed in perfumery. The 
best qualities are light yellow or white in color, almost entirely free from odor and 
possessing only a mild, nutty flavor. Oilof Bitter Almonds is an entirely different 
product, which is not obtainable by the cold, or only slightly warm, expression 
employed for Almond Oil — it is a A-olatile oil extracted by distillation from the crushed 
kernels of bitter almonds, apricots or peaches, after the expression of Almond Oil. In 
concentrated form. Oil of Bitter Almonds is poisonous because of the large quantity of 
hydrocyanic or prussic acid it contains, but in diluted form, as in Almond Extract, it 
is a popular flavoring in confectionery, cooking, etc. 

ALMOND MEAL, ALMOND PASTE: are made from ground sweet al mis. after 

the extraction of Almond Oil. They are much used in pastry and confectionery — in 
the manufacture of almond macaroons and other sweet pastries, in fancy cake and 
pie tilling, etc 

ALMOND MILK: is an emulsion of almond oil and Avater. It has an opaque, milky 

ALMOND SYRUP: if of high quality, is an emulsion of sweet and bitter almonds in 
barley syrup (then generally known as Orgeat Syrup), or in a syrup of Orange Flower 


Water and sugar. Ten parts of sweet almonds are generally employed to three parts 
of bitter almonds. 

ALUM: a salt composed of the combined sulphates of Potassium and Aluminum. 
It crystallizes in cubes and eight-sided forms, and has a sweetish astringent taste. It 
is sometimes employed by bakers to whiten their bread. That used in Baking Powders 
is Burnt Alum — a white spongy substance produced by heating alum until it melts 
and then driving off all the moisture by additional roasting. Its employment in bak- 
ing powders has been much abused by parties interested in other preparations, but if 
completely neutralized it is harmless. The taste test is a poor one, as no raw baking 
powder has a pleasant flavor, and an overdose of cream of tartar would be about as 
bad as one of burnt alum! 

AMERICAN WINES. American wine makers have duplicated nearly all the Euro- 
pean Wines in popular demand. In some the results are disappointing to the con- 
noisseur because probably of differences in climate and soil, as well as in handling, but 
in others a high measure of success has been attained — especially in Red wines of the 
Claret (or Bordeaux), Burgundy and Italian types; White wines, such as "Cham- 
pagnes" and Rhine and Moselle types; Sauternes, and the stronger wines, such as Port, 
Sherry, Madeira, Malaga, etc. There are also several American wines which have won 
distinction under entirely new names, noteworthy among them being Angelica, Catawba, 
Concord, Delaware, Scuppernong and Zinfandel. 

Still wines are produced in both the East and in California, and to a limited 
extent in the South; "Champagnes" principally in the East, especially in western 
New York, and the Central States. 

In the East the grapes chiefly grown for sparkling wines are the Catawba and 
Delaware (see article on Grapes), Elviras and Dutchess (white grapes), and the Isa- 
bella and Eumalans (black grapes). The wines from several or all of these six, and 
other, varieties are blended in the making of the best domestic "Champagnes." The 
Concord (also described and illustrated in the article on Grapes) is used for both 
red and white still wines and the Clinton and Ives for heavy red wines. 

The most famous of Southern wine grapes are the Scuppernong (which see). Nor- 
ton and Ives, the last two especially noteworthy as the source of fine clarets. 

The largest wine product is that of California, the average output exceeding 
40,000,000 gallons a year, about 25,000,000 gallons of which is "dry" wine. The 
greater part of the dry-wine district is in the neighborhood of the Ray of San Fran- 
cisco, the modification of the temperature there by the sea fogs resulting in grapes 
ripening at the particular sugar and acidity points which are the most suitable for 
its fermentation. The sweet wines are produced very largely in the hot interior val- 
leys, where the grapes ripen at a comparatively high sugar and low acid point. The 
industry is conducted on a very large scale, especially in the sweet wine districts — 
there are many wineries which crush more than 10,000 tons of grapes every season. 

AMMONIA: is a gas consisting of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, marked by a strong pun- 
gent smell and possessing alkaline properties. Its common form, Spirits of Ammonia 
or Hartshorn, is water saturated with the gas. 

The many household uses of Ammonia are familiar to all. It is also about the 
best thing to apply to the bites or stings of insects and is said to be an excellent fire 



extinguisher, li is sometimes used in baking powders, bul being extremely volatile 
it soon loses its si rength. 

ANCHOVY: a small fish of fine and peculiar flavor, a member of the herring tribe, 

and closely resembling the English Sprat. Ii is found in 
-^^^ several parts of Europe, but is most abundant in the Medi- 
------ terranean, especially in the vicinity of the Island of Gor- 

gona, nc.if Leghorn, where also the catch is generally con- 
ceded in lie of the tincst quality. 

Anchovies are prepared for exportation by removing the heads, intestines and pec- 
toral lins ;iini packing in rock salt in small kegs, to be later bottled, whole or filleted, 
in oil or sail. etc.. of otherwise repacked for retailing. Dutch anchovies are cleaned 
of their scales, the French and Italian are not. The small fish are valued more highly 
than the larger. 

Anchovies are also extensively potted and made into a butter or paste and a sauce 
or essence. The ancient Greeks and Romans prepared the sauce or relish known as 
"i larum" from them- 

ANCHOVY ESSENCE: a pink-colored, thick, oily sauce, consisting of pounded 
anchovies, spices, etc, used as a flavoring for soups, sauces, etc. 

ANCHOVY PEAR: a lirown russet fruit borne by a very ornamental tropical tree, 
thirty to fifty feet in height, with large flowers and leaves averaging three feet in 

length. It tastes somewhat like a mango and is used in the same way. 

ANGEL FISH, sometimes, but incorrectly, called a "Porgy": a dark-grej southern 

fish, resembling a Butterfish. but with long side tins, weighing generally from three 
to ten pounds, but sometimes caught very much larger. It is in season dining July 
ami August. The flesh resembles in taste that of the Sheepshead. 

ANGELICA: an aromatic plant, native to the Alps, which grows wild in Europe, 
as far North as Iceland and Lapland. The natives of the latter country 

use the fleshy roots as f 1 and the stalks as medicine. Commercially, 

the young and tender leaf stalks and midribs are candied for sale as 
confectionery, and the roots and seeds are employed to flavor gin. 

ANGELICA Wine: "white" sweet aromatic domestic wine, re- 
sembling Tokay in style. Some varieties consist of the unfermented 
grape juice fortified with brandy or clear spirit immediately after 
pressing; others are partly fermented before fortifying. 

ANGOSTURA, or Angustura: an aromatic bitters which takes its 
name from the town of Angostura. Venezuela, the original place of 
manufacture, li is used as a digestive tonic and for flavoring bever- 
ages, etc. It is now made in Trinidad. British West Indies. 


ANILINE DYES: a general name for coal-tar dyes, which are chiefly made from 
aniline, obtained from nitrobenzene. See Dyes. 

( 1 1 Spltzenburg 
(4) Greening 
(6) Northern Spv 

(3) Golden Russet 

(21 Green Sweet 
(5) Baldwin 
(7) Swaar 


ANISE SEED, Aniseed: the minute seeds of an annual plant, cultivated chiefly in 
Spain, Egypt, Syria and other Mediterranean countries, but 
also to a large extent iu Germany, principally in the vicinity 
of Erfurt. It is used as a condiment, in the manufacture of 
liqueurs, candy, etc. 

Star or Chinese Anise, imported mainly from China, is 
in flavor similar to Common Anise, but is very different in 
appearance, being star shaped and frequently of a total diam- 
eter of about an inch. 

ANISETTE, Greme d' Anise: a liqueur with aniseed flavor. 
See general article on Liqueurs. 


ANNATTO, or Annato, Arnotto, Arnatto: a red color extracted from the reddish 
pulp which surrounds the seeds of the Arnatto tree, found prin- 
cipally in South America and the West Indies. It is exported 
chiefly in cakes of two or more pounds weight, generally 
wrapped in leaves. Externally it usually presents a brown 
appearance. J X— ; --• v*- 

Annatto is frequently used in coloring butter and cheese — - 
giving the former the rich yellow hue required by the consumer v . , \ 

without affecting its quality. 

ANTELOPES : the general title of a large and varied class I_- 

of deer and similar animals. The flesh of some is excellent, jf : - ■■*■■' 

that of others not generally agreeable to the human palate. 
See "Venison. ■ 


ANTS. The only point concerning these troublesome insects that is of real interest to 
the grocer is how to get rid of them. The remedies suggested are as numerous as those 
for a cold ! Here are a few : 

Balsam of Peru. Rub a thin film of it near the bottoms of the table legs or on 
the floor, and renew the application in three weeks. In addition, boil one ounce of the 
balsam in a gallon of water for thirty minutes, and sponge this water, while hot, over 
wooden floors and walls. 

Powdered Borax and Pulverized Alum. Sprinkle underneath the paper on the 

Oil of Sassafras. Follow the train — for ants form a train in traveling — to its 
origin. Saturate a small cloth with the oil and apply to every portion of the dis- 
tance covered. If they come out of a crack, pour a little of the oil into it — it is sure 
death to them. 

If ants become troublesome about the pastry case in the summer time, insulate 
it by raising it on four inverted cups set in saucers filled with water. Give the case 
a good cleaning and in half a day the ants will become discouraged. Do not leave 
the case insulated longer than is necessary, as it is suggestive. 

APHIS: a plant louse or insect which feeds on vegetables, fruits, etc., and is a source 
of much loss to farmers and gardeners. It is also of scientific interest because of its 


facultj of emitting ;i sweet fluid known as "honey dew" or "aphis sugar," which is 
eagerly sought by ants. 

APENTA: a still and sparkling Hungarian aperient water. See Mineral Waters. 

APOLLINARIS: a noted effervescent table water. See Mineral Waters. 

APPENZELL: a cheese similar to "Swiss"' or Emmenthaler. See article on Ciiekse. 

APPLES. This well-known fruit has been much improved by cultivation from its 
original wild state, which is still seen in the crab apple — a small, acid, almost uneat- 
able fruit, and yet the parent of the 1,500 varieties now used in so many ways — for eat- 
in- raw. in cooking and preserving, for jellies and desserts, for cider and vinegar, etc. 
The cultivated tree is at its prime when about fifty years old and will bear fruit for 
more than a hundred years. 

The apple contains an abundance of potassium and sodium salts and its acids are 
thought to be of great benefit to persons of sedentary habits. A ripe raw apple digests 
in eighty-five minutes. The practice of serving apple-sauce with roast pork, rich goose 
and similar dishes is based on scientific reasons. 

The different varieties vary widely in taste, appearance and time of ripening, 
fifteen of the best known types are shown on the accompanying Color Pages — oppo- 
site, and facing page 22. 

The Early Harvest, a small yellow sweetish type, is one of the first to make its 
appearance, ushering in what are commonly known as the "summer apples." Of these, 
the leading varieties are the Ilighglow, very handsome and fine-flavored, the Sourbough 
and the Gravenstein-*-the last-named generally rather large, roundish but somewhat 
irregular in shape and in color greenish to orange yellow, striped or mottled with red. 
Of smaller size but of attractive red skin and tender, juicy, sub-acid flesh is the June, 
very popular in the West and South. 

Next come the "Pall Apples," the best of which are: the Maiden Blush, medium to 
large in size, oblate and regular in shape, and in color yellow with crimson blush; the 
Belleflower; several varieties of the Holland Pippin, of good keeping quality, medium 
size, flatlisli in shape and yellow in color — inclining sometimes to green, and occasion- 
ally to red; the Fall Pippin, large, round and yellow, and the Strawberry Pippin. 

Of the "Winter Apples," the leading varieties are the Greening, Baldwin, Northern 
Spy, Spitzenburg, Seek-no-further, Lady Sweet, Gill Flower or Sheep's-nose, Green 
Sweet. Swaar, Streaked Pippin, Russet, Newton Pippin, etc. More Greenings are sold 
than of any other winter type, it being the general family apple, both raw and cooked. 
When first gathered in the fall it is of bright green color, but this gradually changes 
to a rich mature yellow. The Baldwins are comparatively inferior, generally of a dry, 
insipid flavor, but they are largely bought because they are sound and fine looking, 
frequently presenting a better appearance than really superior apples. The Northern 
Sp\ and Spitzenburg are generally considered the highest types of the "Baldwin" class 
of apple — good specimens are handsomely colored and excellent in flavor and quality. 
The Spitzenburg is of deep rich yellow, nearly covered with bright red, with darker red 
stripes. The Northern Spy is of similar colors but generally shows more yellow. The 
•Seek no-further" is usually of deep yellow, but some varieties are bright red. The Lady 
Sweet or Pommeroy, one of the most desirable of "sweet apples" for general market 

( 1 ) Early Harvest 

(3) Red June 

(2) Gravensteln 

(4) Streaked Pippin 

(6) Lady Sweet 

(5) Newtown Pippin 

(7) Maiden Blush 


f<" Fall Pippin 



purposes, is of fine red and yellow color, good shape and flavor and excellent keeping 
qualities. The Gill Flower is commonly called the Sheep's-nose from its peculiar pointed 
shape. The Green Sweet is a crisp, brittle, juicy fruit, and one of the best late-keeping 
sweet apples. The Swaar, generally of greenish or yellow color effect, is not attractive 
in appearance but it is noted as a fine dessert fruit. The Streaked Pippin is a large fruit 
of mixed red and yellow color, of good edible and cooking qualities. The Russet is the 
latest comer and the hardiest and is usually kept until the other varieties are beginning 
to disappear. The Newton or Golden Pippin is now raised chiefly for export to Europe, 
where it is much esteemed. 

Another beautiful and delicious fruit is the Rennet, of regular shape, skin of rusty 
tinge and flesh of sweet acid and delicately aromatic flavor. It is not, though, a good 
keeping apple. 

The care of apples is simple but exact. They should be kept dry and cool — the 
colder the better, short of freezing — and all bruised or decaying fruit must be removed 
at once from contact with sound fruit, as otherwise the trouble will speedily spread to 
an alarming extent. 

The packing of apples is changing. The barrel is being superseded by the box — 
which is a great deal better suited to the retail trade. In the Northwestern and 
Pacific States it is employed exclusively. The box most commonly used measures 
inside 9% inches high, by 10% inches wide and about 20% inches long, and holds about 
one bushel, or nearly fifty pounds of fruit, varying slightly according to the 

When the box package is used, the fruit should be carefully graded to uniform 
size and packed in layers. If wrapped in paper, similar to that used for oranges, a 
higher price can be obtained than for unwrapped fruit. A fancy display label bear- 
ing the title of the fruit and the name of the grower or dealer should be prominently 
displayed on each box. 

Apple Storage. The bulk of the apples placed in cold-storage warehouses begin to 
come into the market after the Christmas holidays, those first sent out being the less 
hardy varieties which will not 
keep for any great length of 
time. Some very choice types 
can be carried over until early 
in July, just reaching the sea- 
son when the earlier varieties 
of the new crop are ready. 

Apples are placed in the 
cold-storage rooms in exactly 
the same barrels and boxes in 
which they are shipped from 
the grower, not even a barrel- 
head or box-lid being removed. 
The temperature is kept con- 
stantly at about 32° Fahr., and 
it is a pretty safe assertion that 
any apples going into the ware- 
house in perfect condition will 

30 IEE G ROCEIl'S K N < ' Y < ' L P E D I A 

still be found so when displayed for sale on their re-appearance in the markets. 
The New England system of packing apples in sand is said to be a fair substi- 
tute where cold storage is not available. A hirer of dry sand is placed in the bottom 
of i lie barrel and on this a layer of apples, none of the apples, though, touching each 
..I her. Dry sand is then placed both between and over the fruit, the process being con- 
tinued until the barrel is full. Apples packed in this manner keep well, and if one 
or two in a layer are slightly affected the sand prevents the trouble from being com- 
municated to the others. 

Evaporated Apples. The best grades of evaporated apples are sold as "Fancy," the 

second quality as ••Choice" and the third as '•Prime." None but the finest varieties 
of the -white-fleshed kinds should be used for the highest grade ''Fancy." Fruit that 
is too poor to he worked into the "Prime" class is generally utilized by chopping and 
evaporating the whole fruit, without peeling or coring. The product is known as "chops'' 
and is chiefly exported. 

The greater part of the evaporated apple output is handled in 50 lb. boxes, especially 
for export, bakers' supplies, etc., but for private trade a considerable quantity is put 
up in cartons, weighing generally 1 lb. gross. The latter method is the most generally 
satisfactory for retailing, especially if the cartons or boxes are correctly labeled with 
the name of the variety. The labeling is important because of the differing qualities 
and characteristics of the many kinds. When bulked indiscriminately, a single large 
box may contain a dozen different varieties, many of them unfit for cooking, and the 
result of their use is very liable to be disappointing. 

See also general article on Dried and Evaporated Fruit. 

APPLE JACK: the Now Jersey name for Apple Brandy. It is plentiful in most of 
the Eastern States and. as it is generally cheaper than any other spirit, it serves a 
g 1 purpose in cooking, for sauces, flavoring extracts, etc. 

APRICOT: a fruit which in appearance suggests a small yellow peach, but which 
is borne by a tree of the same genus as the plum. It is eaten in every imaginable way 
— fresh, the fine varieties being especially valued for desserts; canned, dried, candied, 
made into jam, etc. It may be prepared for use by the housewife in any way that 
peaches are. 

The apricot was introduced into Europe during the time of Alexander the Great, 
and was first cultivated in England during the sixteenth century. 

The fresh apricot season commences about the middle of June and lasts for about 
eighl weeks. 

The California dried apricot product amounts annually to 15.000 tons or more 
and is supplemented by the great quantity canned there. Only a comparatively small 
pari of the California crop is marketed fresh, as the fruit is of such delicate texture 
thai ii does not stand shipment well. 

There is also ; i limited importation of dried and candied apricots from Italy and 
i he south of France. 

APRICOT BRANDY: a liquor distilled from fermented apricot juice. 

APRICOTINE, Creine </' ihricot. See general article on Liqueurs and Cordials. 



AQUA VITAE, Latin for "water of life": a name familiarly applied to the lead- 
ing native distilled spirit. Thus, it is "usquebaugh" or whisky in Scotland and Ire- 
land; "geneva" or gin in Holland; and "eau de vie" (French for "water of life") or 
brandy in France. When the term is employed in England, French brandy is under- 

AQUAVIT, a modification of Aqua Vitae : a liquor distilled from wheat and pota- 
toes, originally made in Norway. 

ARACHIDE OIL: another name for Peanut Oil I which see). 

ARGOL: is crude Cream of Tartar (which see). It is held in solution in the juice 
of grapes but it is not soluble in alcoholic fluids, so the formation of alcohol during 
the fermentation of wine results in its precipitation. In wines bottled before they are 
fully ripe, the argol is precipitated on the side of the bottle in a sort of crust, thus 
forming what is called "crusted wine." The imported product comes chiefly from 
France and Italy. 

AROMA: a pleasing odor, a delicately rich and spicy fragrance, generally applied 
to the fragrance of wine, coffee, etc. 

ARRACK, Arack, Arracki, Ariki, Aralca, etc. : a general name for numerous spirit- 
uous liquors drunk in the East, variously made from coarse palm sugar or "Jaggery," 
rice, kumiss, the juice of dates, cocoanuts and other palms, etc. 

The "Saki" or Rice Spirit of Japan is a softened sound of "Arracki." 
Arrack is consumed here to a limited extent, that from Batavia being considered 
the best. It is too powerful to be generally popular as a beverage, but it finds favor 
for use in punches and with grape fruit, etc. When sliced pineapples are put into 
Arrack and the spirit is kept for some time, it mellows to a delicious flavor and many 
consider it then unrivaled for "nectarial punch" or "rack punch." 

ARROW-ROOT: a starch obtained from the root of a West Indian plant, largely 

,^_v cultivated in all tropical countries. Its name is said to have been 

obtained from the fact that the Indians used the fresh roots to cure 

^Sal l the wounds made by poisoned arrows. More probably it is derived 

from Ara, the old Indian name of tin' plant. 

The roots are dug when they are about a year old. When good, 
they contain about 23 per cent, of starch. In Bermuda and Jamaica 
they are first washed, then cleaned of the paper-like scale, washed 
again, drained and finally reduced to a pulp by beating them in 
mortars or subjecting them to tin- action of the wheel-rasp. The 
milky liquid thus obtained is passed through a coarse cloth or hair 
sieve and the starch allowed to settle at the bottom as an insoluble 
Arrow-root powder. This powder, dried in the sun or in drying houses, is the 

"arrow-root" of commerce and it is at once packed for market in air-tight cans, pack- 
ages or cases. 

Arrow-root has in the past been quite extensively adulterated with potato starch 
and other similar substances, so care is needed in selection and buying. The eemune 


article is a light, white powder (the mass feeling firm to the finger and crackling like 
newly fallen snow when rubbed or pressed), odorless when dry, but emitting a faint, 
peculiar odor when mixed with boiling water, and swelling on cooking into perfect 
jelly, very smooth in consistence — in contradistinction to adulterated articles mixed 
with potato Hour and other starches of lower value which contain larger particles. 

Arrow-root is used as an article of diet in the form of biscuits, puddings, jellies, 
cakes, etc., and also with beef tea, milk or veal broth, or plain boiled with a little 
flavoring added, as an easily digestible food for invalids and children. 

ARTICHOKE: a plant resembling the thistle, which is cultivated for its flowering 
head, gathered before the flower expands. The edible portion is the fleshy part of the 
calyx— the "bottom" or basin of the blossom — and the base of the leaves of the flower. 

The flesh corresponds to what children call 
the "cheese"' of the ordinary thistle. As eaten 
here, it is generally boiled before serving, but 
in Europe it is popular raw, seasoned only 
with salt and pepper. 

If cut so as to leave an inch or two of 
stem, artichokes possess good keeping quali- 
ties, frequently remaining quite fresh for two 
weeks or longer under average retail condi- 

Canned artichokes, principally the fonds 
or "bottoms" only, are imported in large quan- 
ties from Italy and France. The small arti- 

Artichoke— showing edible base or "bottom" , , , , j -i . a c _s«vj«« 

choke buds are used chiefly for garnishing. 
The Jerusalem Artichoke (which see) is an entirely different plant. 

ASH: a word generally employed in food analysis to designate the mineral compo- 
nents (salts, etc.), as they form the residue or "ash" left after the application of heat 
sufficient to destroy all combustible components. See Food Values. 

ASHES. Formerly, all wood ashes were saved by prudent housewives and used for 
soap making, because of their strong percentage of lye, and in some sections the ashes 
of plants, especially of ferns, are still dampened and roughly made into balls for use 
in house cleaning. The cheapness of modern cleaning compounds has, though, prac- 
tically ended this little economy. 

ASPARAGUS: a native of Europe, which was a favorite vegetable of the ancient 
Romans. In this country, only the "spears" are eaten but in other parts of the world 
the seeds have been largely used for coffee — they are still recommended for that pur- 
pose in some parts of Europe — and a fermented spirit is made from the berries. 

An asparagus bed will continue to produce for a century, but it is at its best 
between the third and sixth years. Its commercial productivity is generally limited 
to fifteen years, as the stalks become smaller and less desirable with age unless 
fertilization is \cr\ heavy. The roots are buried from four to ten inches below the 
level and the sprouts or spears are cut as soon as they reach the surface or a few 
inches above it and are then tied in bunches for the market. 





The extension of cultivation has resulted in changing asparagus from a veg 
table almost exclusively for the well-to-do into one within the reach of nearly every- 
body. It is furthermore a vegetable of great adaptability — it can be readily grown 
all the year round, though the northern winter supply is necessarily somewhat 
expensive, and is nearly as good canned as fresh. 

The two principal market divisions are into the "green," in all sizes and qualities 
and varying from bright green to purplish; and the "white," generally more or less 
tinted with purple and usually in the large size. The while is obtained chiefly by 
deep planting of the roots or by banking earth up around the shoots, but some 
special varieties grow nearly white without this assistance. The preference for one 
or the other is in some sections a matter of fixed local sentiment, and in others 
is subject to changing fashion. New England and Southern trade prefer the green; 
the West and Northwest, the white, and New York vacillates between the two. 

In cooking fine fresh asparagus, it is best to stand the bunch on end. leaving 
about an inch of the tips above the surface of the water. In this way it is possible 
to cook the spears thoroughly without destroying the appearance of the tips. If the 
tips are not sufficiently cooked by the steam, the bunch may be laid on its side for 
a few minutes immediately prior to taking out. 

ASPIC: the name given to a clear savory jelly made from meat and used to 
decorate entrees, tongues, salads, etc. The word is derived from "Spike jelly," i. >.. 
jelly flavored with "Spike" or "French" lavender, at one time a popular dessert. 

ASSETS: the whole available property of a merchant or a firm. In computing the 

assets of a store a great mistake is made when everything in stock is put down 

at its original price. The available value is rarely more than what the g Is would 

bring at auction. 

AVOCADO: a salad fruit gaining in popularity. See Alligator Peak. 

AVOIRDUPOIS: the system of weights used for everything except medicines, 
precious stones and precious metals. A pound avoirdupois contains 16 ounces or 
7,000 grains (see Weights in Appendix). The name is derived from the old French 
words aver (goods) de (of) peis (weight). 

AWNINGS: are made usually from sail duck canvas ami vary in price and durabil- 
ity according to the heaviness of I he canvas. Permanent awnings are often of corru- 
gated iron, but the best qualities of canvas ought to last very nearly as long. The 
practice of whitewashing the awning in order to prevent mildew, is a useless waste 
of time ami money— it does prevent mildew, but the lime in the whitewash eats mm 
the cloth and renders it brittle and rotten. The tendency to forbid fixed roofs or 
awnings over the public streets is steadily growing, but the grocer will often find 
smaller awnings over his outside display of fruits ami vegetables profitable if not 
really indispensable. 

AXLE-GREASE: used for lubricating axles. The basis of the different brands is 

a compound of fatty oils to which is added tar. graphite, or mica to increase the 
durability of the grease and give it a better surface. 

i 1 7 5 S 

38 the grocer's encyclopedia 

BABCOCK TEST: widely employed for determining the richness of milk and 
cream. The essential principle of the process is that sulphuric acid added in the proper 
proportion dissolves all components of the milk except the fat, permitting the entire 
fat content to rise to the surface to be measured. In creameries, to facilitate the 
process, the samples held in closed test-bottles, are, after the addition of the acid, 
agitated in centrifugal machines for some minutes before aud after the application of 
a certain quantity of hot water. 

BACON: is the cured and smoked meat of the breast-pieces, sides and belly of 
the pig, the breast-pieces being generally employed for choice "breakfast bacon." 

In buying, one should look for thin rind and fairly even streaking of tender red 
lean and firm white fat. That with yellow fat should be avoided. As it loses in 
weight with keeping, a retailer should not carry it in greater quantities than 
required to meet current demands. 

Bacon should be kept in a cool, dry place. The injunction to avoid exposure to 
i he sun. applies with particular force to the sliced varieties packed in tin and glass. 

Instead of purchasing bacon by the pound and having it cut in slices, the aver- 
age householder will do better to take it by the Avhole strip in canvassed or wrapped 
form. If freshly cured when bought and if the cover is replaced each time after open- 
ing, it is easily kept in good condition until consumed. 

Bacon is a nutritious as well as popular article of diet. Some people of seden- 
tary habits find it hard to digest, but the choicer kinds are quite frequently pre- 
scribed as part of invalid dietaries, in place of cod liver oil and similar preparations, 
tin- curing and smoking of the bacon-fat aiding in its assimilation. 

Broiling is the best method of cooking bacon, but careful frying will do fairly 
well. The slices or rashers should be very thin, not less than six slices to the inch. 
The skin on the one side and the smoke-colored edge on the other should be cut off 
before cooking. The broiler or pan should be warm before the slices are put on and 
the fire should be brisk. Some people like the bacon crisp, but it is more acceptable 
to the average palate when nicely browned but still elastic. It should be eaten 
immediately after cooking, as if allowed to stand for any length of time both flavor and 
tenderness are lost to a large extent. See Color Page opposite 292. 

BACTERIA: the family name which includes a great many of the smallest varieties 
of micro-organisms or "microbes" — minute vegetable growths. They are found in 
three chief forms — round, rod-shaped and spiral — but as a class they are dis- 
tinguished by their reproduction by fission — the full grown bacterium, except in a 
few cases, multiplying by dividing itself instead of producing others by budding (as 
yeasts) or by seeds or spores (as molds). They are universally recognized as of 
vegetable nature but some types are motile, the power of movement being often due 
to hair-like processes called flagella. They are so small that they are discernible only 
by microscopes of high power — even the width of the finest needle would, compared 
to a bacterium, look like the width of a man's thumb beside a speck of dust. They 
.ue as a class tin- most important both for good and evil, of all microbes, the most 
numerous, the most vigorous — and the most difficult to control, for where the condi- 
tions are favorable, millions can result within twenty-four hours from a single active 
specimen left undisturbed. They are present everywhere that life is found, and some 
of them are always at work in all kinds of moist food unless hermeticallv sealed or 



held at the freezing or boiling points. Freezing will stop their increase but only heat 
considerably above the boiling point, or long continued boiling, is a sure destroyer 
of all kinds. 

Bacteria are found in great numbers also in various parts of the human body, 
but under normal conditions the presence there of some types is not only harmless 
but absolutely necessary to health and life — for there are, from the human stand- 
point, both "good" and "bad" bacteria, and we need the former to counteract the 

In addition to their functions in the human body — which subject belongs rather 
in the province of the physician than the layman — and their value in the gen- 
eral economy of the universe — which is too wide a subject for discussion here — 
bacteria, properly controlled, are of great value in the production of many foods. 
Their presence in various articles assists digestion by the chemical changes effected 
and also by producing flavors which stimulate the proper secretion of the digestive 
fluids which are not excited by flavorless articles of diet. 

Some varieties, for example, are almost indispensable adjuncts of butter and 
cheese making. The "ripening" of cream before churning, is merely waiting for 
chemical changes to be effected by the growth and increase in it of good bacteria. 
One thousand million of bacteria to the square inch is a conservative estimate for 
well ripened cream. Butter made from cream too fresh, and therefore deficient in 
bacterial life, is flavorless. This ripening of cream is not new — though the knowledge 
f the cause of the change is. Long before the presence and activity of bacteria 
were discovered, the butter maker used to set his cream aside and allow his un- 
suspected helpers to ripen it before he commenced churning. Another of the secrets 
of good butter making is though to know how far to let this change continue, for 
if overdone the cream is spoiled. 

Many bacteriologists have made a study of the production of the best kind of 
bacteria for the use of butter-makers, and certain varieties can now be procured in 
open market under the name of "Pure-Cultures." These are used in much the same 
manner as yeast is used by bakers. 

In the manufacture of cheese, bacteria play an even more important part — in 
fact, its manufacture without them is inconceivable, as the flavors for which cheeses 
are prized are directly attributable to bacterial agencies — though in some cases, ;is 
Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola, Koquefort and Stilton, credit must also be given to the 
employment of special "mold" microbes. The production and sale of bacteria for 
cheese making has reached an active stage in Europe and it is only a question of 
time when it will be possible to set cultures for all the choicesl imported cheeses at 
work in local American dairies. 

Again, the only good table vinegar is the result of the activity of a species of 
acid-producing bacteria, and even the lactic bacterium, which incurs the enmity of the 
unthinking by "souring" the milk, is a very good friend — in this particular case the 
flavor of the milk is spoiled for many people, but the lactic acid formed males it an 
especially health-giving drink and prevents for a time other ooxious bacteria from 
rendering it dangerous by decomposition. Indeed, milk that has been "preserved" 
from souring by checking the formation of lactic acid may prove distinctly dangerous 
for consumption even though the fresh flavor is retained. 

These instances give some idea of the good services rendered under certain con- 
ditions by many kinds of bacteria— and they are also indispensable to agriculture 


and other industries — but iu the retailer's establishment and the household they are 
besl regarded as enemies to be fought at every turn, for their uncontrolled access to 
fresh food is certain to result in loss and sometimes in danger to health. They are 
far more generally destructive than either wild yeast or molds. All real putrefac- 
tion is due to the action of bacteria — the breaking down of the structure of the food 
as they feed on certain elements in it and other changes caused by their growth and 
multiplication — and, as already stated, they are present everywhere, being especially 
plentiful in and around human habitations. Thoroughly dry, salted, smoked and 
(under certain conditions) spiced and pickled foods are safe from their depreda- 
tions, but any fresh foods that contain from 25% to 30% moisture, except those that 
are very acrid or very heavily sugared, offer suitable soil for their growth and 
multiplication — if undisturbed, they rapidly take them through the various stages of 
putrefaction to the culminating point of decay. 

Daylight, sunshine and cleanliness are opposed to bacteria, so stores and homes, 
and especially kitchens, should be blessed with all three as a preliminary safe- 
guard. Next, fresh meats, canned goods (after opening) and similar foods should 
be eaten as fresh as possible. When immediate consumption is impossible, a good 
refrigerator offers a considerable measure of temporary protection, but it is only 
temporary, for the growth of some kinds of bacteria is checked by nothing short of 

As already stated, boiling continued for an hour or so after the full heat has 
permeated every part of the food will kill all kinds of bacteria — will sterilize it — but 
this must be followed by immediate and hermetical sealing while still boiling hot, or 
new bacteria may get into it and start propagation afresh. 

BAGS. Formerly the making of paper bags was one of the duties of the grocer's 
assistants, but they are now T made more cheaply by machinery. Many manufac- 
turers, desirous of advertising their wares, print paper bags and supply them to the 
trade at a nominal price, or give them with every sale of their own goods, but every 
good grocer can better afford to advertise his own store in that way, than to make 
the trifling saving. 

Paper bags are made in a great variety of sizes and qualities. The present 
self-opening square bag was invented in 18S3, following closely after the introduc- 
tion of the satchel bottom bag. (See also Paper and Waxed Paper.) 

BAKING. See sub-head in general article on Cookery. 

BAKING POWDER: a compound used in place of yeast, in which an acid acting 
upon an alkali generates carbon-dioxide (carbonic acid gas). As this action takes 
place as soon as the powder is moistened, the dough is made ready for baking more 
promptly than when yeast is used. 

Practically all baking powders are composed of an acid, an alkali and a filler. 
The alkali is nearly always Bicarbonate of Sodium, and starch is generally employed 
as the filler, but there is a wide variation in the acid constituent used, and baking 
powders may be conveniently classed according to its nature. They may be recog- 
nized as follows : 

(1) Tartrate Poivders, in which the acid constituent is cream of tartar or 
tartaric acid: — Royal, Dr. Price's, Cleveland's, Sea Foam, etc. 



(2) Alum Powders, in which the acid constituent is generally a calcined double 
sulphate of aluminum and sodium : — Davis, Calumet, K. C, etc. 

(3) Phosphate Powders, in which the acid constituent is acid calcium phos- 
phate: — Horsford's, Wheat, etc. 

In the process of baking, the chemical constituents undergo certain changes, so 
that the residue in the finished bread is of somewhat different character from the 
original ingredients. That left in food, when cream of tartar powders are used, is 
rochelle salts; powders founded on phosphates leave calcium and sodium phosphates, 
and alum powders leave glauber's salt and a salt of aluminum. The quantity is, 
however, in each case very small. 

The date when baking powder was first manufactured is involved in some doubt, 
but it is known that Preston & Merrill, of Boston, made it prior to 1855, the common 
name then being "yeast powder." Phosphate powders Merc invented by Professor 
E. N. Horsford, of Cambridge, Mass., in 1857, and their manufacture commenced soon 
thereafter by the Rumford Chemical Works, of Providence, R. I. Royal Baking 
Powder was first introduced in 1867 and Alum powders about the year 1875. 

Grocers should not sell baking powders which do not give entire satisfaction, even 
if they are cheap and pay a good profit, because the loss resulting from a dissatisfied 
customer is likely to be much more than the profit on the baking powder. Private 
brands should be avoided because of the uncertainty as to their true character and 
legality under the Pure Food Laws. It is safest to buy only well known "regular" 
brands bearing the name of a responsible manufacturer. 

Care should be taken to keep all baking powders in a dry place as they lose their 
strength if exposed to dampness. 

BALM, Balm Mint, Lemon Balm. See Garden Balm. 

BALYX, or Balik: an European, originally Russian, term for salted or smoked 

BAMBOO SHOOTS: young shoots of the bamboo 
plant, eaten as a vegetable by the Chinese and one of the 
characteristic components of Chop Suey. 

BANANAS. The banana, the most prolific fruit 
plant known, is a native of the East Indies but is now 
cultivated in all tropical countries. It is palm-like in 
appearance, but is in fact a large "plant," the thick, soft 
stem being formed by the overlapping of the long 
vertical leaf-stalks. This stem in the dwarf types 'is 
only about four feet in height, but in the most widely 
known varieties it reaches from twelve to twenty feet, 
up to even forty feet, with a diameter in the latter 
case of twelve to sixteen inches. The leaves spread out 
from the top of tlie sheath, each from six to ten feet in 
length by two feet or so in width. 

The flowers, long and narrow, generally red. some- 
times pink and yellow in color, are at first folded 

Bannnn blossom 



close together to form a head at the end 
of a large drooping spike. Those at the 
point of the spike die unproductive, but 
the others, commencing from the stem 
side, rapidly change into fruit, layer by 
layer in circles around the stem, which 
steadily elongates so as to give each layer 
or "hand" plenty of room to develop — 
some branches containing as many as 160 
fruits. A branch is known commercially 
as a "bunch" — the standard size being 
nine "hands" or "ridges," or "layers" to 
a stem, with from ten to fifteen bananas 
to a "hand." In Central America, the 
bunches often run a good deal larger. 

Contrary to popular belief, bananas 
do not grow on the tree as they hang in 
the store, but with the small end of the 
fruit pointing upward. 

After the fruit is taken, the plant is 
cut down — a new stalk growing up again 
and producing fruit in ten to twelve 
months. This course is repeated for 
about ten years, when the vigor of the 
plant generally decreases and it is re- 
placed by a new cutting. For commercial 
purposes, the banana is cultivated with a good deal of care — it is set out in hills and 
rows, very much like maize, except for the much larger distances separating the hills, 
and is carefully weeded and watched— but as a native food it needs very little atten- 
tion, all that is necessary being to loosen the earth around the roots every season and 
to remove any suckers thrown up and plant them at requisite distances. 

The yellow bananas are everywhere the most plentiful, but the red varieties are 
raised in considerable quantities in Cuba and Central America. Their respective 
merits are entirely a matter of individual opinion. 

The "tig" or "lady-finger" banana, a very small, thin-skinned yellow variety, is 
the most esteemed in tropical countries — the flesh is finer and the flavor very soft and 

Bananas are brought to our markets in a green state, coming chiefly from Jamaica 
and Central America. As they are easily frozen, they are in cold weather packed 
very carefully before shipping — but are always sent at the risk of the party ordering. 
When received by the retailer or consumer in green condition, they should be 
Kepi in ;i moderately warm room or cellar until they begin to show color. Both cold 
and excessive beat will prevent them from maturing satisfactorily. When ripened, 
they are especially sensitive to low temperature and will readily deteriorate in any 
place where the thermometer registers below 50° Fahr. Placing in a refrigerator, or even 
laying on a cold marble slab, will turn them black and may spoil their flavor. 

In selecting bunches, give the preference to those with stems still greenish in 
color and bearing fruit full and plump in appearance. If the fruit is thin or flat 

OOPTBH5HT. I JfDMWOlir- .t OP BR WOOD, tt. T. 

A great Banana plantation near Port Limon, Costa Rica 




looking, the bunch was probably cut too 
soon and in that case, though the fruit 
may ripen and become yellow, it will 
never attain the flavor and delicacy of 
that properly developed on the plant. 
Some varieties are naturally more or less 
"flat'' in appearance even when fully de- 
veloped, but as thej' are generally inferior 
in quality, it is safest for the average 
retailer to adhere to the rule to take only 
those "full and plump." 

Properly selected and carefully 
ripened to a good deep yellow, the banana 
of the northwestern retailer is just as 
delicious as the fruit plucked from the 
plant in its tropical home. 

The banana is in this country nearly 
always eaten raw, but in the West Indies 
and other tropical and sub-tropical parts 
it is also baked and otherwise cooked, 
both as a vegetable and dessert, made into 
flour for bread, dried black in the sun 
after the manner of figs, preserved with 
sugar and with vinegar, and pressed and 
fermented to yield a spirituous drink 

Placing Hie Bananas in freight cars resemblill ' Cider 

The Plantain (which see) is of the banana family and the fruit resembles a yellow 
banana, but it is larger and coarser and suitable only for cooking. 

BANANA EXTRACT. See general article on Extracts. 

BANNOCK: in Scotland and the northern counties of England, a flat round cake 
made of oat, rye or barley meal, baked on the 
hot hearth or on an iron plate over the fire. 
The bannock is the primitive cake, varied in 
material, of every country. 

I'm- consumption in this; country, bannocks 
are enriched by adding chopped almonds, orange 
peel, etc., to the dough. 

BAOBAB, or Monkey Bread: the fruit of 
a low. abnormally thick-trunked tree, native to 
Africa but grown also in India. It is generally 
oval in shape and about nine inches in length. 
It is downy in appearance, but under the down 
is a strong woody shell, enclosing a fibrous and 
farinaceous pulp of subacid flavor. The juice, 
slightly sweetened, is frequently used in the 
treatment of tropical fevers. 

■ i 

Loading a fruit steamer with Bananas 




BARBADOS GOOSEBERRY: the edible fruit of the PeresUa Aculeata, a cactus 
found in the West Indies and distinguished as leaf-bearing in the ordinary sense of 
the word. It somewhat resembles the gooseberry in appearance, is generally yellow in 
color and of excellent flavor. 

BARBERRY: the berry of a shrub of prickly character, growing from four to nine 
feet in height, which in various types is found wild in nearly every temperate coun- 
try. In the United States, it is particularly abundant in New England. 

The fruit, of bright red color, ripens in October and November. It is too acid 
to be generally acceptable for eating raw, but it makes excellent preserves, jams, etc., 
and as such is very wholesome. 

The young leaves are of a bitter but 
pleasing flavor and are sometimes used as 
a salad and for garnishing. 

The famous French jam known as 
"Confiture d'epine vinette" is manufac- 
tured, principally in Rouen, from the 
Seedless Barberry. 

Barberries are also used in France 
for the manufacture of malic acid. On 
analysis they show in addition a small 
percentage of citric acid. 

BAR-LE-DUC "JELLY": preserves, originally of selected seeded whole white 
currants, but now also of strawberries, raspberries, etc., manufactured in the French 
town of Bar-le-duc. The popular term "Bar-le-duc jelly," is misleading as the typical 
product is a jam or preserve, the berries remaining intact in a thin syrup. The 
title "Lorraine Jelly'' is sometimes used, as the city of Bar-le-duc lies within the 
boundaries of the former province of Lorraine. 

BARLEY (see Color Page opposite 526) : a grain grown in nearly every part of the 
world, which has apparently been cultivated from the most remote antiquity. The 
Books of Moses and the early Greek and Roman writers make many references to it. 
The Greeks are said to have trained their athletes on it and "barley wine" or "beer" 
was enjoyed at a very early date. 

Barley grows very rapidly, in the northern United States maturing in about 
three months after seed sowing. The greater part of the crop is consumed in the 
form of malt and malt products— beer and kindred beverages, whisky, etc. 

Medicinally, barley is rated as the mildest of the cereals. It contains less protein 
and carbohydrates but more fats and salts than wheat. In various forms it is 
especially valuable as a part of invalid dietaries. 

Barley Meal: the whole grain ground, is the form in which barley is generally 
sold for the manufacture of beer, whisky and other liquors. In the northern parts 
<>f Europe large quantities are also employed in bread making. 

Barley Malt. See Malt. 

Pot, or "Starch," Barley: is the grain deprived of its outer husk. 

Pearled Barley: is the grain with both the outer ami inner husks removed, fol- 
lowed by a polishing process. It is entitled to place as a "cereal" food, but in the 


average American household it is used only in soup or iu preparation of home remedies 
for colds, etc. 

The largest consumption of Pearled Barley, including practically the entire out- 
put of the finer grades, is among Hebrews, who prepare it both as a breakfast food 
and a pudding. 

Patent Barley: is a flour obtained by grinding Pearled Barley. It has none of the 
acrid taste found in barley meal ground with the husks. 

BARLEY HONEY: is a Japanese product made from barley starch, generally in 
combination with rice flour. 

BARM: foam taken from the surface of fermented malt liquors. It is commonly 
known as Brewers' Yeast. See Yeast. 

BARREL. See tables of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

BARROW, or Push-cart* a small carriage moved by hand. It should be kept well 
painted and under cover. In purchasing, care should be taken that the load balances 
evenly on the axle. 

BARTER: dealing by an exchange of goods. This was the original mode of dealing 
before the use of money and is still very common wherever money and banking facil- 
ities are scarce. The country dealer is often obliged to take eggs, butter, etc., as pay 
for sugar, starch and soap, and when he can move the produce quickly and well, and 
is not paying too much for it, the barter seems to give a double profit, because 
he makes something on the sale of the groceries and something on the sale of the 
produce. But it is often a great snare for the following reasons: 

First, the produce may move slowly and so tie up capital, even if it does not 
result in loss by deterioration of quality. 

Second, the belief that there is a double profit in barter, leads the dealer to pay 
a higher price for goods taken in trade. There is really no double profit. For keep- 
ing, handling and selling groceries, one profit is realized; for receiving, shipping and 
selling produce, another profit should be earned — and the dealer who performs both 
tor a single profit, is doing half his work for nothing. 

Third, it requires all the average man's judgment and ability to run a grocery 
properly, ami those who try to combine with it the business of buying and shipping 
produce, and its freights, sales, drafts, returns and commissions, generally find out 
that they an- not masters of both, but that one eats up the profits of the other. 

Fourth, barter leads to a competition in buying which is worse than that which 
'•cuts" in selling, for the dealer who cuts the juices of his groceries, generally stops 
before he gets to cost, because he knows just where that point is, but the buyer who 
competes on produce does not know the price at which the goods will sell in the city 
and is often easily led into paying more than he can realize after all the charges are 

No dealer can afford to do two transactions for one profit ; few are capable of 
managing a double business, and when goods are sold below their value or bought 
above it. it is well to let others control the market. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 49 

BASIL: a highly aromatic herb, with a flavor resembling cloves. The common 

variety is seldom made use of, but there is a large type whose 
leaves are employed very generally in flavoring sauces and 
soups, especially Green and Mock Turtle soup. Basil vinegar 
is made by steeping the leaves in vinegar. 

BASS: a well shaped, round and fleshy fish, of which there 

are three chief food varieties — the Striped, Sea and Black (or 

Fresh Water or Lake). The first two are found all along the 

Atlantic coast. The Striped Bass ranges in weight from half 

a pound to seventy -five pounds for some huge specimens and 

is in season all the year round. The Sea Bass averages from 

a half pound to five pounds and is in season from the middle 

of May to the end of December. The Black Bass averages 

about the same weight as the Sea Bass and is in season from ElMl 

June to December — its two principal types are the "Big Mouth" and "Small Mouth," 

the latter being considered the better. See illustrations of Striped litis* and Sea Buss 

in Color Page opposite 240. 

BATH BRICK, or Bristol Brick : a dry brick used to polish steel knives and other 
cutlery, originally made from deposits of fine silicious sand found near Bath, Eng- 
land, but later made also at Bristol, England, and at South Hampton, X. H. 

BATH BUN: a kind of light, sweet roll, generally round in shape and usually con- 
taining currants, etc. It takes its name from Bath, England, the city of its origin. 

BAY LEAVES : the leaves of a shrub of the laurel variety, growing wild in Greece, 
Italy and other Mediterranean countries and in some Southern sections of the United 

Among the ancient Greeks, the Bay Leaf was in large part dedicated to heroism 
and poetry, but modern usage consecrates it to the more material pleasures of the table. 
The principal consumption is of the dried leaf, used as flavoring for soups, etc. 

BAY RUM: a liquor obtained by distilling Bay Leaves in rum, used as a perfume 
and hair tonic. It is generally imported from the West Indies. Imitations are plenti- 
ful, but very inferior in fragrance. 

BEAD: the tiny, iridescent bubbles which, on agitation, form on the surface of 
some alcoholic liquors. 

BEADING: any substance added to spirits to make them cany a "Bead," and to cling 
in drops on the sides of the bottle or glass. 

BEAN: a vegetable which appears to have been cultivated long before the com- 
mencement of recorded history and in one variety or another to flourish in every 
part of the world. It was well known to the ancient Egyptains and Grecians— and 
when the first voyagers reached the Western continent they found that here also the 
growing of beans, and peas, had apparently always been a common industry among 


T II K (i It o r i: It ' S KXCYCLOPEDIA 


Broad Beans 

,l lt , natives— their preparation of beans and corn is perpetuated in "succotash." 
The bean of European history is the Broad or Windsor variety, with broad 
curved pods, containing thick bulging seeds of distinct and 
agreeable flavor. It is largely grown in Europe and Canada 
but is not an important crop in the United States as the cli- 
mate is not suitable for its best growth. 

The principal beans of United States cultivation are the / 
Kidney and Lima, both of them believed to be native to South 

The Kidney Bean is the Haricot of the French and in Great Britain is sometimes 
called the French Bean. There are a great many varieties, capable of general classi- 
fication into "tough podded*' and "edible podded." 

The "tough podded" class produces the bulk of the dried beans of commerce, vari- 
ously known as "Kidney Beans," "Navy Beans," "Marrow Beans," "Black Beans," etc., 

in many colors, shapes and sizes. "Black" or "Turtle" 
Beans, grown chiefly in the Southern States, make an 
especially rich and excellent soup. Some varieties, as 
"Flageolets," are cultivated with special regard to the 
consumption of the fresh seeds or beans. 

To the "edible-podded" class belong the numerous 

types of "Wax" or "Butter" beans, eaten fresh at all 

V\ stages of development. The "Cranberry Bean" or "Red 

Speckled Bean," both shell and beans spotted or other- 

^L ^ wise marked with red, is a variety cultivated principally 

m in New England and popular there for making succo- 

I | tasli. 

String Beans, Snap Beans, French Beans are imma- 
ture pods of numerous kinds of Kidney beans. The 

best have little or no "string." 

They should be so young 

String Beans 

that the seeds are barely visible and should be marketed 
as quickly as possible after gathering. In buying, see 
that they are crisp and tender when broken — toughness 
or limpness is a si^n of too great age or overlong keeping. 

String beans are kept for winter use by salting, both for home use and retailing. 
They are a popular winter vegetable among Germans. Before cooking, they are soaked 
in water over night to remove the salt. 

Canned String Beans, described for quality as "Stringless," "Fancy," etc., are 
graded by size as "extra small." "small," etc. "Haricots Verts" are French string beans. 

Lima Beans are flat, slightly kidney-shaped, and generally wrinkled or fluted. 
They are very popular, both fresh and dried, the green seeded 
types being considered the choicest. When dried, they serve 
as an agreeable winter food, soaked before cooking. 

Pea Hi niis are the Cowpeas of the agriculturist, but they 
belong to the bean family in spite of that title. They are 
grown in many varieties, bearing seeds of different styles and 
colors. Their principal use is as a forage plant and soil fertilizer, but considerable 
quantities are dried for winter use. They are cooked like other dried beans and have 
a very pleasing flavor. 

Lima Beans 

(1) Fifth and Sixth Cut Ribs 
(3) Middle Cut Ribs 

(2) Third Cut Ribs 
(41 First Cut Ribs 




Among numerous other "special'* varieties are the Soy Bean (which see), Aspara- 
gus Bean, Frijole, Lab-lab. Red Bean and Scarlet Runner. 

Asparagus Beans take their name from the great length of their pods, which aver- 
age twelve inches or more in length and iu some varieties even exceed a length of three 
feet. By Chinese gardeners in California they are known as "Ton Kok." The seeds 
are small but the green pods make an excellent "Snap" bean. They are used only 
to a limited extent in the United States, principally by the Chinese and other resi- 
dents of Oriental birth or extraction, but they are beginning to find favor also 
among the white residents of California. They have long been cultivated in Europe. 

Frijole Beans are a small flat variety, generally of a reddish brown or light tan 
color, very common, both "green" and dried, in the Southwest and Mexico. 

Lab-Jab, or Egyptian Kidney, beans are frequently grown as an ornamental plant 
but they are very productive and under proper cultivation can lie used both as String 
and Dried beans. 

Red Beans are grown principally in the tropics. They are less liable to cause 
intestinal irritation than the ordinary bean, but they are difficult to transport becanse 
of their tender skins. 

The Scarlet Runner is also cultivated here principally as an ornamental climber, 
but it is consumed in large quantities in Europe, especially in England, both as a 
string and green shell bean. 

Selecting and cooking dried beans. Well dried, mature beans are smooth ami 
shiny. If there are folds in the skins, it generally signifies poor drying or inferior 
quality. They should also be of 
uniform size and appearance. The 
most important qualification is 
that they should cook soft. The 
size is chiefly a matter of taste and 
the color, other things being equal, 
is unimportant. The prejudice 
against beans that grow dark in 
cooking is unfortunate as many of 
them are of fine quality and flavor 
and frequently more tender than 
the very white. 

The first step in household 
cooking is the swelling of the bean 
and softening of the skin by soak- 
ing in cold water for generally 
not less than eight hours. Some 
cooks cover with hot water so as 
to shorten the time but the cold 
water method is preferable. The lar-e Lima Beans after soaking may In- easily slipped 
out of their skins bv pressing between the fingers. Many other kinds may be freed 
from their skins by" sieving or stirring in water, the skins rising to the top and beim: 
then skimmed off." After ^this process, beans can he boiled and served in many ways, 
whole, mashed as "bean pudding." in soup making, etc. 

Beans, as also peas, are exceptionally rich in food value. 

ring Beans "down South" 


they are much more nutritious thau other vegetables of popular use. and 

:,i THE geoceb's encyclopedia 

when ripe or "dry" they excel nearly all other foods — both animal and vegetable. 
TIm-\ average al leasi as much protein as meat and nearly as much carbohydrates as 

wheal. The only lack is in the fat component. See Food Values. 

BEAN FLOUR: pulveri/ed dried or ripe beans. Used in the same way as Pen Flour 

I w hii-h see I . 

BEAR-LITHIA. See general article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

BEATEN BISCUIT, or "Maryland Biscuit": a kind of bread biscuit made without 
leavening. The folding and pounding of the dough encloses small quantities of air 
in minute blisters and these expanding in baking make the biscuit light and porous. 

BECCAFICO, <>r "Fig-Pecker" \ a name given to numerous small birds, popularly 
supposed to live on figs, highly esteemed for the table in Southern Europe. 

BEECHNUT: the seed of the beech-tree, one of the most beautiful members of the 
oak family, found in numerous varieties in this country and in Europe. The nuts — 
sharp-edged and triangular in shape — grow in pairs in a rather prickly scaly burr. The 
kernels are very tender and sweet flavored. See also Nuts (Food Values). 

BEE GLUE, or Propolis : a kind of glue which bees use to close up cracks, especially 
any cracks that admit cold. They sometimes daub it on combs, often spoiling the 
appeara nee and ruining the sale of otherwise nice comb honey. 

BEEF: is the most important of meats, the chief staple of the butcher and the lead- 
ing food article in the average household. 

It is a curious and in some respects an unfortunate fact that in different parts of 
the country I here are many names for the same "cut," but Diagrams I and II on page 57, 
adapted from a recent Bulletin of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, illustrate a very 
widely accepted division of a whole beef and show the relative positions of the cuts in 
the animal and in a dressed side. 

The Neck Piece is frequently cut so as to include more of the Chuck than is repre- 
sented by the diagram. 

The Shoulder Clod is usually cut without bone. The Shoulder (not indicated in 
the diagram i includes more or less of the shoulder blade and of the upper end of the 
Foreshank. Shoulder Steak is cut from the Chuck. 

In many localities, the Plate is made to include all the parts of the forequarters 
designated on the diagrams as Brisket, Cross-ribs, Plate and Navel, and different por- 
tions of the Plate as thus cut are spoken of as the "brisket end of plate" and "navel 
end nt plate." This part of the animal is largely used for corning. 

The Ribs are frequently divided into "first" cut, the first three ribs constituting 
the choices! "prime" ribs of beef, "second" cut and "third" cut, the last-named lying 
nearest the Chuck and being slightly less desirable than the former. 

The Chuck is sometimes sub-divided in a similar manner, the third cut being 
aearesl the neck. 

The i ipplied to different portions of the Loin vary considerably in different 

localities. With The Hip it is generally known as "hip-loin." The part nearest the 






Diagrams I and II. 

Diagram III 












Navel end. 













Plaie.—s and 7. 

Back.— 8, 9 and upper 

part of 10. 


I. Neck. 



1. Chuck. 



). Ribs. 



4. Shoulder clod. 



5. Foreshank. 



fi. Brisket. 


Second-cut round 

7. Cross ribs. 



a. Plate. 

Diagb v*is IV and V. 
(See explanation on pa:.- 


T ii 1: <; rocer's e x C v C ldpedi a 

ribs is frequently called "small end of loiu" or "small end sirloin" or "short steak." 
The other end of the loin is called "thick end sirloin*' or "sirloin." Porter-house 
steaks are cu1 from the "thick end." The very tender strip of meat known as the 
"tenderloin" lies under or inside the hip-loin, being thickest at the hip part and 
gradually tapering off to a very narrow piece at the "small end." 

1 1 is not uncommon to find the Flank cut so as to include more of the loin than 
is indicated in the figures, in which case the upper portion is called "flank-steak." 
The larger part of the Hank is frequently corned, as is also the case with the Rump. 

In some markets, the Rump is cut so as to include a portion of the loin, which is 
then sold as "rump steak." 

The portion of the Round ou the inside of the leg is regarded as more tender 
than that on the outside, and is consequently preferred to the latter. As the leg lies 
upon the butcher's table this inside of the round is usually on the upper, or top, side, 
and is therefore called "top round." 

The lower diagrams, (III, IV) show two other standard divisions — No. Ill, a 
method widely accepted by Chicago and Kansas City wholesale butchers, and Nos. IV 
and V a popular New York wholesale division. 

The following table explains the separation shown on illustrations Nos. IV and V. 


1 . 2, 3, t, 5 

mil Bound 
1, 2, 3 

" Willi'' or 
"Hipand," /.-"» 

1 — Leg or Shin. 

2 — Round: divided into Top, Bottom and Leg Bone. 

3 — Flank: of mixed fat and lean, containing Flank Steak nested in 

"rod'" tat. 
4 — Short Loin: including Sirloin and, on under-side, part of Filet or 

5 — Full Hip : divided into Short Hip (containing the large end of Filet) 

and Top Sirloin (or " Butt "' ). 


'.. 7,8 

6 — Pint:*: divided into (a) Plate End, (b) Navel End, and (c) Breast or 
Brisket (together with part of 9). 

7 — 1-Rib Cut*: divided into 3, 4, 5, ti or 7-Rib pieces and "Chuck 
End" with remaining ribs. 

8— Whole, or 

"Full" Churl- : divided into (a) Short Chuck, and (b) Shoulder and 
Breast or Brisket. 

* An 8-Rib Cut and the Plate together are known as a "Piece." 

Every normal steer has thirteen ribs. The general eastern rib cut gives eight 
ribs, an "8-rib roast" — one rib remaining on the hindquarters and four on the chuck 
— but this division is subject to wide variations at the wish of the purchasing retailer. 

See also the four Color Pages of Rib CV«, Sirloin Cuts, Steaks, etc. — alternate 
h tins commencing with that opposite page 50. , 

The best beef is that of a young stall-fed, corn-fed steer. It should be of fine, 
smooth texture and bright fresh red color intermixed with fine streaks of white fat. 
It should retain the impression of the finger after it is removed— this is important, as 
old or tough beef is elastic to the touch. Meat that is pale or deep purple in color, 
that is wet and flabby, or has a sickly smell, should be carefully avoided. 

If the fat (of a healthy specimen) is yellow, the beef may still be of good quality 
— it is not from a stall-fed animal, but it may be a fine grass-fed specimen matured 
under specially favorable conditions— but if, as is generally the case, the fat is yellow 
from oil-cake feeding it has been obtained at the expense of the best flavor of the meat. 


THE grocer's ENCYCLOPEDIA (i 1 

Cow beef and bull beef are also sold, but they are, at the general age of slaughter- 
ing, not in any way comparable to steer beef in quality. Cow beef is a darker red 
than steer beef. When young it may be more tender than steer, but it is seldom if 
ever as juicy or fine flavored. 

"Boneless cuts" of beef are supplied to retailers throughout the country by several 
big packing houses. They include tenderloins, sirloin strips, sirloin butts, rib-beef 
rolls, loin backs, clods, etc. They are especially convenient and easy for the inexperi 
cuced butcher to handle and cut up, but some judges asserl that, shipped in thai man 
ner, the meat deteriorates in flavor as the result of the loss of blood and extractives. 

Beef to be at its best should always be aged. To age it properly, a good refrigera- 
tor is. of course, indispensable. The temperature should be about 33 to 35 I'ahr., and 
the atmosphere dry — the dryer the better. In cold dry air, beef will ripen and sweeten 
and may safely be held a long time, whereas, in a warm, moist atmosphere it will 
heroine sticky and sour in a comparatively short time. It is important that the 
temperature should be uniform and not allowed to rise and fall. 

One cannot dwell too emphatically on the importance of the proper aging of beef, 
for cooked fresh beef, even if cut from young animals, is certain to be tough, whereas 
beef properly aged will be more or less tender, even if cut from animals conspicuous 
tor the number of their years. '"Light" or very lean carcases are not though suitable 
for aging, as the fibre is liable to deteriorate during the process. 

Beef is generally acknowledged to be the best flesh-former of all modern foods, 
as in addition to an average of about 15% to 209? of protein it contains a considerable 
proportion of fat in an easily digestible form. A diet very largely of meat is not, 
though, desirable for the average person of sedentary occupation ( see Food Values i . 

When heads of families realize that there are many cuts of beef equally as nutri- 
tious as the sirloin, porterhouse steak and standing rib roast, which can, with very 
little extra trouble, be served in forms just as palatable and inviting, they will find 
a wonderful difference in their expenditures for meats. Further, such a revolution in 
ideas would inevitably result in lower prices for the "choice cuts" also — it is only 
natural that high prices prevail for them now as the general public thinks that there 
are only three or four pieces of an entire beef that are fit for the table and all other 
parts have to be sacrificed at extremely low figures, or utilized by packers for their 
canned products. 

In broiling or frying a steak, the most important point is to put it over a quick 
fire and expose it on each side for about a minute so as to seal the juices in the meat 
— then proceed in the ordinary way to finish the cooking. 

Similarly, in "roasting" meat, have the oven hot, so that the outside is quickly 
cooked, to seal the juices inside. 

The average American doesn't care much for boiled fresh beef, yet, properly pre- 
pared, it is just as palatable as steak. The best cuts for this purpose are the brisket. 
cross-ribs and rump — the rump is especially suitable for those who prefer lean boiled 
meat. The principal points to be observed in cooking are: (1) tie the meat up to pre- 
serve its shape, (2) put into boiling water, (3) add salt. etc.. and plenty of vegetables, 
(4) simmer gently until done — don't let it boil and bubble away, and don't overcook it 
or reduce it to rags. 

American prime beef has earned the reputation — abroad as well as at home — of 
being equal to the world's best anywhere. This is the result of the improvements dur- 
ing recent years in breeding, feeding and shipping. The old-time long-horned Texas 

02 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

[-. formerly the accepted American type, is obsolete as the result of crossing with 
high class imported stock and selection of the best grades has been brought to a very 
fine point; range feeding exclusively has been succeeded by grain feeding scientifically 
controlled for a considerable time prior to slaughtering, and modern methods of trans- 
portation have done away with the necessity for freezing shipments. 

Americans are, by the way, the greatest meat eaters in the world. The average con- 
sumption per capita here is 175 pounds per annum — and of this by far the greatest 
percentage is of beef in one form or another. English people average 110 pounds per 
capita, the French eat only half as much as the English, and the people of Germany, 
Austria and Italy consume still less. 

See also Brains. Heart. Kidneys. Liver. Sausage, Sweetbread, Tongue, Tripe, 
ETC., and general article on Meats. 

Beef a la Mode. See Braised Beef. 

Beef Bread: the pancreas, frequently retailed as Sweetbread (which see). 

Beef Extract See Meat Extract. 

BEEFSTEAK MUSHROOM: one of the best known Tree Mushrooms (which see). 

BEER. The word "beer"' as now used applies to all undistilled fermented malt liquors 
excepting those which travel under the special classifications of ale and porter or stout. 
Its principal constituents are prepared barley, called "malt" (which see) and hops with 
corn or rice, or both, added in varying proportions. Its flavor and quality depend not 
only on good materials and correct brewing, but also on the natural characteristics of 
the water employed — which explains the fact that, with all other conditions equal, 
some parts of the country enjoy a higher reputation for their beer than others are able 
to attain. 

The history of beer proper dates from the thirteenth century, but its predecessor 
"barley wine" was drunk in Egypt at least four thousand years ago. Herodotus de- 
seribes barley wine as made from barley malt, the principal ingredient of modern beer, 
and history tells that the Bomans and later the early Britons, Danes and Germans prac- 
ticed the part of brewing it and consumed it in large quantities. 

In this country, in the early colonial days, every man was his own brewer. This 
statement is meant literally, for home beer brewing was as much a part of the house- 
wife's duties as the making of fruit preserves. The local government encouraged 
however the establishment of public breweries and, their product supplementing the 
increase in the quantity of imported beers as ocean traffic developed, the result was 
that in time the custom of home brewing died out as unnecessary. 

The beers brewed then — and for many succeeding generations — were all of the 
English style — ale, porter etc., — much heavier in alcohol than the product we know, 
darker in color, and more or less "muddy" in appearance. The greater percentage of 
alcohol was required to keep the liquor in good condition as brewing had not reached 
the scientific perfection of to-day. 

The English style of beers continued in universal use until the introduction of 
"lager beer" from Germany in the early half of the 19th century. The lighter bever- 
age met with almost instant favor and in a few years the demand for it had revolution- 
ized the brewing industry. Under different titles and brands it constitutes by far the 
greater pari of the beer now consumed in this country. 


(1) Extra Porterhouse Steak (2) Second Cut or Chuck Steak 

f3) Hip Sirloin (4) Top Round Steak 




Formerly, beer was manufactured almost exclusively of barley malt aud bops, and 
some varieties of botb imported and domestic are still so brewed/ but tbe addition of 
eitber rice or corn (or botb) has become very general for several reasons— principally 
because of tbe preference of tbe general public for a very brilliaut, sparkling brew and 
because of tbe bigb prices and limited quantity of bigb class barley malt produced. 
To tbese reasons may be added tbe fact that mucb even of high grade American malt 
contains too many insoluble albuminoids which tend to make the beer cloudy. 

The average proportion is 70% malt and 30% rice or corn, or 30% of corn and 
rice mixed. The rice is, perhaps, preferable to corn as giving a finer, cleaner taste, 
because of the absence of vegetable oil. The difference is, though, slight as very 
little oil is left in the corn after preparation. 

Only No. 1 white flint corn and fine ground imported Burma rice are used in 
bigb grade breweries. 

The preparation of the barley malt and the grinding of the corn (to a very fine 
hominy) are now frequently businesses separate from brewing, because of the magni- 
tude of preparation, separating, cleansing, etc. 

The first stages in brewing itself are the crushing of the malt and the prolonged 
boiling of the ground rice or corn. 

Tbe crushed malt is run into the mash "tun" or tank and mixed with warm water. 
Then tbe rice and corn, still at the boiling point, are added to it, the diastase of the 
malt converting the starches of the grain into "sugar" (maltose and dextrin). 

The "wort," as the liquid product is then called, is next run off through a filter- 
ing apparatus into covered steam-jacketed copper boilers and there boiled, by steam 
pipes connection, for two or three hours. The bops, in the proportion of about one 
pound to a barrel, are added to the liquid as soon as it commences to boil. The liquid 
is next pumped through a hop strainer into the cooling tanks and thence as rapidly as 
possible through coils of cooling pipes into the ferment tanks. Here yeast is added 
and fermentation takes place. On the judgment and experience displayed in the 
preparation and handling of the yeast depends largely the success of the brew. 

From the fermenting house the beer goes to the "resting" or aging tanks. The 
next move, after a rest of generally three months or longer, is tbe finishing tank, 
where the finished product is "carbonated" either by the addition of carbon-dioxide 
taken from the fermenting tanks or of a small quantity of new beer just starting to 
ferment. Eitber process furnishes the "sparkle" and effervescence which give beer 
its attractive appearance. Finally comes tbe filtering and running into kegs or bottles. 

It is the boiling process which chiefly distinguishes beer as we know it from the 
ancient "barley wine." The boiling preserves tbe product by the elimination of the 
albuminoids, etc., and gives it botb better appearance and flavor. The bops tend to give 
tbe desired bitter and aromatic taste. Bottled beer is further preserved by pasteuri- 

The difference in the color of beers is attributable sometimes to local differences 
in the method of brewing, but more often to the quantity of malt used. As a general 
thing, a greater percentage of malt tends to make a beer darker and a greater per- 
centage of rice to make it lighter in color. Slight variations may also be due to the 
difference between light and dark malt, and an especially dark color may be attributable 
to the addition of 5% to 8% of caramel malt to a dark malt. 

Tbe difference between "heavy" and "light" beer in composition, irrespective of 
color, is generally attributable to the temperature at which tbe "wort" is made. Tbe 


•I II i: G K C i: K ' S E M'VCLOPEDIA 

average is L50 to L60 Fahr., the result of adding the boiling -rain to the 
n-arnCbut nol boiling, mall mash. A higher temperature produces less sugar and leaves 
a larger percentage of unconverted -rain extracts in the wort— and in consequence 
il„. completed beer will he heavy in bodj or extract bul of a low alcohol percentage. 
A good example of a beer rich in extracts is the dark Bavarian. Of opposite charac- 
ter is the Pilsener kind -which is light in composition, almost free from extracts, but 
of a much higher percentage of alcohol. 

"Brewer's Sugar" or "Commercial Dextrose," a form of glucose, is frequently used 
in place of pari of the usual mall addition, principally from motives of economy when 
mall is high in price but also because it contains less nitrogenous matter and thus 
lends io make a clearer brighter brew. The chemical components are closely allied 
i , i : i ] i under the action of diastase produces dextrin and maltose, and Brewer's Sugar 
contains dextrin, maltose and dextrose. 

American beer closely resembles the German in composition but it averages a 
little lighter in alcohol — varying in the ordinary varieties from 3% to 4%, going though 
in some cases as high as 1%. Some connoisseurs assert that the finest German beers 
excel any produced in this country, hut it may lie safely asserted that the average of 
the products of American breweries is fully equal to the average of those of any coun- 
try without any exception whatever. 

The title "lager beer'' signifies "store house licet-," or beer laid by and stored for 
some months before use. 

Lager beer is distinguished in brewing by being fermented at a much lower tem- 
perature than ales. ( )n this account it was formerly made only during the winter 
months, bul the extension of refrigerating facilities in recent years has made its manu- 
facture ]iossihle nil the year round. 

\lnli i;< er is made solely of barley malt and hops. 

Bock Beer is an especially strong variety of German origin but now thoroughly 
localized here. It is darker in color, less bitter in flavor and stronger in alcohol. It 
is g< nerally brewed in the winter from the lirst of the new crop of hops and malt and 
drunk in the spring. 

The goal which is usually associated with "Mock Beer" is attributable to a gen- 
era] misunderstanding concerning the origin of the title. "Bock" means ''-oat," hut 
the name "Bock Beer" was taken from "Eimbock," the former name of Eimbeck, a 
Prussian city famous for its breweries during the time of the Reformation. 

Stock Beer and Winter Beer are, practically, equivalents of Lager Beer. 

Black /.'";■ or Dantzig Beer is a very dark, syrupy brew first made in Dantzig. 

Bitter Beer is a name occasionally applied to Alio (which see). 

The most noteworthy "temperance" beers which resemble genuine beer in flavor 
and appearance bul which show less than 1% alcoholic component are made in about 
the same manner and with practically the same ingredients as lager beer, the alcohol 
being afterwards removed by re-boiling the finished product. 

BEESWAX: is the fatty substance secreted by bees in making combs for the depostl 
of honey. The commercial product is the comb refined, bleached, etc., after the extrac- 
tion of tin- honey. It is used in the making of fine candles and tapers, for honeycomb 
foundation (see Honey), etc. See also Wax. 




BEESWING: a second or pseudo-crust much admired in port aud a few other wines, 
and which forms in them only when kept for some time nfter the first or true crust 
has formed. It consists of minute, glittering, floating particles of tartar, purer and freer 
from astringent matter than that deposited in the first crust. 

BEET: after the potato, one of the most important food roots. The small delicate 

varieties are popular as a table vegetable, both fresh cooked 
and pickled; the Sugar Beet furnishes nearly half of the world's 
sugar supply and large quantities of alcohol, and the Mangels 
and other coarser types are valuable as cattle food. 

For use as a vegetable, beets are generally boiled but some 
people prefer baking, which gives a deeper color and retains 
more of the natural juices. The red fleshed kinds are most 
popular for table purposes but there are several yellow-flesh 
types which are very fine in flavor and especially sugary to the 

Several varieties of beet are grown exclusively for their 
tops or leaves, the most important of them being Chard (which 
see), the White or Sicilian beet and the Sea beet. 

If stored in cellars, beets should be covered with sand or 
Beet soil to prevent shriveling. 

BENEDICTINE: one of the most ancient of liqueurs in present use, having been con- 
tinuously made since GG5 A. I). It was originally prepared at the Benedictine monas- 
tery at Fecamp, Normandy, but since the French Revolution of 1792 it has been made 
by a commercial company. It is flavored with a great variety of herbs, seeds, etc. See 
Valor Page of Liqueurs. 

BENGAL QUINCE or Elephant Apple: an Indian fruit of the citrus family, with 
smooth yellow rind and pulpy flesh of excellent flavor. A yellow dye is sometimes 
made from the rind, and the roots, bark and unripe fruit are locally used for medicinal 

BENZINE: a light oil of petroleum, used in the household for removing urease spots 
from clothes, etc. It takes the spot, out by dissolving the grease. Commercially, it is 
also employed to dissolve caoutchouc, gutta-percha, wax, camphor, etc. It is very in- 
flammable and all insurance requirements concerning it should be carefully complied 
with. The title "Benzine" should not be confused with "Benzene," more correctly 
called Benzol, a very different article, obtained from coal tar. 

BENZOATE OF SODA, Sodium Benzoate: a salt made by adding benzoic acid 
to a hot solution of carbonate of sodium — the sodium benzoate appears on cooling in 
the form of crystals. Commercially, it is a white powder, slightly sweet and astringent 
in flavor. It is used to a considerable extent as a food preserval ive i see Preservatives i . 
Commercial Benzoic acid is manufactured chiefly from coal tar and by synthesis. 
also to a certain extent from rosins, especially that of the Tola and other South Ameri- 
can trees and Benzoin, exuded from the bark of an Easl Indian tree. It is found natu- 
rally in cranberries and some other fruits. 


BERGAMOT, Bergamot orange, or Mellarosa: a citrus fruit which may be classed 
as between an orange ami lemon, cultivated principally in the South of Europe. It is 

generally s iwhal pear-shaped, with thin, smooth peel, lemon-yellow in color and very 

■ii atic, ami greenish, subacid and fragrant pulp. The oil obtained from the rind is 

used in flavoring liqueurs and in perfumery. 

BERGAMOT (HERB): a title frequently applied to a family of several different 
plains used as herbs tor their stimulating and aromatic properties, as "Wild Berga- 
iiihi." "American Borse .Mint." etc. 

BERGAMOT PEAR: in Europe, the popular name for several choice types of pears. 

BERRIES: should be kept in a cool dry place. Dryness is absolutely essential. Mois- 
ture, even in a cool atmosphere, will rapidly spoil them as it conduces to the growth 
of mold — and when berries have begun to mold, it is almost impossible to save them. 

It is much better to show berries in the window, if protected from the sun, or on 
a display table in the store, than outside in the street where they are reasonably sure 
to collect a fine assortment of grit and dirt. Some grocers have become so enlightened 
that even inside the store they show only a few boxes at a time — just enough to attract 
attention. The remainder are kept in the cellar or refrigerator until they are needed. 

As berries require very careful handling to wash them without spoiling their ap- 
pearance or flavor, the best advice is to exercise care in purchasing— avoiding those 
which are too soft or which show sand, etc. Only fresh clean berries should be eaten 
raw — others are better cooked. 

See also Blackberries, Strawberries, etc., and Color Page of Berries. 

BETEL NUT: the fruit of a palm cultivated in tropical Asia, noted for its narcotic 

and intoxicating properties. 

BETHESDA. See general article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

BIFFINS: a special kind of dried apple, flat in appearance and soft to the touch, 
prepared in large quantities in Norfolk, England. They are obtained by a very slow 
drying of the fruit and occasional pressing. 

BIGARADE or Seville Orange : the type chiefly used for preserving, etc. See Oranges. 

BILBERRY. See Huckleberries. Also in some sections applied to the June Berry. 

BILTONG: a South African term for strips of the sun-dried meat of antelope, etc. 

BIN: a large wooden box or chest with a lid, used for corn, flour, sugar, etc. Also, a 
compartment in a wine cellar. 

BIRCH BEER: a summer beverage made from the fermented sap of the birch. The 
sap is secured by "tapping" in the spring, a large tree often giving from four to six 
quarts in a single day. If the holes are properly closed after nse, the trees may be 
tapped every year without injury. 











BIRCH SUGAR: the evaporated sap of the birch tree, produced in very much the 
same way as Maple Sugar (which see). 

BIRDS'-NEST SOUP: a famous Oriental soup made from the gelatinous, mucous 
substance with which several varieties of Swifts form the lower portion of their nests, 
building them bracket-fashion on the faces of cliffs. Kanten (which see), or Vegetable 
Isinglass, is frequently used as a substitute for Birds'-nests. 

BISCUITS or Crackers: are made nowadays in great variety aud, in the majority of 
cases, of uniform excellence of flavor and ingredients. The result of the improvement 
in the domestic product during the last few years has been a noteworthy increase in 
consumption. The American appetite for biscuits is, however, still a long way behind 
that of some other countries — our annual per capita expenditure is only forty cents 
for biscuits of all kinds as against nearly three dollars in Canada and a full four dol- 
lars in England. 

The title '•biscuit" is a combination of two French words which mean "twice 
cooked." In their original manufacture, "biscuits" underwent two separate bakings, 
the second to evaporate the moisture held over from the first. 

Enormous quantities of honey are used in the baking of the modern Sweet Biscuit 
as it helps to keep the product fresher and softer than when sugar is employed. 

The retailer is advised to buy in small lots so as to be sure that his stock is always 
fresh, and to lay in only those varieties for which there is a reasonably steady demand 
in his particular neighborhood. 

Hard, sweet biscuits are the best keepers. 

Excessive paleness is generally considered a defect as it is usually attributable to 
age or poor baking. 

Both retailer and consumer should see that crackers are kept in a warm, dry place 
— dampness will quickly spoil them. If moisture has deprived them of crispness, they 
can often be improved by putting in a hot oven for a few minutes. 

Bulk crackers should always be kept in boxes as nearly air-tight as possible — 
those with glass fronts or tops combining display aud a fair measure of protection. 

"Package" crackers are always preferable to the bulk kind, for the latter can 
scarcely fail to suffer to some extent from exposure to atmospheric changes and to 
dust, flies and other nuisances. 

BISQUE: ''cream" soup of Shellfish. See general article on Soups. 

BITTERS : spirits in which bitter roots or herbs have been steeped. Medicinally, they 
are divided into "Simple Bitters," including such remedies as Dogwood, Gentian ami 
Quassia, which by their peculiar bitterness serve as a stimulant to appetite and diges- 
tion; "Aromatic Bitters," including Virginia Snake Root and Wild Cherry Bark, which 
contain an aromatic principle and are more or less astringent, and "Special Bitters" 
whose main principle is usually Cinchona, the source of quinine, and its several prepa- 
rations—in small doses acting 'as "Simple Bitters" and in larger as a remedy for ma- 
larial affections. "Cascarilla" is the Spanish and South American name for Cinchona 
and "Calisaya" is one of the best known varieties. 

Commercially, Bitters are widely used in this country as an appetizer, with other 
spirits and water, or with syrup and soda, etc. ; in the making of cocktails and various 


other "mixed drinks." They are known by special trade names, taken generally 
from the constituenl herb or bark, the place of production or the name of the manu- 

BIVALVE. As applied to foods, the term "bivalve" refers to shellfish having two 
shells joined by an elastic ligament which permits the shells opening (somewhat like 
the covers of a book— bul not to an equal extent) and closing — as oysters, clams, etc. 

BLACK ASH: evaporated from the waste lyes of soap making and used in the manu- 
facture of alum and common soap. 

BLACKBERRY: the fruit of a bushy rambler, growing wild in the woods and 
fields, which is sold in large quantities in the early summer months. Cultivation has 
greatly improved its size and quality in recent years and has extended its fruiting sea- 
son to the cud of September. In addition to its consumption as a fresh fruit, large 
quantities are used in cooking, made into jelly and jam, blackberry cordial, etc. 

Dried blackberries, principally from the South, are wild berries dried in the sun. 
The quality is generally poor. 

The Dewb( rry is a fruit of the same species, but rather smaller, rounder and more 
juicy. It grows on a low, creeping bramble, and ripens several weeks before the black- 
berry proper. 

BLACKBERRY BRANDY: is boiled blackberry juice with medicinal spices added 
and fortified with sufficient brandy to prevent fermentation. It is much used in summer 

BLACKBIRD: originally, the name of a distinct variety of birds, but in this country 
freely applied in many sections to several birds widely different in family but alike 
in their black plumage. The only kind that can legally be sold as a game bird is that 
known as the "('row' Blackbird," which is considered excellent by many lovers of bird 
meat. Blackbirds were at one time highly esteemed as a food delicacy in England — 
an historical item that has been perpetuated in the nursery rhyme concerning the "pie" 
containing "four and twenty blackbirds" which was "set before the king!" 

BLACKFISH or Tautog: a North Atlantic fish in 
season from April to October. It varies in weight from 
one to fourteen pounds, huge specimens measuring as 
long as thirty inches — these big fish being though very 
scar,-,-. Its skin is tough and black like an eel's but the 
flesh is white, tender and of fine flavor. 


BLACKING. The principal ingredients of common blacking are bone black, oil, mo- 
lasses and a little sulphuric acid. There is also a higher grade of blacking in which 
wax is used instead id' molasses. This produces a softer and more durable polish and 
excludes moisture better than the ordinary article. Blacking should be kept in a dry. 
cool place. 

BLACKSTRAP. See reference in article under heading of MOLASSES. 


BLANC-MANGE i from the French blanc-manger, "white eating") : correctly, a pud- 
ing or jelly made of isinglass, gelatine, calves' foot jelly, etc., and milk. Ground rice, 
arrowroot, cornstarch, etc., are, however, frequently substituted. Transparent Blanc- 
Mange, the title then being a misnomer, is a clear, flavored jelly. 

BLANCHING: whitening or making white. 

In cookery, mushrooms, artichoke bottoms, etc., are "blanched' 7 in water prepared 
by adding a little lemon, butter and salt and bringing to a boil. The term is also some- 
times, but incorrectly, applied in a culinary sense to Parboiling (which see in article 
on Cookery). 

In agriculture, the stalks of celery, asparagus, etc., are "blanched" by banking earth 
or putting planks, etc., around them while growing, to keep the sun off and thus prevent 
them attaining a green color. 

BLANQUETTE: a delicate white wine. A special variety of large pear. The 
French name for white-bait. In cookery, a stew with white sauce. 

BLET: a form of decay showing first as rotting spots in fruit such as apples, etc. 

BLETTING: a term applied to the change which takes place in hard, sour apples and 
similar fruits after they have been stored for a considerable time. The first effects are 
to improve the fruit by making the flesh softer and sweeter, but continued too long 
the change results eventually in decay. 

BLIMBLING: a fruit similar to the Carambola (which see) but generally more acid. 

BLOATERS: selected fat herring, slightly salted and still more slightly smoked, re- 
tailed both from boxes and in cans, domestic and imported. As those in boxes are not 
intended for long keeping they should be consumed as soon as possible after curing. 
They are best from October to March. 

BLOOD WURST: a large sausage chiefly of pork, with hog blood, etc. See Sausages. 

BLUE. See item on Bluing at foot of this page. 

BCUEBERRY : a bluish-black berry of the Vaccinium family. See Huckleberry. 

BLUEFISH {See Color Page III of Fish) : a fish found at different periods the 
length of the Atlantic coast and consequently in season all the year, Florida supplying 
it during the winter months. It takes its name from the blue color of its skin and the 
■lightly bluish tint of the flesh. It varies in size from half a pound to ten pounds — 
being occasionally found as heavy as twenty pounds. The very small fish caught dur- 
ing the summer months are known as "Snapper Blue." 

BLUE LICK SPRINGS. See general articleon table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

BLUING or BLUE: used in washing clothes to give them a whiter appearance. It 
is retailed in both solid and liquid form in many grades. Indigo (which see) is the 
original form but Prussian blue and aniline dyes are now very largely employed. 

72 the G E c 1: i; ' S i; N c y c i. o p e d i a 

Liquid blue is very apt to freeze and should be kept in a warm place or the burst- 
ing bottles may entail great damage to other articles in stock. 

BOAR'S HEAD: formerly applied only to the head of the wild boar but now to that 
.if any male pig, domestic or otherwise, when served whole. The wild boar, which has 
a shorter body and longer tusks and snout than the domestic hog and bears a thick hairy 
coat, i^ still hunted in Continental Europe, Northern Africa and Asia Minor. 

BOB-WHITE. The "Bob-White" — its name represents its call — is generally known 
as the Quail (which see). In some parts of the country it is erroneously called the 
'♦partridge" and the -Virginia partridge." 

BOCKSBEUTEL, Baxbeutel: a peculiar shaped bottle in which Steinwein and Leis- 
tenwein, fine Bavarian white wines, are generally imported. 

BOCKWURST: a term applied to various small sausages served with Bock Beer. 

BOILING. Bee sub-head in article on Cookery. 

BOLETUS : the large mushroom imported under the French name of Cepes. See 


BOLOGNA: a well-known sausage, originated in Bologna, Italy. See Sausages. 

BOMBAY DUCKS: a familiar name for canned Bummaloe Fish (imported from 

BONITO: a fish varying in size from five to eight pounds, found along the Atlantic 

coast, generally following the mackerel, which it resembles in 
scale coloring. It is in season from June to October. Its meat 
is rather dark. 

BORAGE: a garden herb. The young leaves smell somewhat like cucumbers and are 
used for salads and cooked as greens, etc. One or two leaves or flower spikes are often 
added to top a punch or wine cup. 

BORATED FISH: fish preserved by boraeic acid; largely imported from Norway. 

BORAX: one of the most useful of chemicals. The world's supply formerly came from 
Asia, principally Thibet and Persia, but the United States now furnishes a consider- 
able share of it. the largest deposits being those discovered in the middle and latter 
part of the last century in California and Nevada. The most famous are those of 
"Death Valley" in California, the borax being generally found in depressions which 
were probably lakes in prehistoric times. The borax there is generally in the shape 
of balls, from the smallest possible size to others as large as pumpkins, and usually 
stuck in clay around the depressions or "marshes"— technically- so called though a ma- 
jority of them have been dry as dust for ages and the others hold water only during the 


rainy season. When these balls are broken they show a white crystal interior, which 
changes to a hard dull grey on further exposure to the air. In other parts, the borax 
is mixed with sand on the surface and in masses under ground. 

In its powdered and refined form and as boric or boracic acid, which is borax decom- 
posed by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, borax has an extraordinarily wide field of use- 
fulness. It is largely used in the silk and textile trades, in paper making and various 
other manufactures, as a substitute for and in the composition of soap, in the making 
of shampoo and other hair preparations, for preserving foods and liquids of all kinds, 
in the sick room and nursery, for the extermination of all manner of bugs and vermin, 

Adulterations were formerly very common but the bulk of the borax sold to-day 
is pure. To test it, add to the powder a few drops of strong vinegar — if it effervesces, 
it is not pure. The most commonly used adulterant is bicarbonate of sodium. 

BORDEAUX WINES— Red. See Claret. 

BORDEAUX WINES — White: a majority of the white Bordeaux wines exported 
are produced in the celebrated Graves section of the department of the Gironde. 

The cheapest grades are generally marketed here as Barsac, Bommes and Graves; 
the next higher as Sauternes, Haut Satiternes and Haat Barsac. The term "Haut" in 
this connection means "Upper," the higher sections of the Sauternes and Barsac 
districts producing wine of better quality. 

The most famous variety is the Chateau Yquein Sauternes — some vintages attain 
exceedingly high value. The other first "crfis" (growths or districts) are Chateau 
Latour-Blanche, Chateau Peyraguey, Chateau Vigneau, Chateau Suduiraut, Chateau 
Coutet, Chateau Climenz, Chateau (Bayle) Guiraud, Chateau Rieussec and Chateau 

The principal differences in the making of such wines as "Sauternes" and "Claret" 
are, that for Sauternes, "white" grapes are generally employed and that they are left 
on the vines until the last possible moment, until they are beginning to wrinkle with 
ripeness, so as to obtain the fullest amount of sugar; that the juice is pressed and re- 
moved from the grapes as rapidly as possible to avoid its being colored by the skins, 
and that, going into the press later in the season, fermentation is arrested before all 
the sugar has been transformed into alcohol — producing a wine "white" instead of red 
and sweeter than claret — in which practically all sugar has been transformed. In ad- 
dition is, generally, a special selection of the grapes used — varieties heavy in sugar, such 
as Sauvignon and Semeillan, being grown in the majority of the vineyards of the 
Sauternes district — and, frequently, the addition of a small quantity of sugar-syrup 
after fermentation. 

The bulk of American "Sauternes" is produced in the Pacific Coast range district. 
Both the Eastern and Southern wine districts also supply a limited quantity, some 
brands being excellent in flavor and characteristics. 

See general article on Winks — Temperature, Decanting, etc. 

BORECOLE: a variety of ca.bbage with open leaves instead of head. It is best 
known popularly as Kale (which see). 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD: a famous New England specialty. See Bread. 


BOUILLABAISSE: a famous French fish stew. See Culinary Terms in Appendix. 

BOUILLON: clarified broth. See general article on Soups. 

BOXBEUTEL: a special type of wine flagon or bottle. See Bocksbeutel. 

BRAINS: should be bright in color and firm. All kinds are esteemed as delicacies. 
I. in beef brains and calves* brains, the latter being the choicer, are the varieties chiefly 
retailed. In Southern cookery, the preference is generally given to sheeps' and lambs' 

BRAISED BEEF or Beef a la Mode : generally part of the "round," boiled with carrots 
and other vegetables cut small. See Braising in article on Cookery. 

BRAN: part of the husk or coat of wheat or other grain (see Wheat) obtained in the 
process of flour making. Its principal use is as food for live stock but it is also mixed 
with while flour to make Brown or Graham bread, etc. 

BRANDIED CHEESE: old cream-cheese mixed and potted with brandy. See article 
on Cheese. 

BOUQUET of HERBS: a small bundle or "faggot" of various pot herbs etc., as 
parsley, thyme, celery, bay leaf, etc., for flavoring soups and stews. 

BRANDY: a liquor obtained by the distillation of the fermented juice of fruits. When 
the wind is employed without any qualifying prefix, it is nearly always understood as 
the liquor distilled from wine, i. e., the fermented juice of grapes. Other brandies 
generally carry the explanations of their source — as "Cherry Brandy,' "Peach Bran- 
dy." etc. After grapes, the most important commercial type of European brandy is 
thai made from dried figs. 

Red wines yield the largest amount of brandy, but the product of white wines is 
considered the finer and more delicate. 

When first distilled, the liquor, known then as "white brandy," is entirely colorless 
and w ill so remain if stored in glass or earthenware. Custom first stored it iu new oak 
casks and these gradually gave it the yellowish color which it bad when first marketed. 
The public obtained the impression that the darker the brandy the greater its strength. 
and as a consequence a little caramel (burnt sugar) is nearly always added to obtain 
the new characteristic "brandy color." 

The tinest brandy in the world is that known as Cognac, distilled from fine white 
wines grown in the vicinity of the City of Cognac, in the department of Charente, in 
the west of France. The word "Cognac" was for many years, until checked by legis- 
lation, so freely used mi impelled brandies that it is generally taken to be the French 
word for brandy. The proper equivalent is though Eau de Vie. "Cognac" only applying 
'rectly to brandy from the Cognac district. 

The ucmiine Cognac is divided into four principal grades— "Grande Champagne" 
or "Fine Champagne" (the very finest), "Petite Champagne," "Borderies" and "Bois." 

The name "Champagne" was given in Old France to a plain or upland, the subsoil 
of which is chalk with a thin layer of mould. It is only suitable for vine cultivation. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 75 

There are many such "Champagnes" in France, but the two most famous are those 
around Reims (the source of Champagne wine) and around Cognac. Their soil and 
subsoil are similar. 

The third grade, "Borderies," is so named because it is from the district '-bordering 
on" the "Champagne." 

The fourth is styled "Bois," because formerly the country immediately beyond 
was a woodland (bois). It is divided into : Fins (fine) bois; Bans (good) bois; Bois 
ordinaires (ordinary); Bois eloignes (distant). 

Cognac as marketed is generally a blending of Grande Champagne or Petite Cham- 
pagne with Borderies or Bois, the first for flavor and aroma and the second for strength. 
It is interesting to note that though Cognac is so distinctively a French product, com- 
paratively little of it is consumed in France, the bulk being exported to English speak- 
ing countries. In the offices of the largest Cognac firms, nearly 95% of the correspon- 
dence is conducted in the English language. 

The use of the word "champagne" in connection with brandy is also sometimes 
attributed to the custom of adding a small quantity of the finest brandy in the last 
stages of champagne making — the choicest brandy being used, the entire grade attained 
commercial significance as "Champagne brandy." 

••Cognac Vierge" is distilled from wine made from the first pressing of the grapes. 

The term Fint Champagne is also applied to a blend produced in Languedoc and 

Armagnac is another high class French brandy, produced in a district in South- 
west France, formerly known as Armagnac — now chiefly within the department of 

Eau de vie de Marc, or "lees brandy," is a distinct grade distilled from the fer- 
mented liquor obtained by steeping in water the skins, etc., left over from the pressing 
uf the grapes fur wine. It is generally of minor quality, but some varieties, as tin- best 
-fades from the Burgundy district, are very highly rated. 

Care should be taken to avoid adulterated and imitation brandies. Their use is 
unnecessary as there is a plentiful supply of the genuine, both domestic and imported. 

Of the domestic product, that from California is generally rated as the best. The 
average annual output is in the neighborhood of live million gallons. Of this, about 
one-third, principally of that made from Muscat grapes, is placed on the market as 
Brandy, the remainder being used to fortify sweet wines, such as Port and Madeira. 

Genuine new brandy is frequently given the appearance and flavor of "age" by the 
addition of a little old rum, old kirsch, etc. 

Brandy is used medicinally as a stimulant and for various other purposes. It is 
distinguished from the majority of other ardent spirits by its light stomachic properties. 

BRAWN: veal or pork trimmings, chiefly the latter, seasoned, spiced and pressed. 
Sold in bulk, canned and sausage form. See Head Cheese. 

BRAZIL NUTS, Cream Nuts, Para Nuts: the fruit of a large tree, native to Bra- 
zil and Guiana. The nuts are brown and wrinkled in appearance, triangular in shape, 
with hard shells and white kernels of very agreeable taste. They grow encased and 
packed in round seed-vessels (see illustration in first Color Page of Nuts), varying in 
size from that of a cocoanut to some as large as a man's head and so hard that a 
sledge hammer is required to break them. See also article on Nuts (Food Values). 


BREAD. It is generally conceded nowadays that the Egyptians were the first to use 
leaven in the making of 'bread, though some historians give the credit to the Chinese. 
From Egypt, the custom traveled to Greece and, later on, the Greeks communicated the 
process to the Romans, who spread the invention throughout the northern countries 
during their campaigns. 

The allusions to bread in the works of the classic authors are very numerous. 
Athenaeus mentions no fewer than sixty-two varieties as known among the ancient 
Greeks and good descriptions of many of them are given. They employed in the mak- 
ing a great variety of grains— wheat, barley, rye, millet, spelt, rice, etc.— combining 
i hem sometimes with other substances such as the flour of dried lotus roots and the root 
of the cornflag, the last named first boiled so as to give a sweet taste to the bread. 

In ancient Home, public bakeries were numerous, the great majority of them con- 
ducted by Greeks, who had the reputation of making the best bread. 

Wheat bread is the most popular in this country because wheat flour's higher per- 
centage of gliadin makes bread that is lighter than that of other flour. It is also credited 
with being a nearly perfect food ration. It is not as rich in food value as dried ripe 
beans or peas, but on the other hand it is in a form which is more generally accept- 
able as a leading article of diet and is easily assimilated. Its principal defect is the 
lack of fat, and that is generally overcome by the custom of eating it with butter or 
milk. It is also somewhat deficient in protein — hence the desirability of supplementing 
it with meat, fish, etc. (see article on Food Values). 

The exact science of modern bread making is a study of infinite minor chemical 
possibilities, but its fundamental principles may be outlined in a few words. The flour 
is mixed with water, a little salt and yeast, and left or set in a warm place to "rise." 
Later on, it is again kneaded and set to rise a second time. Then, as soon as the dough 
lias risen sufficiently, it is shaped into loaves and baked in the oven. The time thus con- 
sumed varies in different processes, according to the quantity of yeast used, the tem- 
perature maintained, etc. In large modern bakeries, all or nearly all the work is done 
by machinery. 

The raising of the dough is effected by the growth in it of the yeast fungi. The 
diastase in the dough, produced by the action of the yeast on part of the soluble protein 
of the flour, converts part of the starch into a kind of sugar, and the yeast cells, feeding 
on and propagating in this, produce alcoholic fermentation — convert it into alcohol and 
carbon-dioxide (gas). The alcohol, which passes away by evaporation, is unimportant 
but the carbon-dioxide, being distributed all through the dough, raises it as it expands 
in thousands of little pockets or cells in the dough. When the loaves are placed in the 
oven, the heat kills the yeast cells and stops the fermentation, but at the same time 
causes the gas already formed to expand still further, thus again raising the bread. 
Later, the gas forces itself out, but the air cells still remain, held in place by the stiff - 
ening in baking of the gliadin in the dough. The heat also changes some of the niois- 
ture into steam, which, being retained in the same or other tiny pockets, aids in the rais- 
ing process — and the result is the light porous loaf of everyday use. 

The brown crust of the baked loaf and much of its pleasing odor, are due princi- 
pally to the caramelizing of the dextrin and other sugars obtained by the conversion of 
the starch of the outer surface. 

The ordinary bread and rolls of everyday use are made from white flour — obtained 
by grinding the wheat grain after the bran coat and germ have been removed. For the 
more "fancy" varieties, milk and water, or milk alone, are substituted for the water in 




THE grocer's encyclopedia 79 

mixing the dough, and in some cases, sugar, butter, lard, etc., are added to it to make it 
sweeter or richer. 

New hot bread is generally rated as a bugbear to any except those of abnormally 
strong digestive powers — but lovers of good things to eat, who in fear of their lives 
have refrained from enjoying it, should take a stale loaf, wrap a wet towel around it 
and set it in a brisk oven for a while. The result will be a hot loaf that tastes better 
than one fresh from the baker — yet won't worry the digestion at all! 

For French bread, just dip the loaf in water and set it in the oven without any 
cloth around it. 

Bread should be kept in an air-tight show-case, box or receptacle which must be 
frequently scalded and aired — and thoroughly dried before using again. 

In other countries, under various circumstances, bread has been made from a great 
variety of grains, vegetables and nuts. Beans, peas, potatoes, etc., produce fair bread if 
mixed with wheat or rye to prevent sogginess ; rice makes bread of pleasing flavor and 
attractive appearance; the chestnut bread of the Corsican mountaineers is agreeable and 
healthful and will keep fresh for as long as two weeks, and acorns, mosses and innumer- 
able roots have also served— either alone or mixed with cereals. 

Aerated Bread, very popular in London, is made by charging the water used for wet- 
ting the dough with carbon-dioxide (gas), then working it up in enclosed iron kneading 
machines and putting directly into the oven, instead of allowing the gas to form in the 
dough from the fermentation caused by the working of yeast. The advantage is that 
bread can be thus made more quickly and cheaply and chemically purer- — but, to the 
American palate, aerated bread has a rather flat taste. An objection in the trade is 
that owing to its firm crust it does not show its staleness and when taken away by the 
bakers is sometimes returned again as fresh — to the injury of the grocer, whose cus- 
tomers naturally complain. 

Boston Brown Bread is made from rye, cornmeal and graham flour, well sweetened, 
principally with molasses, cooked by steaming, boiling or baking, and generally served 
smoking hot. It was originated in New England and is still very popular there. With- 
in recent years it has attained also a considerable sale in other parts of the country, 
with a growing use in canned form. It is very nutritious but not as easily digested 
as wheat bread. 

Corn Bread has never attained full favor in the North, but in different forms it is an 
important article of food in the South, where it is consumed as "corn bread," "corn muf- 
fins," "Johnny Cake," "Corn Pone," etc. 

French Bread, as generally known in this c mntry, is a long narrow loaf — often eighteen 
inches long and upward — of crisp crust and proportionately little crumb. In France, 
there are two distinct types of bread. The kind already mentioned, in Paris some- 
times reaching a length of three to five feet, is known as "Pain ordinaire" (ordinary 
bread). The other is "Pain riche" (rich bread)— a finer variety mixed with milk 
and made in all sorts of shapes (crescents, etc.), generally of small size. 

Gluten Bread is made from ordinary flour dough subjected to straining and pressing 
under a stream of water until most of the starch is worked out, leaving the gluten as 

gQ T p E 6 B O C i: i: ' S i: N C ¥ CLO 1' E L» I A 

tin- principal component. Properly mad.', the resull is a light elastic loaf especially 
suitable for diabetic and other patients from whose diet starch (and its product. 

SUgar I Should be excluded. 

Graham Bread, or Brown Bread, Whole Wheat or Entire Wheat Bread. Graham 
Bread is generally made from Hour which contains all of the "bran coat," or at all events 
the "aleurone layer" (see Wheat), but its composition varies considerably. As gen- 
erally eaten nowadays, ii is in other respects made in the same way as •'white*' bread, 
bin the original Graham bread was made without yeast — the few "holes" in it being- 
due probably to some minor fermentation. In flavor it was sweet and fairly palatable, 
Inn a good deal heavier than yeast bread. Whole Wheat or Entire Wheat bread is 
made from flour which consists sometimes of the entire grain ground up; at 
others, merely a coarse flour containing pari of the aleurone layer and grading between 
"Graham" and ■•ordinary" flour. 

The comparative advantages of "ordinary" or "white." Graham and Whole Wheat 
breads have been in dispute a long time. Advocates of Graham and Whole Wheat 
breads claim for them greater nourishing properties — others contend that "white" 
bread is more easily digested by the average person and that therefore more food value 
is assimilated by its use. irrespective of the chemical analyses of the loaves. To a disin- 
terested party, the comparative advantages or otherwise seem to be principally a matter 
of individual taste and digestion. The chemical difference is slight. 

Leavened Bread is bread of any kind, raised or "leavened" by yeast or any similar 

Honey Bread is ordinary white bread slightly sweetened. 

Macaroni Bread has nothing to do with macaroni. It is ordinary white bread made 
from flour of the prolific variety of hard wheat known as "Durum" or "Macaroni" 
wheat, now largely grown in the western and southern states. Its advocates claim for 
it all the advantages of other wheat flour. 

Malt Bread is that in which malt extract is added in making, the result being a bread 
that is sweeter i from the sugars formed by the action of the diastase of the malt) and 
uioister i because of the dextrin formed). There is also an increase in the phosphatic 
content, etc. 

Pumpernickel is a dark German bread of unbolted rye, very heavy and slightly acid, 
made from fermented dough. Thinly sliced, it is considered a delicacy when made into 
sandwiches or eaten with the soup course. It is sold generally by delicatessen dealers 
—made heii' and also imported, the latter being canned in thin slices. 

Rye Bread, as sold in this country, is generally part rye and part wheat flour, some- 
times flavored and sprinkled with caraway seeds. 

full rye bread is heavy in character owing both to the general manner of its manu- 
facture and to a peculiarity of the gluten of rye flour, and has an aromatic taste inde- 
pendent of the flavor of the caraway seed, etc., added in baking. It is a very important 
article of diet in Germany and the principal staple food in Russia. 


1 I Pumpernickel 
(2) Vienna 

3 Twist 

4 New England 

5 Rye 




Salt-rising Bread, is bread leavened by the addition to the sponge of a fermented batter 
of warm milk, salt and, generally, cornmeal. The name is derived from the salt dissolved 
in the milk to prevent the growth of bacteria in it while it is exposed to the atmosphefe 
awaiting the action of (generally) "wild" yeast (see Yeast). 

Unleavened Bread is made without yeast or any other raising agent. Some "dyspep- 
tic breads'' are sold in this form, bat the most commonly seen type is the "Matzoth," 
a large round cracker or biscuit, made ouly of flour and water, eaten during the Jewish 
Passover — both plain, in place of leavened bread, and cooked in various ways. 

Vienna Bread is an American title for loaves made of the same kind of dough used 
in France for the pain riche mentioned in the paragraph on French Bread. It is seldom 
if ever baked in Vienna in the large loaves seen here! 

BREAD FRUIT: the sweet, starchy 
fruit of a tree of tropical growth. It is 
round in shape, nearly or quite as large 
as a man's head and covered with a thick 
greenish rind. 

The natives generally gather it when 
the starch is in a mealy condition, then 
peel it, wrap it in leaves, and bake it by 
placing between hot stones. They also 
preserve it by allowing it to putrefy in 
watertight pits, the result being a mass re- 
sembling soft cheese, which, when used, 
is baked in the same manner as the fresh 

For Northern tables, it is best pre- 
pared by scooping a hole in the top, filling 
with butter and baking. Another method 
is to boil the entire fruit until tender, 
then peel, slice and serve with butter 
sauce. It resembles sweet potato in flavor 
and texture. 

BRETZEL. See Pketzel. 
BRIE CHEESE. See Cheese. 


title of Sulphur. 

See matter following 

Gathering Bread Fruit, Panama 

BRINE: water in which salt has been dissolved until it will not take any more. It 
is used for preserving meats, butter, etc. When employed for meat, saltpetre is gener- 
ally added to retain or enhance the desired red color and a small quantity of sugar or 
molasses is sometimes included to give a sweet flavor. 

Brine is best kept in kegs made of oak or other hard timber. Meat should not be 
left in it longer than two months without boiling and skimming the brine, as the Latter 


is liable in acquire poisonous qualities. After re-boiling, more salt must be added to 
hring its strength up again. 

In country districts, brine is used over and over again, as old brine containing 
meat extract is said to take less from meat put in it than fresh brine. It is, though, 
scalded, skimmed and strengthened after each batch. 

BRIOCHE: is, strictly, a slightly sweetened rich bread or very plain cake, but, in 
general usage, the title is applied to a bun with syrup poured on it. "Fancy" brioches 
have a centre filling of cherries, pineapple, etc., mixed with liqueur. 

BROCCOLI: a variety of the common cabbage produced by cultivation. It is very 
similar to the Cauliflower, but more highly colored. It is not grown as much as 
formerly, as Cauliflower is now in the market nearly all the year. 

BROILING. See suggestions on this subject in general article on Cookery. 

BROOM CORN : a plant of the same variety as Kaffir corn and sorghum, native to 
the East Indies, but now cultivated in both this country and Europe. It is said that 
the American industry is due to Benjamin Franklin, who picked one seed from a whisk 
brought to Philadelphia by a lady and planted it. It differs from other plants of the 
same species in having seed heads with longer, straighter and stronger branches or 
straw. The Standard plant gives the large heads used for carpet brooms, etc., and the 
Dwarf those made into whisks, etc. 

BROOMS: are generally made of broom-corn, the seeds being combed out by machin- 
ery. The handles vary from the cheapest to the most expensive woods. For their 
quality, brooms depend not only upon their material, but upon the way they are put 
together. They should be securely fastened and wrapped with from two to six ties of 
twine or wire — the more the better. The corn should be clean, tough, and regular in 

To clean brooms, dip them in hot soap and suds — it can be done on wash days. 
The life and flexibility of the broom will be improved and the carpets will be cleaner. 

BROSE: a kind of porridge made by adding boiling water, milk or broth to oatmeal, 
or barley or other meal and mixing by stirring. It is named according to the liquid used 
as a hasis — as "water brose," "beef brose," etc. Athole Brose, often used in Scotland 
as a remedy for a sore throat, is made of oatmeal or honey and whiskey. It takes its 
name from the town of Athole. 

BROTH : a liquid or clear soup obtained by boiling or steeping meat, poultry, game, 
shell-fish (as clams, etc.) in water, generally with the addition of vegetables or herbs, 
followed by straining. If obtained at a low temperature, it may contain a considerable 
percentage of nutriment, but, as generally made, it is principally valuable as a stimu- 
lant. Clarified broth is also known as Bouillon and Consomme (see Soups). 

Broths have especially high value in the treatment of invalids, convalescents and 

others with delicate stomachs. They are nowadays agreeably diversified by using a 

riety of distinctive vegetable and other flavoring ingredients — as "celery broth," 

ato broth." etc. — and are so retailed in bottles and cans. See also Meat Extract. 



BROWN BREAD: a term popularly applied to the various forms of Graham and 
Whole Wheat bread. See Bread. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS : one of the numerous special varieties of cabbage, cultivated 
in Belgium since early in the thirteenth century and now grown in every temperate cli- 
mate. It is distinguished by its long stalk to which are attached a number of minia- 
ture cabbages, each an inch or so in diameter, which in the best varieties are when raw 
nearly as firm and hard as the stalk itself, but when cooked are as tender as fine cauli- 
flower and possess a very delicate flavor. The chief season is from September to Janu- 
ary. The outer skins should be peeled off before cooking and boiling should be con- 
tinued only long enough to make the "Sprouts'' tender — their best qualities are lost 
and thev become waterv and mushv if overcooked. 

BUCKWHEAT (See Color Page I of 


Buckwheat in blossom on a Pennsylvania farm 

BUFFALO BERRY: a fruit resem- 
bling the barberry, popular in the West, 
where it is used in any manner suitable 
for currants. Its name originated in the 
old-time custom of serving it as a sauce 
with buffalo meat. 

BUFFALO LITHIA. See Mine b a l 

BUN : a well-known class of light sweet 
cakes of small size and generally round 

See Cross Buns. Bath Buns. etc. 

Grains) : originally styled ''Beech-wheat'' 
because the grain presents a triangular 
shape resembling that of the beechnut. It 
is known in France as "Ble Sarrasin"' be- 
cause report says that it was brought to 
Europe by the Crusaders. The plant, 
hardy and very rapid in growth, is raised 
in this country chiefly in Pennsylvania, New 
York and the Xew England states. 

Buckwheat four is very popular for 
batter cakes, especially in cold weather. 
Unmixed, it is dark in color and of a rather 
rank bitter flavor, but this is generally modi- 
fied by mixing with wheat "middlings" — 
the combination making dough that is 
lighter and sweeter, and cakes which brown 
more rapidly on the griddle. 

In buying Buckwheat flour, small, fre- 
quent purchases are best. It should be 
kept cool and well covered as it is much 
sought by insects. 

Buffalo Berries 

86 ggbocer's encyclopedia 

BURDOCK or Gobo: a vegetable native to Japan and in genera] characteristic simi- 
lar to the common wild Burdock, its young roots are variously prepared. 

BURGUNDY WINES: take their name from the ancienl province of Burgundy, 
France. Thej are much "heavier" than Bordeaux wines and contain a considerably 
greater alcohol percentage. The besl varieties, those produced in the hilly lands be- 
tween I »ijon and Chalons, in the department of Cot6 d'nr. rank very high in the esteem 
of connoisseurs and are often recommended to invalids as a stimulating and highly 
tonic beverage. 

Burgundies are divided into two principal classes — "red" and ''white." the red be- 
ing generally the choicer. The chief types are sold both "still" and "sparkling." 

Red Burgundies are subdivided into three classes. The most famous, those of 
Class I. are Romance Conti, Chambertin, Glos de I ougeot, Richebourg and Lu Tdche — 
varying in retail value, according to vintage, etc., from one to ten dollars a quart, the 

last-named being for a famous old vintage of R anee Conti. The word "clos" means 

literally "enclosure" and hence "locality" or "vineyard." 

With the exception of the Class I varieties ami a few examples of Classes II 
and 111. the bulk of the Burgundy imported into the United Stales is marketed 
under the name of the commune, or district, of production — as Untune, ('nrlon, Nuits, 
Pommard, Volnay, Vosne, V ougeot, etc. 

Prominent among the lower grade, lighter red varieties are Macon and Beaujolais. 

Though "while" Burgundy as a class is not as highly considered as red Burgundy, 
the best vintages of one variety, Montrachet, which resembles very fine IJhine Wine, are 
world-famous, other excellent while Burgundies are Meursault and Ghablis 3 the 
latter in varying qualities from quite ordinary to choice. 

High grade Burgundies will keep from twenty to thirty years, and sometimes 
longer, often greatly improving with age. The lower grades are best at from five to 
ten years. 

Burgundy should never be served as delivered from the merchant as it requires 
a considerable time, two or three weeks at least, to settle after being disturbed. It 
should be drunk at about the temperature of the average dining room or a trifle warmer. 
It should never be iced. Old Burgundies require care in decanting to be enjoyed at 
their best sec general article on Wines. 

BURNET or Pimpinel: a garden herb, the young leaves of which are used for 
salads. They resemble the cucumber in flavor. 

BUSHEL. See tables of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

BUTTER: as a food dates back to the time of the ancient Jews, but by the Greeks and 
Romans it was used only as an ointment and even now it is largely sold for that pur- 
pose b\ apothecaries in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 

The greater pari of the butter sold by merchants to-day is that made by creameries 
and the result of this centralization has been to improve greatly the average quality 
and to establish uniformity so that varying qualities may be intelligently graded. 

I!\ the old-fashioned method, cream for butter making was obtained by allowing 
the milk to stand from twenty to thirty-six hours, the cream which rose to the top being 

red when sufficiently "ripened" or soured. 

THE G R C E R ' S EX C Y C L P V. I> I A 

.1:1 -iiT, UTfYOn VIIW CO. 

Cream Separator in operation 

By the creamery method, the cream is generally separated from the whole 
milk while it is still sweet by running it through specially designed centrifugal 
separators. It is then treated by the addition 
of pasteurized skim milk, previously curdled by 
the addition of ''pure cultures'' (see Bacteria), 
in order to bring about the lactic fermentation 
essential to a butter of good flavor. If the 
churning is to proceed at once, which is prefer- 
able, from 20% to 30% of the "starter" is added, 
but if time is allowed for ripening, an addition 
of about 5% is sufficient. Butter made from 
separator-cream, untreated, is not "butter" in 
the true sense of the term — it is better described 
as an emulsion of butter-far. 

The great majority of the butters of com- 
merce show a water content between 12% and . 
16%. U. S. "Standard" butter contains not less 
than 82.5% of milk fat. 

Denmark has for years held the reputation 
of producing the finest butter in the world. It 

can be found all over the world in shops where luxuries are sold. In South America, 
in the East and West Indies, in India, Egypt and in tropical countries generally, 
epicures pay $1.00 a pound for it in tins of one, two and three pounds' weight. No 
other country has been able to produce butter that will stand changes of climate so 
well. Its excellence is due to the efficiency of the government system for controlling 
the output. Almost equally good results are obtained by the regulations of the Cork 
Market, Ireland, and by government control in New Zealand. Improvements in creamery 
methods and conditions promise to give equal reputation to the United States producl 
before long. 

More than ordinary care is required if a merchant wishes to establish and main- 
tain a reputation for selling good butter. In the first place, it generally pays to buy 
grades a little choicer than that of the average market — a half cent or a cent a pound 
additional often means something quite a little choicer than the regular run — and par- 
ticular customers are seldom averse to paying a cent or two extra for especially fine 
butter. Whether or not this is done — it is of course not advisable in every neighbor- 
hood — it is very poor policy to charge higher than the market value of any grade. Not 
one person in a thousand can judge the value of coffee, for example, with any degree of 
accuracy, but a big percentage have keen noses and palates wherewith to discrimi- 
nate in the matter of butter. It is very easy and very damaging to get a reputation for 
selling poor butter. 

A retailer should know how to test butter'ooth by taste and smell. Many mer- 
chants depend on only one or the other of these senses and as a result they often find 
themselves at fault in their purchases. This is particularly true of the dealer who 
buys by taste and is addicted to the use of tobacco or liquors. At times, his sense of 
taste may be keen enough to discriminate in a remarkable manner, but if he has 
recently been smoking he will find that it cannot be depended upon. Hence it is wis 
dom to cultivate both taste and smell to a point where, if one fails, the other can be 
relied upon. The expert buyer generally tests first by smell, breathing ir well 



back into the nose, then by taste and final- 
ly by allowing a little to melt in the 
mouth and letting the flavor expand up 
through the nostrils — this last test to de- 
termine its keeping qualities. 

Butter to be especially avoided is that 
which is "lardy," "oily," or "woody" in 
flavor. It should neither be oily nor "dry" 
in appearance, nor flecked, cloudy or 
streaked. There should be no holes or 
crevices in it — as these enclose moist air 
and favor fermentation. When broken, 
it should show a rough fracture — if it 
breaks smooth, it is deficient in "grain" 
— which in a majority of cases stands for 
richness of quality. When pressed, the 
moisture which exudes should be quite 
clear — if it is milky, it possesses inferior 
keeping qualities. The highest prices are 
paid for butter hand-worked, unsalted 
and very dry — under 11% moisture. 

In buying by tub, it is well to verify 
the weight of butter obtained, instead of 
depending only on the classification of 
the tub as "5 lb.," "10 lb.," etc. 

"Renovated" or "Process" butter is 
that produced by working over low grade or slightly deteriorated butter, by first melt- 
ing and settling it, then skimming off froth and scum and discarding the curd and 
brine settled, freshening by strong currents of air, mixing in fresh milk inoculated 
with bacterial cultures, churning and then rapidly cooling. The butter is then drained, 
salted, worked (to remove the excess of milk) and packed or made into prints. In the 
hands of a reliable manufacturer, who refrains from using improper materials, the pro- 
cessing of butter is a distinct advantage to the food supply and the product is very 
similar to "real" butter. As, however, there are differences in the nitrogenous com- 
ponents it should never be sold or represented as fresh. In several states such sales 
and representations are prohibited by law. 

An easy test to distinguish between fresh butter and "process butter," and also 
oleomargarine, is to boil a small amount, stirring thoroughly two or three times. 
Process butter and oleomargarine will boil noisily, sputtering more or less- — like a 
mixture of grease and water — but will produce little or no foam. Genuine butter 
on the other hand boils with less mrise and produces an abundance of foam. 

To distinguish between process butter and oleomargarine, melt a sample and 
note the odor — in process butter (and fresh butter ) the "butyric acid" smell will be very 
noticeable, but it is absent from oleomargarine, a "meaty" odor taking its place. 

Butter is now generally classified as Creamery, Process, Factory, Packing Stock 
and Grease Butter — defined by the N. Y. Mercantile Exchange as follows : 

Creamery : — Butter made in a creamery from cream separated at the creamery or 
gathered from farmers. 

A modern churn which first converts the ripened cream into 
butter and then thoroughly works and salts it 


Process :— Butter made by melting butter, clarifying the fat therefrom and 
re-churning with fresh milk, cream or skim milk, or by other similar process. 

Factory : — Butter collected in rolls, lumps, or whole packages and reworked by the 
dealer or shipper. 

Packing Stock :— Original farm butter in rolls, lumps or otherwise, without 
additional moisture or salt. 

Grease Butter : — All classes of butter grading below No. 3 Packing Stock. 

Creamery, Process and Factory Butters are, in the New York market, graded as 
"Special," "Extra," 1st, 2nd and 3rd. Packing Stock is graded as 1st, 2nd and 3rd. 

The very choicest butter is thus Creamery Special. 

The word "Special" as applied to any of the three mentioned classifications is 
defined as requiring 90% of the butter so graded to conform to the standard, and the 
remaining 10 %> to be fully up to the "Extra" grade, the quality just below "Special." 

Following are the Standards of "Special" grades of butter : 

Flavor — must be fine, sweet, clean and fresh, if of current make; and fine, sweet 
and clean, if held. 

Body — must be firm and uniform. 

Color — a light straw shade, even and uniform. 

Salt — medium salted. 

Package — sound, good, uniform and clean. 

Equally important with proper selection, is the care of butter after it reaches the 
store. A separate refrigerator should be reserved for it as it readily absorbs the odor 
of other articles, thereby losing its own delicate flavor and often acquiring a most disa- 
greeable odor and "twang." Meats, cheese and some fruits, as cantaloupes, pineapples, 
etc., are especially detrimental. The refrigerator must be kept thoroughly clean, as 
otherwise it will itself spoil the flavor — and pine wood in all forms should be kept 

In the sale of butter, clerks should be instructed to handle it as carefully as pos- 
sible. In cutting tub butter, the aim should be to avoid "mussing" or mangling it — 
a clean cut slab is much more pleasing than when half of it looks like a collection of 
odds and ends. 

Wooden butter dishes are not used as much as formerly, but where they are in 
favor it is advisable to wrap the butter in waxed paper first. The more popular 
method now is to wrap in waxed paper, then in ordinary wrapping paper. 

If butter is ladled, all the implements used should be scalded at least once a day, 
and kept in fresh-made brine. 

When butter becomes rancid, it is due to the formation of Butyric acid. A fair 
measure of freshness can be obtained by thoroughly washing it with fresh milk, which 
readily absorbs Butyric acid, and then with fresh water to remove the milk, so that it 
will not sour in the butter. 

All this care on the part of the retailer is, however, often upset by the customer's 
lack of care after purchasing. Whenever possible, customers should be advised to 
keep butter free from contaminating influences. Very few households can enjoy 
separate refrigerator compartments for butter, but every one can have a covered china 
or earthenware vessel in which to keep it — then, if the refrigerator is kept scoured and 
dry and the vessel clean, scalded before use. and always covered, there is a reasonaMi' 
chance of the butter retaining its purity unless the other articles in the refrigerator 
have very strong odors. 

90 i ii i. (, i; m ( ■ i: i; ' s E N-CYCLOPBD1 A 

It a customer has no jar, the best advice is to keep the butter always thoroughly 
wrapped in the waxed paper in which you deliver it. 

A good refrigerator and a plentiful supply of ice are, of course, desirable for 
keeping butter, hut care along the lines mentioned is to so great an extent the essential 
point, thai butter will stay fresh and pure fur a reasonable time without either refrig- 
erator »i ice if kepi in a dry, dean, covered vessel set in a cool place— the butter under 
such circumstances being preferably kepi wrapped in waxed paper inside the vessel. 
A damp or "musty" room — or its vicinity — should be carefully avoided as that odor 
has as dose an affinity for butter as any other. 

Where such advice can he given without offense, it is well worth while imparting 
it, with a view to avoiding the i rouble so frequently caused by customers, generally 
j,, perfectly g I Eaith, bringing butter back as "bad" which had left the store in good 

condil ion. 

The naiural color of the besi creainerj butter throughout the greater part of the 
year varies from almosl while to a delicate light yellow or cream — it is only in the 
spring when the cows ave first turned out to pasture that it naturally presents a really 
vellow color. The average consumer, however, expects butter to have a good bright 
color all the year round — and in consequence nearly all butter is brought up to that 
appearance by the use of various coloring additions. The colors used are chiefly those 
derived from vegetable sources, as annatto and carrot juice. 

In contrast to the general taste, there has developed in the larger cities a con- 
siderable demand among the customers of high class stores for un-colored and un-salted 
butter— variously known as "Fresh," '-Sweet*' and "French." Some of the French stores 
of the metropolis and elsewhere have always handled this for their patrons, but the 
present sale to a large number of families of other nationalities and to many high 
class hotels and restaurants is of comparatively recent origin. 

The perfumed butter used in Paris is made by taking pats «f "fresh" or unsalted 
butter and placing them on a layer of some variety of flowers, according to the per- 
fume desired, a piece of muslin being laid between the butter and blossoms. Another 
layer of flowers is placed above the butter and then ice is added. 

BUTTERFISH {See Color Page HI of Fish) : a fish varying in weight from four 
to tin' pound up to three-quarters and one pound each, found principally along the 
northern Atlantic coasts. In appearance it suggests the pompano. It is most plenti- 
ful during the summer and fall. 

BUTTERINE: an artificial butter composed of beef oil, neutral lard, etc. See article 

BUTTERMILK: the liquid which remains after the separation of butter from cream. 
It is generally a by-product of butter manufacture. When produced under sanitary 
condii ions and drunk fresh, it is not only exceedingly agreeable to many palates, but 
is very nutritious, as it contains all the cream nutrients excepting the fat. In Scot- 
land and Ireland, it is consumed in enormous quantities as an accompaniment to por- 
ridge and potatoes, and its use. principally as a beverage, has in the last few years been 
greatly extended in this country. 

A pint of buttermilk of average richness contains about as much nourishment as 
2% ounces of beef. As a cheap source of protein, which comprises nearly half of its 



percentage of food value, it is even more deserving of notice than skim milk, to which 
it is very similar in chemical components — though generally regarded as inferior, it 
ranks higher iu nutriment value. It is an especially valuable addition to the dietary 
when there is a deficiency of other nitrogenous food and therefore combines well with 
a farinaceous diet, supplying the protein lacking in cereals, etc. (see Pood Values). 

Though buttermilk contains as a rule very little mdk fat, it is seldom entirely 
free from it, aud it frequently happens that where milk is abundant and rich a consider- 
able quantity of fat is allowed to remain in the buttermilk in the form of tmtter. This 
increases its food value, but a careful skimming may be necessary if the milk is in- 
tended for special dietary. 

When made from fresh whole or partly-skimmed milk with selected or cultivated 
lactic ferments or bacteria, buttermilk contains high medical virtue — tending to 
prolong life by preventing decomposition of food in the bowels and avoiding the ab- 
normal formation of gas, uric acid, toxins and other undesirable products of excessive 
intestinal fermentation. This result is produced by the action of the serviceable bac- 
teria which flourish, to the exclusion of undesirable micro-organisms, in the lactic acid 
into which a considerable part of the sugary food elements is ronverted by the ferments 
introduced into the milk. The only important difference between buttermilk thus pre- 
pared and the creamery product is that the natural process is accelerated and the in- 
troduction of other and undesirable bacteria can be prevented. 

Buttermilk is best kept in glass or china vessels as the lactic acid is liable to 
affect other receptacles. 

BUTTERNUT (-See Color Page I of Nuts) : the oily nut of the North American 
White Walnut, ripening in September. It is of the same order as the ordinary Black 
Walnut but is longer, and has an exceedingly rough shell. The meat is rich, oily ami 
agreeable in flavor. When young and tender, it makes a delicious pickle. 

BUTTON MUSHROOM: the Mousseron of French importations. See Mushrooms. 

BUTYRIC ACID: the oily acid which under certain conditions forms in butter and 
gives it the smell and flavor genet-ally described as "rancid." < !ommercial Butyric Acid, 
a colorless liquid, is obtained from numerous sources. 

BUTYRIC ETHER: a fragrant compound-ether obtained by treatment of salts of 
butyric acid, employed in the manufacture of several artificial fruit extracts, particu- 
larly apple, melon, pineapple and strawberry. 

CABBAGE: the vegetable which probably comes next to the potato in the quantity 

consumed. It is found in more than seventy varieties, of which 
several are of sufficiently distinct form, both in appearance and 
quality, to be generally known under special titles, as Broccoli. 
Brussels Sprouts, Kale. Kohlrabi and Savoy Cabbage (which sec 
under their respective heads). The varieties of the common 
cabbage may he grouped in two classes, the Early and Late, 
according to their time of ripening. 

Only cabbages that are crisp and of bright color can he con- 
sidered desirable. If to he kepi for any considerable length of time, they require a 


temperature near freezing— the average cellar is too warm to answer the purpose. 
It stored in barrels, they are best placed with the roots uppermost. 

In places where cold si mane is not available and circumstances warrant the 
trouble, cabbage of any kind, and several other vegetables, as celery, can be kept fresh 
for a considerable Length of time by cutting so as to leave about two inches of stem 
below the leaves, scooping out the stem for from an inch to two inches, splitting the 
core of the vegetable to prevent sprouting, then suspending by a cord attached to the 
si. in and each day filling the hollow part of the stem with fresh cold water. 

A pinch of bi-carbonate of sodium added to the water in which cabbage is boiled 
will retain the green color of the leaves. It is good policy to throw away both the 
anconsumed portion and the water in which it was cooked. 

Red Cabbage is a favorite for pickling. 

See also articles on Sauerkraut and Slaw or "Cold Slaw." 

CABERNET: wine, both "white'' and claret style, domestic and imported, from the 
Cabemel grape, the variety principally cultivated in the famous M6doc section of 
France. The fruit is fragrant and yields a delicate, brilliant, rather light-colored wine. 

CACTUS: an order of curious, usually prickly, generally leafless plants, with fleshy 
stems or bodies — a number of them bushy, some resembling; telegraph poles in general 
appearance and conformation, others of round or oval shape suggesting huge spiny mel- 
ons, etc, .Many types are capable of extensive growth in regions so arid as to be other- 
wise unproductive. A majority of the most important edible-fruit varieties are included 
in the (> /unit in genus, the fruits being best known in this country under the title of 
Prickly Pears (which see). Among other interesting examples are the Barbados 
i rOOSEBERRY, Mexican Strawberry and Strawberry Pear, and the fruit of the Melon 
Thistle, all of which are described in their alphabetical positions. 

CAFFEINE: the stimulating principle of coffee. It is chemically identical with the 
theine of tea, kola, etc. 

CAKE: is made in many varieties in modern bakeries, from the very plain to the 
extremely "rich" — as the heavier kinds of fruit cakes. If of sound materials and 
properly baked, it is as nutritious and wholesome as it is agreeable to the palate. 
Some people find the rich types difficult of digestion, but many more would be able 
to enjoy cake without any unpleasant after-effects if they were to treat it as essentially 
a pari of the meal — to be eaten in place of some other portion thereof — instead of look- 
ing upon it as an "extra"' and thus throwing additional work on a stomach already 
loaded with oilier foods. 

To keep cake fresh, put an open vessel of water in the show-case. To keep flies 
away, sprinkle cloves in if. Tin is the best receptacle. 

CALCIMINE or Kalsomine: a superior form of Whitewash. A mineral and gluti- 
nous composition made in white and colored form for tinting and decorating plastered 
and sand-finished surfaces, such as ceilings and walls. 

Calcimines vary greatly in quality, but are all furnished in powdered form requir- 
ing the addition only of hot or cold water. 


CALEC ANNON or Kolcannon : a dish common to some parts of Ireland, which con- 
sists generally of a bit of salt pork with potatoes, cabbage and seasoning. 

CALF'S BRAINS: a meat delicacy in great popular demand. See Brains. 

CALFS-FOOT JELLY: is made of gelatine extracted from calfs-feet. Sweetened 
and flavored with sherry, etc., it is served as a dessert. It is also a favorite item in 
convalescent dietaries. 

CALIPASH, CALIPEE: the upper and lower parts of turtle-meat. See Turtle. 

CAMEMBERT: one of the most popular of French cheeses. See Cheese. 

CAMPHOR: is a tough and crystalline stearoptene from the wood of the Camphor 
Laurel or Camphor tree, native to China, Japan and Borneo. It is generally obtained 
by chopping the wood into fragments and placing in a "still" with a certain quantity 
of water, the steam generated carrying the camphor off in vapor. After various pro- 
cesses, it resolidifies as a yellow-brown, semi-transparent mass, which is then refined 
and pressed into various shapes. 

In addition to its household use in wardrobes and clothes-trunks to keep away 
insects, camphor is employed in the manufacture of celluloid and explosives, to make 
the stars and fire of the pyrotechnists, by the varnish-maker to increase the solubility 
of copal and other gums, etc. Mixed with six times its weight of clay and distilled, it 
suffers decomposition and yields a yellow, aromatic volatile oil, smelling strongly of 
thyme and rosemary, which is much used to adulterate some of the more costly essen- 
tial oils and to perfume fancy soaps. 

Synthetic camphor is now made from fine white turpentine. It is more resinous 
than gum camphor and less aromatic, but possesses the same general merits and quali- 
ties and is equally good for medicinal and most commercial purposes. Its sale com- 
mercially depends upon the comparative market values of gum camphor and turpen- 
tine. If turpentine is high in price and gum camphor low, the synthetic is not able to 
compete with the natural product. 

CANARY SEED: the seed of the canary grass, native to the Canary Islands, but 
long ago naturalized in many temperate climates. Its principal use in 
this country is as bird food. It is generally mixed with rape and other 
seed that cheapen it, but the straight Canary seed is decidedly prefer- 
able. It should be kept in a dry place and away from vermin. 

Industrially, a flour made from Canary seed is employed in the 
manufacture of fine cotton goods and silk stuffs, and in the Canary 
Islands, Italy and North Africa it is used as food. 

CANARY WINE: a gold colored wine resembling Madeira, made in the 
Canary Islands, principally on the Island of Teneriffe. When new, it 
is rough and unpleasant, but after two or three years it becomes mild 
and very agreeable. It was at one time a very fashionable wine. 

CANDIED FRUIT. See article on Crystallized Fruit. canary seed 

96 CHE grocer's encyclopedia 

CANDIED PEEL: the crystallized rinds of lemons, citrous, etc. See Citron. 

CANDLES: are aov> generally made by molding in metal forms, though some grades, 
notably church candles, are still made by the dipping process. The materials chiefly 
employed are stearin, paraffin and beeswax, separate and in various combinations 
and compositions. For decorative purposes they are frequently colored with aniline 

Tallow candles, formerly the most common, are now seldom sold except in frontier 
districts and other remote parts — they are very easily and cheaply manufactured but 
burn away so much more rapidly that other kinds are really less expensive. 

Stearin candles are also known as "Adamantine" candles because they are capable 
of sustaining a very warm temperature without bending. They give excellent serv- 
ice and arc deservedly popular. Stearin is obtained from tallow by separating it from 
the oil and glycerine. Its crystalline structure at first rendered manufacture difficult 
as the crystals contracted when the candles cooled after molding, but this has been 
remedied by mixing in a little paraffin. 

Paraffin, a petroleum product which is largely employed to-day, makes a clear 
candle resembling wax and gives a good pleasant light. A little stearin is usually 
added as the pure paraffin is apt to bend or droop when warm. 

Beeswax candles are employed principally for church and decorative purposes. 

Spermaceti, from the head of the sperm whale, was formerly an important candle 
material but is now practically out of use. 

Hoii 1 candlt s are merely ordinary candles of about half the usual size. 

Modern candles burn with a quiet, steady flame. If they flare, flicker and gutter, it 
is because they are exposed to drafts. The cotton wicks now used are braided and are 
chemically so treated as to be self-consuming — snuffing them is no longer necessary. 

Although petroleum, gas and electricity are improved factors in artificial lighting, 
candles are still used in large quantities on account of their adaptability for produc- 
ing a light promptly under all conditions, and, chiefly, because they have the advan- 
tage over all other forms of lighting in being both portable and absolutely safe. 

CANDY. U. S. "Standard" Candy is defined as a product prepared from a saccharine 
substance or substances, with or without the addition of harmless coloring, flavoring 
or filling materials, containing no terra alba, barytes, talc, chrome yellow or other 
mineral substances or poisonous colors or flavors or other injurious ingredients. 

A candy department, if properly managed, is generally a source of good profit, and 
advertising, lor the grocer. To handle it to advantage, however, proper facilities — 
in (lie form of glass show-cases, etc. — are absolutely necessary. A messy looking, fly- 
ai tract in- candy-counter is worse than none at all. rs, 

It is usually profitable to stock three distinct lines — (1) "Penny" goods for chil- 
dren. (2 derate price candies for the average customer, and (3) "fancy" candies. 

All kinds should lie handled in small lots so as to ensure a speedy turnover and, 
consequently, fresh goods at all times. They should be kept from exposure to heat 
or dampness. If the demand warrants a large stock, as much as possible of it should 
In- kepi in a special cooling room or cabinet of moderate temperature. 

A good supply id' pretty boxes, lace paper, wax paper, candy tongs, etc., is a great 
stimulant to custom. A box of candy fixed up with all such little fancy extras 
eals with special force to the feminine appetite — ami pocketbook. 


The materials principally used in the manufacture of candy are sugar, chocolate, 
cocoanut, nuts, raisins, corn synip, fruit pulps, cherries, gum arabic, cooking starch, 
molasses and licorice. Any desired tint cau now be obtained by vegetable colors or 
harmless coal-tar dyes (see Colors). 

Candies may be classified according to their nature or method of manufacture as 
follows : 

Hard Boiled Candy: candies cooked to a high degree of temperature, such as 
stick candy, lemon drops, hoarhound drops, etc. These are generally made by the 
vacuum process. 

Open Fire Candy: candies cooked in open kettles over furnace fires of coke, and 
pulled over hooks or on pulling machines, such as molasses taffy, cream taffy, etc. 

Pan Work: various forms of candy, nuts, etc., coated with sugar in revolving 
copper kettles or pans, such as sugar-coated almonds, jelly beans, cinnamon imperials, 
burnt almonds and burnt pi aunts. 

Gum Work : candy cooked in large melting kettles, then molded in impressions 
made in starch, dried, separated from starch and sugared, such as gum drops. These 
are also allowed to stand in sugar syrup over night, thus forming a crystal on the 
goods, which gives them a bright, brilliant lustre. 

< 'iiocolates : various kinds of candy dipped in chocolate, such as chocolate en ams, 
chocolate almonds, chocolate chips, etc. 

Creams: sugar cooked low and beaten to a creamy consistence, molded in im- 
pressions made in starch, dried, separated from starch, and crystallized. 

Caramels: sugar and corn syrup cooked to a proper consistence in open stirring 
kettles, run out in thin sheets on marble slab tables and cut into squares when cooled. 

Cocoanut Candy: sugar, corn syrup and cocoanut, cooked in open stirring kettles, 
run out on marble slab tables and cut into various shapes when cooled. 

Marshmallows : sugar, corn syrup and gelatine, beaten together, molded in im- 
pressions in starch, dried, separated from starch and dusted with powdered sugar. 

There are endless varieties of candy made by combinations of different materials, 
varying in wholesale value from 4c. to 50c. a pound and in retail from 10c. to §1.25. 
When eaten in moderation, it is as wholesome as it is palate-pleasinu. 

The United States consumes more candy per capita than any other country in the 
world — its annual output is about 400,000,000 pounds. 

CANISTER: originally a basket of Jcanna or reed, now a box or case for tea, etc. 

CANNED GOODS. The preservation of foods by sterilization and hermetical seal- 
ing is not a new process, but its present importance as an industry is of compara- 
tively recent origin. 

The list of articles which are preserved by canning is a long one, and includes 
great variety of fish, meats, fruits, vegetables, poultry, soups, etc — vet the industry 
is susceptible to still greater development. Current opinion in this country credits 
the United States with being tin- foremost exponent of canned goods and it is true that 
in several items, such as salmon, tomatoes, corn, etc.. the total output is considerably 
greater than that of all other parts of the world combined, bu1 in diversity of articles 
we have much to learn from Europe. We are all acquainted with some of the special 
French lines, but it would surprise the average reader to sec the variety of the outputs 
of other continental nations. Holland, for instance, has canneries which put up from 


two to several hundred different items. The list includes nearly every possible vege- 
table, i ! tid second qualities, separate and mixed— as for example, several varie- 
ties of peas, separate, and combinations of "green peas and spring carrots," etc., nunier- 
. combinations of vegetables and meat— as, "beef and onions," "green peas and veal," 
"chestnuts and sausages," "spinach and ham," etc.; and all kinds of meat delicacies, 
poultry, game, soups, sauces, fruits, etc. The most numerous items are vegetables, 
meats and mixed vegetables, and meat. 

M;in\ of the canned articles used in Europe, but at present unknown in this coun- 
M \. are sure to become popular here in course of time if canning interests foster pub- 
lii confidence by rigid inspection of their outputs and unremitting vigilance to see 
thai irresponsible or unscrupulous concerns do not foist undesirable goods on the 
market. < 'anned goods consisting of sound foods, put up with proper care and handled 
thereafter with reasonable precautions, are just as wholesome and nutritious as the 
fresh articles. 

To foster the trade in canned goods, which offer large future possibilities for him, 
the retailer should use every possible care to see that a customer receives nothing that 
is open to suspicion as to the quality, nor objection as to the quantity, of the edible con- 
tents of the can. A can of tomatoes, for example, should contain chiefly tomato flesh 
— it should not reveal on opening a superabundance of watery juice. 

The present method of canning is the process invented by a Frenchman named 
Francois Appert a little more than a hundred years ago, improved in detail and am- 
plified in use by modern mechanical devices and equipment. The two principal points 
in be achieved are (1) the exclusion of all air from the can by hermetical sealing and 
(2) the destruction of all micro-organisms by sterilization — cooking the can at high 
temperature and high pressure. The details of the process vary with different foods 
and cannery methods. Some items are placed in the cans in a raw condition, others 
are first partially cooked. Some undergo two cookings in the can, being "vented" 
between cookings — i. e.. the tops are pierced to allow the steam to escape, the holes 
being soldered over immediately thereafter. Many modern canneries achieve the 
same purpose by means of a steam-heated "exhaust box" which extracts part of the 
air in the filled cans before they are sent to the capping machines. 

If only good grades of bright tin plate are used, the sterilization has been com- 
plete, and the can is air-tight, the food contents, whether meats, vegetables or fruit, 
will remain good and wholesome for an almost indefinite length of time. 

Any imperfection in the can or damage to it, which admits even the smallest amount 
of air. will result in fermentation and decomposition and render the contents unfit for 
food, si i care should be exercised in the handling of all canned goods. A similar result 
will ensue from imperfect sterilization — i.e., if the heat employed was not sufficient to 
rilize everj portion of the contents. Fermentation of any kind will tend to make 
the can bulge more or less. Consequently, if there is the slightest swelling of the can, 
either top. bottom or sides, send it back — never on any account sell or use such a 
can as it may be poisonous enough to kill. All canned goods are returnable for this 
cause, being guaranteed by the packer to the jobber and the jobber to the retailer. 

The "swelling" is a reasonably sure test for all unopened canned goods except corn 
—which may be found sour inside a can in apparently normal condition. 

The reason that jams and other sweet preserves maintain their wholesomeness 
without such precautions as required for the canning of meats, vegetables and un- 

etened fruits, is that heavy syrup is not favorable to the growth of yeast, etc. 


The "biggest sellers"' in canned goods in the United States to-day are in fteh— 
salmon (a long way in the lead) and sardines; in fruit— peaches ; in vegetables— to- 
matoes, corn and peas, twice as many cans of tomatoes being sold as of corn and five 
times as many as of peas. 

Grocers should never sell a can of any meat or fish in the summer without advis- 
ing the buyer to keep it on ice for a while before opening it. Meats, salmon, lobster, 
crabs and shrimps are disgusting to many people when taken out in a flabby and warm 
condition, but the simple precaution mentioned will give the fresh, firm appearance 

The last point in the use of canned goods — and a very important one — is the 
necessity of every consumer understanding that, as soon as a can is opened, all of the 
contents must be taken out and put in a china, glass, earthenware or similar receptacle, 
dish or plate — and covered, if held over after a meal. The very best and purest canned 
meats and fish are liable to generate poisonous ptomaines, if left standing in the can. 

It may be added that ptomaine poison is not a special poison from canned goods 
only — it may be, and often is, generated in various items of home-cooked food if un- 
duly exposed, or left long enough to permit decay to set in. 

CANTALOUPE: a general title for several varieties of muskmelon, derived from 
Cantalupo, Italy, the place of their first cultivation in Europe. See Melons. 

CANVASBACK: one of the most famous of wild water-fowl. See Ducks (Wild). 

CAPELAN: a small fish very abundant along the shores of Newfoundland. It is 
principally used for bait in codfishing but some of the catch is dried for human con- 
sumption. The flesh is agreeable in flavor, somewhat resembling fine herring. 

CAPERS : the flower buds of the caper bush, growing in countries along the Mediter- 
ranean. They are used as pickles and to add to sauces, etc. 

The caper crop is gathered from June to September or October, the end of July 
giving the heaviest yield. After picking, they are carefully dried to avoid fermenta- 
tion and then stored in barrels of vinegar, the latter being sometimes flavored with 
tarragon sprigs, elder flowers, cloves, peppercorns, etc. 

During the winter following the gathering, the capers are graded by size by passing 
through sieves. The seven chief classifications are — '"Nonpareil" (smallest), "Sur- 
fine," "Capucine," "Capote," "Fine," "Mi-fine." and "Commune" (largest). After grad- 
ing, they are replaced in barrels of vinegar and thus preserved until sold. Before ship- 
ment, they are washed in vinegar of a standard of 12\ which renders them quite firm, 
and placed in barrels without vinegar, the finer qualities to be repacked in bottles, etc. 

A fraud sometimes attempted is to mix with the capers a quantity of nasturtium 
berries, which resemble them in size and appearance. 

CAPON: a male chicken castrated to increase its growth and weight. See Chicken. 

CAPSICUM. There are many species of Capsicum, all native to the warm parts of 
America, Africa and Asia, and now cultivated in every part of the world. The small 
fruited types, generally the most pungent, are best known popularly as "Chilies." and 
the larger as "Peppers." "Chilies" are used whole in vinegars, pickles, etc. and to grind 


into cayenne pepper, and "Peppers" are eaten as a vegetable and ground into red 
pepper (see Chili, Pepper and Peppers, Green). 

CAPUASSA: a yellow-fleshed, large-seeded, Brazilian fruit enclosed in a rough hard 
shell. European travelers have said in describing the crushed and diluted pulp that 
the resulting drink "is worth a voyage across the Atlantic." 

CARAMBOLA I also called the ( 'oromandel Gooseberry in India) : a curiously formed 
l inii about the size of a large egg, with a thin, smooth, generally yellow, coat. Its flavor 
paries from sweet to acid so it is variously consumed, — raw, cooked, in chutneys, etc. 

CARAMEL : a dark-brown substance obtained by heating either "ordinary" or "starch" 
sugar. It is formed also during the roasting of all materials containing sugar, such as 
malt (which see) and coffee. It is much used for coloring wines, spirits, soups and 
other liquids and for flavoring custards, milk, etc. 

"Caramels" is the name given to a candy whose soft mucilaginous character is due 
to iis large proportion of Glucose (see Candy and Glucose). 

Caramel Cereal, used as a coffee substitute, consists chiefly of malted grain. 

CARAWAY SEED: the highly aromatic seeds of a plant which grows wild in the 
meadows of Holland and Northern Germany, and is cultivated 
in many other countries, including the United States — especially 
California. They are employed in a variety of ways — as a culi- 
nary flavor, in confectionery, baking, etc., and in the perfumery 
and soap making industries. 

The roots of the Caraway plant wen- at one time eaten as 
a vegetable, and the young and lender leaves still occasionally 
serve for flavoring soups, etc. 

CARBONATED WATERS: a wide class of refreshing refrig- 
erant beverages, rendered sparkling by impregnating them with 
carbon-dioxide (carbonic acid gas) under pressure. The term 
does not include beverages in which the carbon-dioxide is pro- caraway 

duced by the natural process of fermentation. The carbon-dioxide is produced prefer- 
ably by the use of bicarbonate of sodium, but also frequently from limestone, marble 
dust, etc., by the action on them of sulphuric or other acid. The gas is first washed with 
water and stored in a copper bell or gasometer, being thence pumped along with water 
into copper or gun-metal vessels lined with pure tin, being made to mingle with the 
water by agitation or other means. When the pressure inside the water reaches about 
100 pounds to the square inch, it is ready to be bottled in syphons. A great variety 
of temperance beverages are made by putting a sufficient quantity of flavoring syrup 
in bottles and filling with Carbonated Water. Many spring waters carbonated by 
re have important medicinal properties (see Mineral Waters). 

CARDAMOM: the dark wrinkled triangular seeds of a spice plant, native to India. 
sess an aromatic and agreeably pungent flavor and are used in cooking, 
especially in curries and soups, by confectioners, etc. 




g the Artichoke, 

Card i 

CARDOON: a plant of the thistle family, somewhat resemblin 
generally larger, some varieties attaining a height of eight to ten 
feet, with leaves often three feet or more in length, light green 
in color and covered with white down. It is grown chiefly for the 
stems and leaf mid-ribs of the young plant, which arc thick, 
fleshy, tender and crisp it properly cultivated and blanched. 

Cardoon is used in salads, stews, soups, etc., and as a vege- 
table, in the last-named case being served with various forms 
of dressing or with butter sauce, etc. Considerable quantities are 
imported from France to supplement die domestic product. In 
cooking, the stalk is cut into thin strips about five to six inches 
long, cooked in slightly salted water until tender, then freed 
from strings, etc., and set aside to become cold. If not properly 
prepared, it is dark in color and unpleasantly bitter. 

The main root, which is thick, fleshy and pleasing in flavor, 
is also frequently prepared as a winter vegetable. 

CARLSBAD. See article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

CARMINE: a red coloring obtained from the female cochineal, a small insect found 
chiefly along the Phoenician coast. It is used for culinary purposes, in the manufac- 
ture of syrup, sauces, etc., and in various other industries. 

CAROB BEAN: the "Husks" of the Prodigal Son. See St. John's Bread. 

CARP: a fresh water fish spending most of its time in muddy bottoms and banks. 
It is generally of bronze appearance and the larger specimens attain a weight of lift ecu 
to eighteen pounds. There are many varieties, the three best known being the Buffalo 
or "Common," in season from the middle of July to October; the German, about half 
the size of the Buffalo and distinguished by its sides being bare of scales, in season 
from October to April; and the Salmon, a variety which by environment has attained 
a slight salmon tint and taste. The flesh of all except the Salmon is a firm white. 
The German Carp are the descendants of fry imported from Germany, but they 
have lost some of the fine characteristics of the home fish. 

CARRAGHEEN, IRISH MOSS, PEARL MOSS: a species of edible seaweed 

named after the town of Carragheen, near Waterford, Ireland, 
found on the coasts of the British Islands, the rocky shores of 
continental Europe and the Eastern shores of the Northern 
United States and Canada. Similar varieties abound also on 
i other parts of the American coast line. 

The Carragheen of domestic use is obtained principally from 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the harvest season there 
extending from May to September. After gathering, the plants 
are washed in salt water and spread on the beach to dry and 
bleach, the process being repeated several times. 
As marketed, Carragheen is in pieces of from two to throe inches to a foot in 
length, cartilaginous and flexible in texture, branching in shape, and in color from a 







reddish brown to straw color or white, varying with local differences in the plant and 
thr extenl of the bleaching. 

The greater pari of the supply is employed in the clarifying of beer. The re- 
mainder is retailed through druggists and grocers, etc., the best qualities packed in 
half pound and pound boxes. 

To make a nutritious beverage, which is considered also a good demulcent for 
coughs, a scaur ounce of Carragheen is placed in a quart to three pints of water, 
gentlj heated until the liquid is syrupy in consistence and then strained, milk and 
sugar or sugar and lemon juice being added to taste. 

In the preparation of blancmange or jelly, a larger quantity is required. A good 
receipt is to soak a small cupful in cold water for about five minutes, then tie it in a 
cheese cloth bag, place in a double-boiler with a quart of milk, add a little salt and 
cook for a half hour. Wlien done, take the bag out, flavor the liquid with lemon or 
vanilla extract and pour into a mold or small cups, previously wet with cold water. 
When the jelly is set. it can be eaten with sugar and cream or fruit as desired. 



a root vegetable cultivated in both the United States and Europe, the 
small tender varieties for culinary purposes and the larger, later types 
for feeding cattle. It is one of our most wholesome vegetables and is con- 
sumed in a variety of ways — separately and in soups, stews, etc. 

In cold storage, carrots have been held in barrels from November to 
the middle of July, but under other conditions they tend to heat and de- 
cay. If cold storage is not available, they are best stored on slat plat- 
forms, and covered lightly with sand. Good ventilation is an absolute 

When purchasing carrots, see that they are firm to the touch and 
crisp when broken. 

The juice of the red varieties is frequently employed on the farm to 
color butter. 

CARTON: a pasteboard box for holding soaps, cereals or other goods. 

CASEIN: the cheesy portion of the curd of milk, the protein constituent of milk. 
(See .Milk.) 

CASHEW NUT (See illustration in color page of Tropical Fruits) : a kidney 
shaped nut which develops pendant-fashion on the red or yellow "Cashew apple," the 
two constituting the fruit of a large evergreen shrub, native to the West Indies and 
widely grown in other tropical countries. 

The nut, of greenish-brown color, rich in milky juice when fresh, and with a deli- 
cate almond flavor, is consumed raw, roasted and pickled. The whole raw nut should 
never be crushed by the hands or teeth as between its two shells is a thick liquid 
which is so caustic that it readily blisters the lips and skin. The acid disappears with 
heat, so the roasted nuts do not offer this objection. 

The "apple" is seldom seen in this country, but it has a pleasing sub-acid flavor 
and is enjoyed locally. 

shew Nut is valuable in many branches of business, being used in the manu- 
facture of oil, ink, dyes, mucilage, cosmetics, etc. 


CASSAREEP: the juice of the bitter Cassava or Manioc (which see) boiled to the 
consistence of thick syrup and flavored with spices. It is used as a basis for various 
sauces and as a culinary flavoring, principally in tropical countries. It is exported 
chiefly from British Guiana. 

CASSAVA, Cassava Starch: starch obtained from the roots of the .Manioc (which 

CASSEROLE: a porous dish of clay or earthenware, much used in French cooking. 
The heat penetrates it slowly and all the juices and flavors of the meats, etc., are 

CASSIA BARK: a variety of Cinnamon (which see). 

CASSIA BUDS: the dried flower-buds of the tree which yields Cassia Bark, to which 
their flavoring is similar. In appearance they slightly resemble cloves. The Cassia 
tree does not bear buds until from fifteen to twenty years old. 

CASTILE SOAP: a soap made of olive oil, also called Marseilles Soap. See Soap. 

CASTOR-OIL: an article of great commercial importance, made from the seeds of 
the Castor-Oil plant. In addition to its medicinal use, it is employed in the manu- 
facture of some transparent toilet soaps, as a lubricating oil, in the arts, etc. 

CATAWBA: one of the most celebrated of native American wines. It is a "white" 
wine, both still and sparkling, of fine flavor, originally produced from the Catawba 
grape, and now from their blending with other varieties, such as Dela wares, etc. 

The highest priced variety is the "sparkling" — the finer grades of which compare 
favorably with imported wines. 

The sparkling variety should be served cold; the "still" at about the temperature 
of the room. 

Some red Catawba 'is made, but in comparatively small quantity. 

"Sweet Catawba" is a rich fortified wine. 

CATCHUP: also called "Ketchup" and Catsup (which see). 

CATFISH. Two entirely different fish — one found in salt-water and the other in 
lakes and rivers — are known as "catfish." The flesh of the salt-water fish, which occa- 
sionally attains a weight of sixty pounds and is called the "Hogfish" in some parts, 
is very good in flavor, hut the catch is nearly all cured, very little being marketed 
fresh. . 

The river variety is smaller and not particularly choice in flavor, hut properly 
prepared, after the removal of its coarse brown skin, it is found quite as pleasing to 
the palate as many more highly rated fish. Catfish dinners are much esteemed along 
the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia. 

CATNIP, or Catmint: a field plant growing wild throughout the United Stales. The 
leaves and young shoots — aromatic, pungent and more or less hitter — are used for 


nii: i, k in- i; i; 's ENCYCLOP i: dia 

seasoning and as a domestic remedy. The leaves are besl while the plant is blooming. 
ih,\ m;i\ be preserved by drying a few days, being afterward kept in a dry place. 

Everyone is familiar with the pleasure a ca1 finds in playing with catnip, and cat- 
nip-balls, containing a few pieces, are an article of regular sale. 

CATSUP, Catchup, Ketchup: a word derived from the name of an East Indian pickle, 
which was formerly applied specifically to the boiled spiced juice from salted mush- 
rooms, bul is now freely attached to various sauces (sold both bottled and in bulk) 
which consisl of the pulp — boiled, strained and seasoned — of various fruits, as toma- 
toes, green walnuts, etc. 


a variety of cabbage. It has been styled "cabbage with a college 
education," for its characteristics are the result of careful culti- 
vation — the flower buds and stalks having been exaggerated by 
seed selection, etc. into a compact white mass which constitutes 
the vegetable proper, instead of the leaves us in other varieties 
of cabbage. In addition to its use fresh-boiled, etc., great quan- 
tities are consumed as a pickle. 

The local Eastern crop is supplemented by large shipments 
from both France and California. 

Cauliflower may be kept in any way suitable for cabbage 
I which see I. 

CAVIAR: the salted roe of various large tish of the sturgeon family. Nearly all the 
world's supply now comes from the Caspian Sea. 

The tinest quality caviar is that from the Beluga, a Russian word meaning "Great 
White Sturgeon," the largest of all sturgeons, which grows to a length of twelve or 
fourteen feet and sometimes weighs con- 

1 1 

siderably more than a ton — a single cow- 
fish of thai size giving as much as 360 
pounds of caviar. These very big fish are 
becoming more scarce every year and the 
average Beluga now caught is much 

One hears and reads much of "Astra- 
khan Caviar" — yet there are no fisheries 
at Astrakhan illtissia). The name has 
clung because the City of Astrakhan is 
the greatest shipping place for caviar, 
largely \ ia < rermany. 

Again, many people speak of "Ger- 
man Caviar." yet none of the small German Caviar product is exported — the impres- 
Miui arises from the fad that the Russian export trade is carried on principally by 
German linns with Hamburg as headquarters. London and Faris are both "outside 
markets," drawing their daily and weekly supplies from the Hamburg houses — but all 
the caviar tin y receive is Russian caviar. 

After the i i > 1 1 has been killed, the roe is separated from the skin and fiue tissues 
which envelop i1 b\ gently rubbing through a sieve. Cor "fresh," i. e., mildly salted, 

Beluga or 'Great White Sturgeon" 



caviar, for which only roe in the best possible condition is suitable, it is then salted 
in the proportion of two to six pounds to each hundred pounds of roe, drained and 
put up in air-tight tin packages or glass jars. 

Roe in which the eggs are too soft or too far ripened for "fresh" grades, is cured 
with 10' ; of salt and packed in barrels for export, to be later repacked and cooked in 
tins for retail handling. This is the sandwich and canape^ caviar of ordinary use. 

"Pressed Caviar" is a peculiarly Russian variety of which very little is exported. 

The size of the egg or grain varies from very small to that of peas. The color is 
generally black but may be also any one of various shades of yellow, grey, dark green 
and brown. The real test of caviar is its flavor and this is as often found in the small 
as iu the large grain and in the black as in any other color. bu1 the large eggs and the 
grey and yellow or "gold" colors are the most rare and therefore the most expensive. 
The gold color is considered the choicest iu Russia, the greyish in Germany. 

There is very little caviar produced iu North America to-day, uncontrolled 
slaughter of the fish for many years having rendered it so scarce that it hardly pays 
to hunt it. Formerly, after supplying home markets, a considerable quantity of 
American caviar was shipped to Europe for sale as medium and coarse grades. 

Caviar in America is generally eaten on bread or toast with oil, lemon juice or 
vinegar and various garnishes. It is also occasionally served on ice as a special course 
at luncheon and dinner parties. 

CAYENNE: a red pepper, named after Cayenne, a city of French Guiana. 

CELERIAC: a kind of turnip-rooted celery. It is good for salads, the root being 
boiled and sliced cold for mixing with other ingredients. 

CELERY: as we know it, is the cultivated variety of a plant of the parsley family, 
winch is found wild in many parts of both this country and Europe. It is grown in 
large quantities in divers latitudes — New York, Michigan, Ohio, Florida, California and 
Bermuda being the largest producers. It was formerly obtainable only at certain 
seasons, but the fiuer grades are now on sale all the year round. 

Celery requires constant care and cultivation, and rich moist soft soil of saline 
character to attaiu its best qualities. For early celery, the seed is planted in hot- 
houses and the small plants are set out as soon as the frost leaves the ground. For late 
celery, the seed is sown in the open ground. The whiteness of the stalks is obtained by 
'•banking" earth or other material up 
along the rows of plants or putting boards 
alongside for the same purpose. Some 
growers raise three crops each season, fol- 
lowing each lot by immediately setting 
out the small plants for the next. 

Every part of the celery plant can he 
used to advantage. The stalks and heart 
are served in a variety of ways — plain 
raw, with various fillings, in salads, 
cooked in numerous ways, etc. The out- 
side stalks may be cut in pieces and 
stewed. The trimmings are excellent for Blanching ceien bs boards 



flavoring broths, etc. The seeds arc used for celery salt and many pickles and seasonings, 
lery from Michigan and New York State is best from July 15 to Decem- 
ber I or later; California ships principally from Thanksgiving to March 1; Florida 
from February 1"> to Maj 1 and Bermuda from April 15 to the middle of June. 

To keep in the best condition, celery should 
be wrapped in paper and held in a cool place. 
In refrigerated cooling rooms, it can be kept in 

g ] condition from one to two months. It may 

also be stored in cool cellars if packed just as 
taken from the ground, without either washing 
or trimming, heads up in long deep boxes and 
filled around the roots with sand, which should 
occasionally be moistened. 

used in many different industries, chiefly for the 
extraction of moisture — to remove the syrup 
from sugar, to extract the honey from honey- 
comb, to dry yarn, cloth, etc. The process is, 
essentially, placing the substance or material in 
a perforated basket or case which is revolved 

. , .,. ,, , , , ., ,, Girls hoeing: Celery beds, near Buffalo, N. Y. 

with great rapidity, the result being that the 

moisture is expelled from the basket and caught in the receptacle enclosing it. 


CEPES. See Mushrooms. 

CEREALS. Agriculturally speaking, the term "cereals" refers to all species of 
"grasses" which bear grain, the most important being wheat, corn, rye, oats, rice and 
barley. The world's huge crop of wheat, for example, comes under this classification. 
From the standpoint of the grocer and the average consumer though, the term applies 
specifically to preparations of grains intended for table use — such as oatmeal and the 
great variety of so-called "breakfast foods." 

The subsiding of the temporary popularity which a multitude of cereal prepara- 
tions and combinations enjoyed a few years ago, banished into oblivion a long list of 
"breakfasi foods," but a number of those which remained by virtue of proved merit and 
consistent publicity have grown steadily in public esteem, and the line is well worthy 
of attention, for it is clean and easy to handle, being practically all package goods, 
ami quite profitable, if the proper kinds are selected. 

Package cereals may be divided into three main classes: (1) crushed raw, (2) 
partly cooked and (3) malted. In the last named, part of the starch is converted into 
maltose and dextrin (forms of sugar — see article on Glucose) by mixing the ground 
grain and malt and keeping it for a time at the proper temperature, then passing 
the mixture through hot rollers and drying. 

It does not, however, pay to handle this line unless there is a fair margin of profit. 
Nor should too many kinds, nor too large quantities be stocked, as if held for a long 
time weevils are liable to get in and spoil the goods. 

The n> neral use of the double-boiler has improved the preparation of 

cereals, preventing loss by burning and scorching, but in the average household the raw 



or semi-cooked varieties are not sufficient- 
ly cooked before serving. Thorough cook- 
ing increases their food value by making 
them more readily digestible. The "fire- 
less cooker'' is the ideal utensil for this 

Cereals should always be kept in a 
dry, cool place. 

CERIMAN (sometimes called the 
"False Bread-fruit") : a sub-tropical 
fruit, varying from cone to banana shape 
and often reaching a length of fourteen 
inches. The flesh is excellent in flavor 
and delightfully aromatic. The husky 
skin is tender and easilv removed. 

* -> 


•J M 




Ik ^^^B ' 








Ceriman blossom and immature fruit 

CERVELAT: a popular variety of smoked sausage. See general article on Sausages. 

CETTE WINES: "Burgundy," "Port," "Vermouth," etc., exported from Cette. an 
important city on the French Mediterranean coast and the principal shipping point 
for the Department of Herault. Herault produces nearly one-tenth of the total French 
wine supply, but only a comparatively small quantity is exported, the bulk being 
retained for domestic consumption. 

CHAMOIS SKIN, or LEATHER, Shammy: used for polishing, is, ordinarily, 

goat or sheep skin made soft and pliable by treatment with oil. It takes its name 
from the original use of the skin of the Chamois, a goat-like antelope, of mountainous 
parts of Europe and Western Asia. To clean "shammy," use warm water, soap and a 
little soda, rubbing the soap well in. Washing in plain water will harden it. 

CHAMPAGNE. Contrary to general impression, Champagne is made from fine vari- 
eties of black and red grapes. Its "white" color is due to the fact that the grapes are 
pressed before the skins have had a chance to color the juice. 

The grapes are sorted immediately after gathering and taken at once to the pi 
house where they are again critically inspected during the weighing and then, with the 
least possible delay, pressed to separate the juice from the pulp. 

The products of the first three pressings become first class wines. The subsequent 
pressings produce only an inferior article, generally used for local consumption. 

This virgin wine is left standing in large vats to await fermentation — the process 
being instigated by the micro-organisms ("wild" yeast cells) contained in the "bloom" 
of the "rape and carried into the juice when pressing. In fermentation, the natural 
sugar of the grape juice is transformed into alcohol and carbon-dioxide (gas). The 
latter escaping by the bunghole. produces the stage commonly called "boiling." 

As the weather becomes cold, the ferments gradually lessen their activity until 
the wine finally becomes clear and is in condition to be separated from its lees. 

With the approach of the following spring comes the mosl critical operation— 
the one which tests the experience and ability of the wine merchant — the blending of 


the crude wines to suit the tastes of his clienteles in various countries. When the 
desired resull lias been obtained, flie "cuvee" is said to have been formed and is ready 
for botl ling. 

A certain amounl of cane-sugar is added to the wine and it is then put into new 
and carefully cleansed bottles, which are corked as tilled and taken at once to the 

The return of spring again sets the ferments in action, transforming any natural 
sugar still lefl in the wine from the previous fall — and also the cane-sugar added — into 
alcohol ami carbon-dioxide — but this time the gas cannot escape and instead mingles 
wiih the liquid, producing the ".sparkle" for which champagne is famous. 

itui the development of the wine is not yet completed, for this last fermentation 
leaves a deposit or sediment to be got rid of. To accomplish this, the bottles are held 
in racks, head downwards at an angle of 70°, for three months or longer while the de- 
posit slowly descends and collects on the corks. Every day during the entire period 
a specially trained cellarnian gives each bottle a slight twisting motion to assist its 

When all the sediment has collected on the corks, the cellarman takes each bottle 
separately and removes the cork, or undoes the iron clasp holding it, according to the 
method employed, and the rush of the carbonate gas forces the deposit out with a loud 
report. The wine is thus left absolutely clear and sparkling. 

By the most modern process, the necks of the bottles, when ready for the extrac- 
tion id' the sediment, are placed to a depth of about three inches in a refrigerating bath 
to congeal the deposit and thus facilitate its expulsion. 

The second fermentation has removed all taste of sugar, and for a perfectly "dry" 
wine, the cellarman refills the empty space in the neck of the bottle, left by the with- 
drawal id' the sediment, with unsweetened "dosage" and recorks the bottle as it is. 
Nearly all the champagne sold is though sweetened more or less — the extent varying 
with the preferences of the different countries to which it is to be shipped— and conse- 
quently the dosage usually consists of sugar dissolved in "champagne" brandy and 
variously flavored. A keen palate can often clearly detect the flavors of the dosage — 
as of apricots or other fruits. 

The bottles go next to underground wine cellars to mature. The cellars or "caves" 
at Reims consist of miles of tunnels cut in and through old chalk pits. The length of 
time required to attain proper maturity depends to a certain extent on the quality and 
characteristics of each year's vintage. An average of eight years is generally con- 
sidered sufficient. 

It is a matter of common knowledge that many of the stronger "still" wines are 
improved by long life in the bottles, but that a good vintage champagne will improve up 
to tlie tenth year is not generally known. 

The "dryer" the wine, the more important becomes the time set apart for its ag- 
ing, and the finer the discrimination possible in comparing the merits of different vint- 
ages. In heavily sweetened champagnes, the "sharpness" of immature wine or the medi- 
ocrity of a poor vintage may he obscured to a very considerable extent by the sugar 

An eas\ lest for age in champagne is found in the corks extracted. If the end of 
the "stem" swells oul to approximately the same dimensions as the head of the cork. 
you may lie sure the wine has not been very long in the bottle. If it swells only mod- 
erately, it has been to that extent better matured. If it proves to be lacking entirely in 



resiliency and retains the straight up and down shape of the inside of the bottle's 
it has been aged sufficiently for any connoisseur's requirements. 

This tesl applies only to champagne and similar sparkling wines, — not at all to 
..1,1 ports or Rhine wines, or any other wines held longer than ten years to mature, as 
in such <ascs new corks are generally substituted about every ten years. 

Most of the champagne consumed in Russia, Germany and other countries of 
Northern Europe is heavily sweetened. An 18 to 20 per cent syrup addition was for- 
merly common in that shipped to Russia and 14 to 16 per cent in that for Germany. 
About 129? was quite common in France itself. The champagne consumed in those 
countries is do1 as sweet as formerly, but it would still be considered excessively so by 
English and American connoisseurs. 

"Sec" or "dry" champagne is wine with only a comparatively little sweetening — 
generally from 3 to 5 per cent. "Extra dry" has still less. "Brut," which means 
"natural" or "unsweetened," signifies champagne without any sweetening or, as gen- 
erally, with only the minimum amount. 

In Europe, the terms "sec" and "brut" serve to distinguish the wines so labelled 
from the heavily syrupped types mentioned, but as very little really sweet champagne 
is ever seen in this country (practically all of the importations being of the "sec," "ex- 
tra sec" and "brut" types), "sec" has come to mean "sweet" to American consumers. 
It is "dry" in comparison with the sweet European champagne, but it is "sweet" in com- 
parison with the still dryer "brut." 

A small quantity of champagne sweeter than "sec," though not nearly as sweet as 
much of that consumed in Northern Europe, is imported and sold here under special 
trade titles, but the demand for it is comparatively small. "Sec" is probably the 
typical American taste, being generally preferred both to sweeter and dryer types. 

It is necessary, however, to confine oneself to generalities in discussing this sub- 
ject, as both wines and firm policies vary considerably. It is impossible to give a conclu- 
sive idea of the sweetness of different cuvees by naming the percentage of syrup added, 
as different quantities may be required to obtain the same degree of sweetness — the 
same amount of syrup added to a fine mellow wine would make a much sweeter article 
than if added to a young sharp wine. And, as there is no absolute standard of defi- 
nition for "sec" or "brut," it may happen that one firm's "brut" is sweeter than 
another's "sec." 

Another classification, which does not so generally affect the average consumer, 
but is understood by the connoisseur, is into non-Mousseux , not effervescent (seldom 
seen \i Gremant, moderately sparkling ; Mousseu®, sufficiently effervescent to eject the 
cork with an audible report, and Grand Mousseux, excessively effervescent. 

It is very important that champagne should be kept in a dark cellar where the 
temperature is cool and even. If exposed to light and variable temperature, it will 
lose much of both effervescence and fiavor. The bottles should be laid on their sides, 
inclined slightly downwards so that the wine keeps the cork moist. If it has been 
shipped a considerable distance, it should be allowed to rest a few days before serving. 

Champagne should he drunk cold, but the cooling process should be gradual — it 
is detrimental to shake it or turn it violently in the cooler, as is so frequently done. 

Several styles of wine glasses are used for serving champagne. The most desirable 
are those which show the "sparkle" best and retain it the longest. The "hollow-stem" 
glass is excellent by both these standards. It is important that the glasses be perfectly 
dry before pouring the wine into them — a damp glass kills much of the sparkle. 



As the sale of imported champagne is in this country largely directed by adver- 
tising, it is not generally advisable to stock heavily any brand with which the public 
is not thoroughly familiar. The French government has restricted the use of the 
title "champagne" to wine made within a certain clearly defined area, covering nearly 
all of the Department of Marne — which includes, among others, the cantons of Avize, 
Ay, Chalons, Epernay and Eeims— and a few communes in the Department of Aisne. 

There are several American "champagnes" now made which are excellent in quality 
and show a good profit to the retailer. See American Wines. 

CHAMPIGON: the French name for Mushroom (which see). 

CHARD, Swiss Chard, Leaf-Beet: a variety 
of beet which is grown only for its leaves and 
stalks, the latter, and also the leaf midribs of 
some types, being cooked and served in any way 
suitable for Asparagus. The leaves are pre- 
pared as "greens" or may be chopped up, mixed 
with cream and served with the stalks. 

Swiss Chard is a variety with especially 
large stalks, leaves and midribs. 

The term "Chard" is also applied to the 
blanched stalks, midribs, etc., of the artichoke, 
cardoon and several other plants. 

Swiss Chard 

CHARLOTTE. See list of Culinary Terms in Appendix. 

CHARTREUSE: a famous liqueur {see Color Page of Liqueurs) originally made by 
monks of La Grande Chartreuse, France. After the exclusion of the Carthusian monks 
from France, they retired to Spain near Tarragona and there, claiming the process as 
still their exclusive secret, make a liqueur branded "Liqueur des Peres Chartreux." 
It contains the aromatic principles of a great variety of fruits, spices and herbs and is 
marketed in three colors — green, yellow and w T hite. 

See also "Chartreuse" in Culinary Terms in Appendix. 

CHEESE: the product obtained by coagulat- 
ing the casein of milk by means of rennet or 
acids, with or without the addition of ripening 
ferments and seasonings. The casein is usually 
coagulated with rennet, the curd being then 
separated from the whey and pressed in suitable 
molds. By act of Congress, approved June 6, 
1896, cheese may contain additional harmless 
coloring matter — this generally consists of an- 
natto or other colors from vegetable sources. 

Whole-mill- or full-cream cheese is made 
from milk from which no portion of the 
fat has been removed. U. S. Standard whole- 
milk cheese or full-cream cheese is cheese 

Filling cheese hoops with the chopped curd 


X II i: G ROC Kit 'S i: NCYC LOP 10 D I A 

containing in the water-free substance not less Hum titty (50) per cent of butter fat. 
i am cht ' st is made from milk and cream, or milk containing not less than six (6) 
per cenl of fat. 

Skim-milk cheese is made from milk from which pari of the fat has been removed. 

Cheeses arc commonly graded as special. Fancy, Good, Prime, Common, etc. 

Italy and Switzerland supply the greater pari of the cheese imported. Next come 
Holland and France. 

As an article of food, cheese is very nutritious. When eaten in quantities it bur- 
dens the digestive organs, but in small amounts, as a condiment, it stimulates and aids 

the digestion of rich f Is and dessert. When taken after eating, and especially when 

rich and old, it is particularly efficacious in that respect by -powerfully promoting the 
secretion of saliva and gastric juice. 

In the United Slates, cheese making lias been transferred bodily from the realm of 
domestic arts to that of the manufacturer, and 
farm-made cheeses arc hard to find anywhere. 
New York and Wisconsin together produce 
three-quarters of the entire output of the 
country. Next in order are Ohio, Illinois, Michi- 
gan and Pennsylvania. 

More than nine tenths of the cheese made is 
of the familiar standard copied after the Eng- 
lish Cheddar. The annual consumption here 
though is only :! His. per capita, which shows how 
little its highly nutritions value is appreciated. 

In manufacture, the milk is generally 
warmed in large vats to a temperature of not less 
than 84° Fahr. The rennet, or other coagulative 
mixture, is then added, a pint of rennet being 
sufficient to turn from 2000 to 3000 quarts of 
milk. As the curd forms, the temperature is 
raised to nearly 100°, until the whole mass of 
curd separates from the whey. The latter is then drawn off by cutting the curd across 
both ways, and passing wired paddles or curd-knives through it. After the whey has 
been removed, the curd is allowed to "mat" or ferment slightly and it is then broken 
up, sailed, formed and pressed. Ten days or so later, the cheese is rubbed to remove any 
mold, and perhaps paraffined to prevent such formation later. It is then kept until 
properly ripened for market. 

The storing of newly made cheese is the next point that engages the at I cut ion of 
the maker and wholesale dealer. The same principles which influence the maturing or 
ripening of fermented liquors also operate here. A cool cellar, neither damp nor yet 
too dry. which is uninfluenced by changes of weather or season, is commonly regarded 
as best for the purpose. The temperature should not lie permitted to exceed 50° to 
56 Fahr. at any time — an average of about 4.V is preferable when it can be maintained. 
A place exposed t<> sudden changes of temperature is as until for storing cheese as it 
is for storing beer. Roquefort, the highest grade of highly ripened cheese, owes much 
of its perfection to the dry caves in which it is stored and ripened. 

The care of cheese in the storq is often neglected. In warm weather, it should be 
kept in a cool, dry place, ancUrequently inspected and turned over in the boxes. If 

i .'I'lKI.. 

Cheese Curing Room 


a cheese shows' signs of swelling, it should be pierced with a wire to give vent to the 
gas, which can then be expelled by gentle pressure on the swollen portion. All mold 
or mites on the top of the cheese should be swept or neatly scraped off and the surface 
rubbed with a little sweet oil or strong brine. For maggots or "jumpers," tin- remedy is 
to clean the affected parts and keep the cheese well dusted with rice Hour. If the loose 
sheets or plates which lie on the top and bottom of the cheese are found to be damp, 
they should be replaced by clean, dry ones. 

The cut cheese can be kept moist by pressing lightly buttered pieces id" parchment 
firmly on the cut surfaces or by buttering them. There will also be less tendency to- 
wards dryness, and therefore less shrinkage, if each exposed surface is cut from alter- 
nately. The fresh appearance of the cheese in general can be retained by wiping the out- 
side each day with a damp cloth, soaked in salt water. 

For the important part played by bacteria, etc., in the ripening of cheese, see article 
on Bacteria. 

There are countless varieties of cheese, but those described in the following list 
may be taken as representative of all popular types. Gamembert, Cheddar, Cream, 
Edam, Limburger, Neufchatel, Pineapple and Swiss are depicted in the two color pages 
of Cheese — il) the frontispiece, and (2) facing page 118. 

Appenzell: made either of skim or whole-milk, in Appenzell, Switzerland. It is 
very similar to Emmenthaler (which see). 

Braxdied: strong old cheese, grouud or rolled fine, and mixed with brandy. A full- 
cream cheese, which has become a little over-ripe, is pared and then rolled into a 
smooth dough with a rolling pin. Layers of this dough, from a half inch to an inch 
thick, are put in an earthen crock, and good brandy is poured over each layer. When 
the crock is nearly full, the cheese is covered with several thicknesses of oiled muslin, 
and, during the first few weeks, a little brandy is poured on top at regular intervals. It 
will improve with years. 

Brie: a soft French cheese, treated and ripened in much the same way as Camem- 
hert i which see). 

Caciocavallo : an Italian cheese, generally of roundish-beet shape and about 
three pounds in weight, which after making and salting is filled into sausage skins and 
lightly smoked. It is sometimes eaten fresh, but is more often stored for several 
months and then grated to use as a flavoring for soups and as an addition to macaroni 
and similar pastes. 

Caerphilly: a hard Welsh cheese generally weighing about eight pounds, made 
from very sweet whole milk. 

( 'amemijert : a soft, rich cheese, made in the former province of Normandy, France, 
the best now coming from the districts of Orne and Calvados. It is generally put up 
in round wooden boxes or tins and is marketed in May and November. It is made 
from two separate curds, the morning and the evening, and the strength of the rennet 
mixture employed is varied with the weather, being much stronger for the winter than 
for the summer product. When the first curd is ready, it is filled into molds with 
great care so as not to break up the mass, but to fill each round hoop or form with one 
motion. These filled forms are placed on straw mats, which facilitate drainage and 
add to the agreeable appearance of the finished cheese. The morning's curd will have 
sunk considerably bv the time the evening's curd is ready, and the latter, which may be 

i in 


a little richer, is added to it, the top of the under layer being slightly disturbed 
or scored to facilitate joining. On the second day, the cheeses, having hardened suffi- 
ciently to be turned, are slightly salted on the surface and set on fresh mats to remain 
i ill t li,\ are hard enough to be removed from the frames. In the drying room, where 
they rest for four days, the first or white fungus or mold appears — this is essential to 
their flavor and ripening and is succeeded after about a week by the fine blue mold 
characteristic of the fully developed cheese. When the condition of the blue mold is 
lulh established, the cheeses are removed to the curing room, where they are kept at 
a temperature under 60° Fahr. until ready for market. 

.More Cainembert cheese would be used if the ordinary consumer knew how to 
handle it. At dinner parties or hotels it is easy to dispose of an entire cheese at one 
meal, but the provident housewife hardly likes to see three-quarters of it dry up or run 
away because the family is small or the cheese is only appreciated by the head of the 
house — of whichever sex. 

Keep your Cainembert cheese under a large inverted finger bowl- — you can find no 
better receptacle. 

If kept in a cool place, the cheese naturally stiffens. If it is fresh and not shrunken 
ir will always be soft if held for a few hours in a warm room. 

In cutting for the first time, cut a section as shown in Figure 1 below, and then 
push the rwo sides of the cheese together as in Figure 2 — the rind will thus continue to 
proteci it. At the second meal, cut through crosswise and at the end of the meal push 

Cutting Camembert Cheese 

the parts together (Figure 3), so that the four quarter-sections again make a circle, 
exercising a little care in pasting the side joints. This process may be repeated as often 
as necessary, but it is to be hoped that the cheese will be sufficiently appreciated to be 
consumed within four meals. 

( !heddab : which takes its name from the village of Cheddar, England, the original 
place of manufacture, is, from the standpoint of quantity consumed, one of the most 
important of all cheeses. It is generally of pale color and agreeable nutty flavor, but 
the title, as now employed, applies to the essential process of manufacture rather than 
to any one type, "Cheddar" being sold in many styles, shapes and sizes. 

All Cheddar is made from sweet milk and a distinctive feature of its manufacture 
is the development of the maximum quantity of acid obtainable in the whey without 
injuring the texture of the cheese — but the milk used may be either whole, partly 
skimmed or skimmed, and the cheeses may be white or colored yellow and may be mar- 
keted mild and fresh or thoroughly ripened. Those of whole milk are known as "full 
im," others as "pari skim" or ''skim." The cylindrical shape is the most popular 
for the large cheeses. 


Cheshire : is made from whole milk. It resembles Cheddar but is of stronger 
flavor. In England, Cheshire cheeses weigh up to as high as 150 or 200 pounds, but in 
this country they range from 20 to 70 pounds, generally in cylindrical shape. From 
eight to ten months is required for ripening. 

Colhommier: a small Brie cheese, five to six inches in diameter and one inch in 
thickness, weighing about one pound. 

Cottage, also called "Dutch Cheese" and "Smier-Kase" : a sour milk cheese ex- 
tensively made and consumed here, sold both in bulk and wrapped in tin-foil. The curd 
is broken up and held at about 100° Fahr. until sufficiently firm, the whey next being 
drained off and the curd placed under moderate pressure for some time. If to be held 
long, it is packed in tubs and placed in cold storage to prevent ripening. For eat- 
ing, it is generally moistened with milk or cream. 

Cottenham: a rich English cheese, in flavor and consistence quite similar to 
Stilton, but flatter and broader in shape. 

Cream : is made in several ways, the two chief varieties of American manufac- 
ture being (1) sweet cream thickened with rennet or by souring, drained and salted; 
and (2) cream curdled with rennet, broken up to allow part of the whey to escape, 
then mixed or worked almost to a paste, molded into pieces weighing two to four 
ounces, wrapped in parchment paper and tin-foil and placed on the market fresh (with- 
out any curing). The second style is manufactured here on a very large scale. 

There are also a number of French Cream and "Double Cream" cheeses, of which 
Xeufchatel and Gervais are the best known examples. 

Devonshire Cream : is, essentially, cooked cream. The cream is allowed to rise 
<»n the milk for several hours, then the milk and cream (still together) are scalded and 
set aside to permit the cream layer to harden. The latter is then put in small molds 
and set on straw mats to drain. It is ready for market without further preparation as 
soon as it is hard enough to retain its shape. 

D'Isigny : a soft, creamy American cheese, bearing a close resemblance to imported 
Brie, but made by a process similar to that for Camembert and put up in Camembert 
shape, though a little larger — about IV2 inches thick and 6 inches across, wrapped in 
paper and weighing about a pound. 

Dorset : resembles Stilton in character and manufacture. It takes its name from 
Dorsetshire, England. 

Double Gloucester. See Gloucester. 

Dunlop : a rich, white and buttery cheese, resembling Cheddar, made in round 
forms of from thirty to sixty pounds. It was formerly the national cheese of Scot- 
land, but has been practically superseded in that country by Cheddar. 

Dutch Cheese : a general name for Edam, Gouda and Cottage Cheese (which see). 

Edam : a highly salted, red, round cannonball cheese, made in Edam, Holland, and 
its vicinity, principally on farms. The curd is pressed in molds— sometimes of metal, 
but usually of wood, cup shaped and round bottomed, with similar shaped tops to com- 
plete the spherical form— going next for a few days to "salting" cups of similar shape. 
In the curing room, the cheeses are placed on shelves with holes in them to prevent 
them rolling off, and are turned and rubbed each day. At the end of a month they 

] I v T II i: G It OC E R 'S E N C V C LO P E \> I A 

are washed, dried and rubbed witb flaxseed oil till they shine and are then ready to be 
loaded into carts— which are generally dragged by dogs to the markel town. 

'|-|i,. |,., | color of the outside skin is obtained by carmine or ;i weak solution of 
litmus and Berlin red. 

The shells of Edam or Pineapple cheese are useful for serving macaroni. Heat 
the shell in a moderate oven and pour in the i cooked i macaroni. If the macaroni is to 
be browned, sel the filled shell in the oven again — this will, however, destroy the shell 
after three or four times. 

Emmenthaleb (commonly called Swiss Cheese, or Sclmeitzer) : a rennet cheese 
made from whole milk, of mild rather sweel flavor and generally distinguished by holes 
or "eyes" of various sizes and frequency. !' was originally made in Emmenthal, Switzer- 
land, and thai country is still a large exporter in spite of the fad thai similar cheese 
is dovi manufactured in nearly every country. The French product is known, both in 
France and by export, as Oruyere. Thai made here is known as "Domestic Swiss." 

The cheeses are often very large — from 60 to 220 pounds each, sometimes in blocks 
about twenty-eighl inches or so long and eighl inches square, but generally circular. 
the larger ranging up to four feel in diameter and six inches in thickness. 

The genuine Emmenthaler, when exported, is never less than four months old. It 
keeps, under favorable conditions, for many years. It should be nutty in taste, and 
rather dry, bu1 tender. The ••hides'" or ■•eyes." though generally characteristic, are 

ma necessary to its quality, for many g I Swiss cheeses are "blind," as dealers 

describe them. 

English Dairy: a very hard cheese, prepared in about the same way as Cheddar, 
luit cooked for a longer time. It is made quite extensively here, principally for culin- 
ary pur] loses. 

GEDORT: a Norwegian cheese, small in si/.e and solid in form, wrapped in foil. 

< }ervais : a French cheese made from a mixture of whole milk and cream. It is very 
lightly cured and is generally consumed fresh. 

Gloucesteb ("single" and "double") : is mild, somewhat buttery and not friable. 
It comes in large, round. Mat forms. "Single Gloucester" is made from milk deprived 
of pari of ils cream. "Double Gloucester" contains all the cream. 

GORGONZOLA: a rich cream cheese, akin to Roquefort and made in a somewhat 
similar manner, but milder in flavor and cheaper, produced in the mountain villages of 
Iialv. The clayey outside surface of the whole cheese is a mixture of gypsum, tallow, 
etc., and is designed to aid in preserving it. Well-made Gorgonzola can be kept in good 
condition for a year or longer. 

GOUDA: a Holland cheese made from whole or partly skimmed milk, coagulated 
with reiinei and colored with saffron. It is pressed in round molds ami weighs from 
ten in forty-five pounds. As marketed, each cheese is contained in a bladder or other 
covering of animal i issue. 

GRATED Cheese: any hard cheese -rated for use with macaroni or other appropri- 
ate dishes. Sec also Parmesan. 

Green Cheese. See Sage Cheese. 

Gruyere: the French make of "Swiss cheese." See Emmenthaler. 



» In. ii i. \ I i i '. ii'im una, 

A part of the golden field ;is seen from :i window in the weigh-honse tower. Bach of the piles 

■ BOO cheeses 

II .IIIIMITi.S, I. , IflHj 

tntains from 

A pair of official porters taking a tray load of cheeses to the weigh house. The picture shows how carefullj 

(he piles are covered until and after the hour of the market 

THE CHEESE MARKET AT ALKMAAR— the most important distributing point in North Holland for the 
round cheeses known in America as " Edam." The market is held every Friday, the cheeses being brought into 
town in great quantities, by boat and wagon, from the dairies of the surrounding districts. Before shipping, they 
are colored red or a brighter yellow, generally the former. 

Hundreds -■: , heea curing in ;. dairj al Haslev, Denmark 

YUlliBT, IlNLLiltt'oOO 4 LM'LaiTOOti, S. 1. 


Kosher: a cheese made especially for Jewish trade. Its manufacture resembles 
that of Limburger, but it is eaten fresh. 

Kosher Gouda : made for Jewish trade and bearing a special stamp for identi- 
fication. It resembles Gouda, but has no bladder covering and is smaller — about 8 
inches in diameter and three inches thick, weighing four to six pounds. 

Limburger: was originated in the town of Limburger, Belgium, but little is im- 
ported nowadays as that of domestic manufacture is fully equal in quality to the Euro- 
pean and is made at a cost of less than half that of the imported article. Literally thou- 
sands of tons of Limburger are now produced here every season — principally in Tin- 
States of New York and Wisconsin and chiefly for consumption by our German- Ameri- 
can population. 

The process of manufacture in its first stages does not differ from the usual method 
of cheese making, except that a lower temperature than for most varieties is kept while 
The curd is forming, the animal heat alone in summer being often high enough. Great 
care is taken to use pure milk, free from taint, and cleanliness is requisite in every stage 
of the making. Upon the curd being formed, it is slowly and carefully cut into square 
pieces the size of dice, careful handling being necessary to avoid breaking Tin- butter 
globules upon which the richness of the cheese depends. It is next slightly scalded 
and stirred, and most of the whey drawn off, then, without being salted, it is dipped 
out in perforated wooden boxes or molds, about five inches square, and left to drain 
without any pressure being applied. In a few hours the packages are carried into 
the curing cellar and placed edgeways on shelves, like bricks set to dry. Every day 
thereafter they are rolled in salt and replaced when they have absorbed enough. They 
are also turned almost every day, and the slimy moisture which exudes is rubbed even- 
ly over the surface, serving the double purpose of keeping the cheese moist and closing 
all cracks in which flies might lay their eggs. This outside moisture decomposes 
while the cheese ripens, and being composed chiefly of albumen, like fresh meats, etc., 
the same results follow its decomposition, and the "Limburger odor" is developed — 
which never forsakes it and sticks closer than a brother to all who touch or eat it. 
After eight or ten weeks it is packed in paper and tin-foil, and is ready for market — 
in consistence, contents and nourishment the richest cheese that can be made. Inn to 
the uninitiated a malicious and premeditated outrage upon the organ of smell! 

Liptau: a Bohemian cheese, made from goat's milk and usually heightened wiTn 
red pepper or other condiments. It generally comes in small tin-foil packages, is rather 
greasy and has a sharp taste. 

Menauta: a rich soft French cheese, imported generally in small round tins. 

Neufchatel: a soft French cream cheese, sold in tin-foil cylinders about three and 
a half inches long and weighing about five or six ounces. 

Parmesan : a hard Italian variety, used in grated form. It is made from skimmed 
milk, and hardened by slow heal I e rennet is add< d to the milk at aboi 
and after about an hour the cur . ilk i 
150°, when the curd separates ' lumps. 

in to produce the desired color a iter, the out< 

the new surface is varnished with linseed oil, one side san 

I 22 T H E G It I I C E B ' S E X C Y C L O P E D 1 A 

cheese is an excellent accompaniment for macaroni and similar pastes and is frequently 
added to soups, etc. 

Pineapple: a bard, highly colored cheese, made'in various sizes and so named be- 
cause the curd is pressed in pineapple shape. The diamond-shaped ridges are caused 
by the cord nets in which the cheese is hung up to cure. It resembles Cheddar in manu- 
facture except thai it is cooked much harder. 

Pont L'EvEque: a soft French cheese, about I 1 - inches square and l 1 /^ inches 

Port du Salut : a French cheese, seven to ten inches in diameter, with firm, tough 
rind but soft homogeneous interior. 

Potted Cheese: a domestic cheese generally made by grinding well ripened cheese 
very fine, mixing it with butter, condiments and brandy or other spirits, etc., and put- 
ting up in small porcelain jars. See also Beandied Cheese. 

Provoli: : a round or oval Italian cheese, weighing from four to six pounds, and 
resembling "Caciocavallo." Smaller cheeses, about two pounds each, are styled Provo- 

ROQUEFORT: a famous cheese, named after the French village of Roquefort, where 
great herds of the sheep that supply the milk are pastured on an immense plain of rich 
velvet-like herbage, which is stringently protected by both law and custom. Remark- 
able care and skill are employed in its manufacture. The herbage is supplemented by 
a diet of prepared food; the water supplied to the herds is whitened with barley flour 
and the yield of milk is stimulated in every possible way, even to beating the udders 
with the hands after milking. 

There are many thousands of these sheep and very picturesque are the milking 
hours, morning and evening, when the army of pail-bearing maidens hurry over the 
fields, each in search of a favorite animal. 

Every morning, in the farmhouse, the milk is skimmed, strained, warmed almost 
lo the boiling point, emptied iuto enormous pans, stirred well with willow sticks, a 
portion of rennet added, and then covered and left to gather into curds — which an 
hour or so afterwards an- cut up into pieces about the size of walnuts. Half a dozen 
other operations follow, then comes the "moldy bread" process, which produces the 
special characteristics of Roquefort. 

The bread used is made of the finest wheat, or of winter barley, leavened with a 
large quantity of brewer's yeast, kneaded to excess and thoroughly baked. The crust 
is removed after standing a day and the crumb is pounded in a mortar and put away in 
a damp place till it is covered with mold. When it is ripe enough, the new cheeses 
are thoroughly rubbed with this moldy bread and layers of it are put between the 
layers of curd so that they may absorb siiil more of the mold. 

After several days' pressing, the cheeses are wrapped in linen and dried, and then 
taken by the shepherd-dairymen to the village and sold to the owners of the vaults or 
caves — natural clefts or artificial excavations in the limestone rocks — hard by the town. 
In these caves, the cheeses are piled up and salted, being frequently rehandled and 
rubbed so thai the sail may thoroughly impregnate them. They are next scraped and 
pricked with long needles so thai the mold may run entirely through them, and then 
they are again piled up and left till they are perfectly dry, in this process developing 
;i long white mold which is scraped off from time to time. 

THE grocer's e x c y c l p e d I a 123 

Very few, even of those who know the cheese well, are acquainted with all the 
pains taken to please their palates. 

The best season in the United States for serving Roquefort is from October to 
May, but if kept in cool cellars it may be enjoyed all the year. It is generally eaten 
in small quantities at the end of a dinner. It is especially delightful if rolled with 
half its bulk of butter, sprinkled liberally with cayenne pepper and spread on toasted 
biscuits. It is also used to fill the hollow parts of stalks of celery, etc. 

Sage Cheese: is made by the Cheddar process and in many shapes and sizes. Its 
distinguishing characteristic is its flavor of sage and its green mottled appearance when 
cut. The color is obtained either by mixing green sage leaves in the curd before press- 
ing, or by the addition to the main curd of "green curd" obtained by the aid of the 
juice of green corn — in the latter case, the sage flavin- being obtained by the use <>f 
sage extract. Parsley, spinach and marigold leaves, bruised and steeped before use, are 
sometimes employed in place of sage leaves. 

Sap Sago Cheese : a small, hard green cheese, flavored with the leaves of a kind of 
clover, made in Switzerland. It is shaped like a truncated cone — four inches high, 
three inches across at the base and two inches at top. It is chiefly used for grating. 

Smiee-Kase. See Cottage Cheese. 

Stilton : manufactured in Leicestershire, England, and the richest and finest of 
English cheeses. It is of a pale color, with veins generally marked by green, or bluish- 
green, fungus. It is made of raw whole milk to which cream from other milk has been 
added. It is greatly improved by age, and, to be enjoyed at its best, should not be 
eaten before it is two years old. A spurious appearance of age is often given it by 
placing it in a warm damp cellar, or by surrounding it by fermenting dung or straw. 

Stilton cheeses are generally twice as high as they are broad, with surfaces brown 
and crinkled and weighing from twelve to fifteen pounds. 

Ripened Stilton cheese is also sold finely ground and put up in jars holding from 
one to two and a half pounds. 

Swiss Cheese or Schweitzer Kase: as understood in this country, is another 
name for "Emmenthaler" (which see) or "Gruyere." In Switzerland, the original 
place of manufacture, it indicates a minor grade, being made of half-skimmed milk 
instead of the full cream milk of Emmenthaler. 

Troves: is the name of two varieties of cheese — one known also as "Ervy," a 
washed cheese with a yellow rind; and the other called "Barberey" and closely 
resembling Camembert. 

Vacherix. "Vacherin a la main." is a very soft cheese — the rind is hard, but the 
interior is spread on bread or eaten with a spoon. "Vacherin fondu" is made in about 
the same way as Emmenthaler. but the cheese after ripening is melted and spiced. 

WESTPHALIAN: comes in small balls or rolls of about one pound each. It derives 
its peculiar flavor from the curd being allowed to become partly putrid before being 

Westphalia Soub Milk: a hard sour-milk cheese, flavored by the addition of 
butter and caraway seed or pepper. 

Wiltshire: resembles poor Cheshire or Gloucester. The outside is geneally 
painted with a mixture of reddle, or red-ocher and whey. 


mm: grocer's ENCYCLOPEDIA 



a < 

ake or open pie with curd or cheese as the principal "filling" 

CHEESE SAFE: a wire cover framed in w 1 and hinged in the center. It excludes 

Hies and mice and yet admits air. It does not exclude the "tasting customer" and a 
burglar-proof sale is our of the greatest needs of the trade ! 

CHERIMOYA: the fruit of a tree cultivated in Mexico, Central America and parts 
of South America, especially Peru. It varies from the size of an average apple up to a 
weight of til teen pounds. The pulp is white, juicy and of exceedingly fine flavor. 

h is probable that the Oherimoya will in the near future become very popular as 
with scientific culture there seems to be no limit to the excellence it may reach and, 
ciii when fully developed bu1 not ripe, it slands transportation well. With only very 
ordinary and careless methods, the tree averages annually a crop of a hundred or more 
fruits which are so delicious thai I hey retail in Mexico at from three to eight (Ameri- 
can i cents each. 

CHERRY: a fruit which is believed to have originated in Persia. In this country, it 
is most popular raw, canned and otherwise preserved, and put up in liqueurs (as 
Cherries in Maraschino and Brandied cherries]. II is also stoned and dried, becoming 
i hen i he "pitted" cherry of commerce and is the source or essential ingredient of various 
liqueurs, etc. — notably Maraschino and Kirschwasser. 

The variety most esteemed as a des- 
sert fruit and for canning, is the Wax 
Cherry, of light color with rosy cheeks, 
named for its beautiful waxy appearance. 
For ] mri loses ,,r distillation, preference is 
given to the wild cherry, which is smaller 
and less fleshy than the cultivated, but 
in the best types is very sweet and often 
decidedly aromatic, the most noted being 
the black .Mara sea cherry, of Dalmatia. 
In the 1'iirest regions of France, the 
wild cherry is an important item of the 
local food supply, large quantities being 
consumed fresh during the ripening sea- 
son and the balance of the harvest being 
dried for winter use, in jams, etc., and in 
the form of Cherry Soup — which consists 
substantially of bread and water with a 
little butter and dried cherries for flavor. 
In the valley of the Rhine, the schools 
often <dose when the cherry crop is ripe, 
so that both children and parents may 
gather the luscious harvest. 

In this country, California and Ore- 
gon are constantly increasing their pro- 
duction as the dry climate of the orchard 

Picking the Cherries on 




regions of those states permits the fruit to reach there its very highest perfection. 
Recorded evidence does not go back far enough to say when wild cherries first became 
an object of the gardener's care. The early Romans were familiar with eight varieties 
and quantities of cherry stones have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland. 

CHERVIL: a highly esteemed garden herb grown in all temperate climates and very 

popular in the South. It is similar to parsley, the Curled being even handsomer. 

Chervil Bilbur, or Turnip-Rooted Chervil, is a French variety gmwn for its roots, 
which resemble the Parsnip in shape and color. It is a very desirable vegetable, the 
flesh being sweet and delicate in flavor and almost floury in texture. 

CHESHIRE: a cheese akin to Cheddar. See general article on < Iheese. 

CHESTNUT (See Color Page II of Nuts) : the fruit of a tree which is found in sev- 
eral varieties in different parts of the world. The name is derived from that of the town 
of Kastana in Asia Minor, which is also more or less closely preserved in several other 
languages — as the French "Ghataigne" and the German "Kastanien." The nuts grow 
inside a prickly husk, generally two in each husk, ripening with the first frost. 

The American chestnut is usually smaller, but generally sweeter, than the Spanish. 
The Chincapin is a very small dwarf variety of the American. The Japanese averages 
larger than the American and in sweetness may be generally classed between it and 
the Spanish. 

In this country, chestnuts are eaten in various forms — raw, boiled, steamed and 
roasted. They are very nutritious, the dried nuts containing an appreciable quantity 
of protein, fat and sugar to supplement the starch which is their chief component. 
The sugar content frequently readies as high as 15%, the. fermentation of the juice 
yielding a fine granular sugar. They should though be well roasted or boiled for a 
long time, as raw they are exceedingly indigestible. See also Mabboxs. 

In some moun- 
tainous districts of 
Europe where cere- 
als cannot be raised, 
the chestnut takes 
the place of grain 
to a considerable 
extent. The chest- 
nut harvest is the 
event of the year on 
the slopes of the 
Apennines and Py- 
renees — the gather- 
ing of the nuts be- 
ing for three or 
four weeks the lead- 
ing occupation of 
every mountain vil- 
lage. When all the 

trees have been Chestnut Burrs bursting 

128 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

snipped, the fruit is spread cm frames of lattice-work and dried by keeping a fire 
burning underneath. It is then steamed, roasted, made into pudding — tbe original 
"Polenta"— or ground into flour for bread making. 

In some parts of Italy t he peasants use a cake made of cbestnuts as a substitute 
for potatoes. 

CHEWING GUM. The original "chewing gum" was spruce gum, tbe exudation of tbe 
eui branches of the spruce or fir tree. Later, pure white paraffin wax, variously flavored, 
look its place — but only in its turn to give way to the "chicle" now almost exclusively 
employed. Chicle is a gum which is obtained from a tropical tree botanically known 
as the achras sapota, a member of tbe family which gives tbe Sapodilla fruit (see Sapo- 
DILLA), and variously called tbe Naseberry and Sapodilla, growing most freely in 
Mexico, Central America and parts of northern South America. 

Though its employment in the manufacture of chewing gum is of comparatively 
recent dale, chicle was used by the Indians prior to the days of Columbus as a means 
of quenching their thirst. It was first commercially impoi'ted as a substitute for 
rubber, but its peculiar suitability for chewing gum has resulted in the entire product 
being consumed by that industry. In the year ending June 30, 1910, nearly five and 
one-half million pounds were brought into tbe United States. 

The trees are "tapped" during the rainy season. The sap or juice as it exudes 
has tbe appearance of milk, gradually changing to a yellow color and about tbe thick- 
ness of treacle. The tree drains rapidly, the full supply of "milk" being generally 
obtained within a few hours, but an interval of several years usually elapses before it 
will yield a fresh supply. Tbe milk differs from the juice obtained from the sugar 
maple, for example, in that it is not tbe life sap of tbe tree and the flow varies greatly, 
some trees which show full life yielding much less than apparently poorer speci- 
mens. "Crude chicle" is obtained by simple boiling and evaporation of tbe milk 
accompanied by frequent kneading, the product as pressed in rough molds being of a 
light gray color. 

The bulk of the crude chicle manufactured is shipped in blocks to Canada, where 
it is further evaporated and carefully refined prior to importation into the United 

In the chewing gum factory, the refined chicle is chopped or ground fine, screened 
and boiled to the right consistence in steam-jacketed kettles. The flavoring and sugar 
are then added and the whole is transferred to large centrifugal receivers in which it is 
whipped and kneaded into a dough. It goes next to the kneading tables where it is 
thoroughly "worked" with powdered sugar and then passed between rollers set with 
numerous small knives which roll it into sheets and cut it into marketable size. After a 
final drying, the pieces are ready for wrapping — generally performed by machinery, a 
single modern wrapping machine being capable of turning out an average of 20,000 
pacWges a day. 

It is estimated that chewing gum to a value of $40,000,000 was used iu the United 
Slates during the year ending June 30, 1010, and present indications are that it will 
before long have attained almost equal popularity in Europe. 

Some manufacturers of patent medicines are now successfully combining digestive 
ami antiseptic ingredients with chewing gum. 

CHICK PEA: the "pulse" of the Orient. See Garbanza. 

1— Barred Plymouth Rock 
4 — Silver Wyandotte 
T— White Leghorn 
10 — Silver Spangled Hamburg 


2— Black Minorca 
5— White Wyandotte 
8 — Butl Cochin 
11— White Langshan 

a— White Plymouth Kock 
»— Light Brahma 
9 — White Orpington 
12— Black Houdan 

i:;n tiii; grocer's encyclopedia 

CHICKEN. The word "chicken" formerly meant "young fowl," but usage has applied 
ii i,, fowls of nil ages, the young birds being designated as "spring chickens," 
"broilers," etc. 

The fowl lias been reared for food for so many centuries that its first conversion 

IV its wild ancestors is lust in tradition. Poultry raising has been practiced in 

Europe from the earliest recorded times, and domestic fowl were plentiful in Great 
Britain long before the Roman invasion. 

The best known types of chickens especially suitable for table purposes are the 
many varieties of the Brahma (very large birds), Cochin, Langshan, Dorking, Orp- 
in-ton. Plymouth Rock, Wyandotte and Houdan. Representative examples of all of 
these, except the Dorking, are shown on the page illustration preceding. Attention is 
also directed to the consideration of fowls from the standpoint of egg production in 
the ar1 icle on Eggs. 

To the general rules tor selection given in the article on Poultry (which see) may 
he added that, thick scales on the legs, thin necks and dark colored thighs are signs 
of toughness in chickens. A good table bird should have a large full breast and, at other 
points also, a large proportion of meat to the size of the bones — long thin legs and wings 
are especially undesirable. 

.Many heated controversies have been held over the question as to whether drawn 
ot- undrawB poultry keeps better. The advocates of the "undrawn" method appear 
to have the best arguments on their side. 

Chickens should be starved for at least twenty-four hours before killing. Those 
that have been killed with partially filled crops should be avoided, as' the disintegra- 
tion of the -rain quickly discolors the flesh. In common witli all other meats, chickens 
should he thoroughly cooled lor a couple of days before cooking. 

Dry-picked chickens will keep longer than scalded birds. The plucking should be 
performed immediately after killing. 

Capons are considered a little choicer — more tender and of higher flavor — than 
ordinary fowl. They can he distinguished by the pale and shriveled appearance of the 
combs) the undeveloped condition of the spurs and especially round well-fleshed bodies. 

Poulards, or Spayed hens, are in France considered particularly delicate also, but 
in this country they are not rated as much, if any, better than first-class pullets. 

Milk-fed Chickens are those fattened for market chiefly on milk-soaked bread. 
Properly regulated, the diet gives birds with very delicate flesh. 

A "Squab Chicken" should average : \'i pound to 1V1 pounds in weight; a "broiler" 
1 ' - to 2; one to "sauter," about 2% pounds; for "roasting" 3 pounds or so; and for 
fricassee, 1 pounds. 

The meat of well fattened chicken of young and medium age has about the same 
nutritive value as beef, but it is generally considered easier of digestion and therefore 
especially suitable for invalids and convalescents. 

American custom generally discards as refuse various parts of the bird which are 
considered of value in some other countries. The head of the chicken, for example, is 
in Europe often left on the bird when it is cooked, as the brain is considered a tit-bit; 
cocks' combs are everywhere recognized by French cooks as a delicacy worthy of prepa- 
ration as a separate dish or especially desirable for garnishing; and the feet, skinned 
and dressed, are used for making broths, etc. 

CHICKEN HALIBUT: a term generally applied to young Halibut (which see). 



CHICORY. There are two main varieties of the Chicory family under general culti- 
vation — Cichorium Intybus, native to Europe and Gichorium Endivia (see Endive), 
native to the East Indies. 

"Cichorium Intybus" is broadly divided into "Large-rooted Chicory," of which 
the two best known types are the Brunswick and Magdeburg, and "Common Chicory." 

Large-rooted Chicory is cultivated chiefly for the sake of its root, which attains a 
length of ten to fourteen inches and a diameter of about two inches and produces the 
"chicory" consumed in large quantities as an addition to coffee (which see). It is 
kiln-dried, sliced, roasted with a little oil and ground into different sizes, from pieces 
the size of a coffee bean down to "fine pulverized." When raw it is white and fleshy in 
appearance, but when roasted it resembles roasted coffee. Unlike coffee, it contains 
no caffeine, but it has a bitter principle and a volatile oil and the roasting brings out an 

Roasted chicory is highly absorbent of moisture, and should therefore be always 
kept in closed bottles or canisters, etc. 

Chicory root is also used in Europe as 
a vegetable and the young blanched 
shoots, forced in dark cellars, principally 
in winter, are the Barbe de Capucin, 
"Monk's Beard," of the famous French 
salad of that name. A similar, though 
not quite so delicate, product is obtained 
by similar treatment of Common Chicory. 
For Witloof Chicory see Endive. 

Common Chicory is the salad plant, 
grown for the young plant's narrow curly 
leaves, which are generally partly or 
wholly blanched in cultivation. It is also 
cooked sometimes as "greens." The title 
"Succory" is a corruption of "chicory." common ciucorj 

CHILI, or Chilies: the Mexican, and quite generally the popular, name for the pods 
of several species of small-fruited, specially pungent capsicums (which see), put up as 
a separate pickle or added to "mixed pickles," etc. They are hugely consumed in hot 
countries. The two Mexican dishes containing them which arc besl known here are 
chili con came and the chicken tamale. The word is also used as a group name for 
many articles highly seasoned either with whole capsicums or cayenne pepper, etc. 

CHILI COLORADO SAUCE: a bottled sauce made of Mexican sweet red pepper 
pods finely minced iu a vinegar pickle. 

CHILI SAUCE: a bottled sauce made of peppers (green or red), ripe tomatoes, sea- 
soning, etc. 

CHILIAN MYRTLE: one of the best varieties of the Myrtle i which see i 



CHINCAPIN or Dwarf Chestnut: a low tree, bearing fruit the size of a hazel nut. 
A number of species are native to the East. It does no1 grow south of Maryland. See 

CHINESE FIG: one of many titles for the Japanese Persimmon (see Persimmon). 
CHIPPED BEEF: a term applied to thin-sliced Dried Beef (which see). 
CHITTERLINGS: sausages made of pig intestines (see Sausages). 

CHIVES, or Cives: a plant of the onion 
family, cultivated principally for its leaves, 
which grow in thick tufts resembling grass 
in appearance but hollow like onion leaves. It 
is a good substitute for onions, especially in 
soups and stews. 

CHLOROPHYLL: Hh- natural pigment 
which imparts the green color to leaves ami 
plants and enables them to obtain nourishment 
by converting to their use the chemical com- 
ponents of the soil. Plants not endowed with 
Chlorophyll are unable to nourish themselves 
and must feed on vegetables or animal matter 
(see Fungi). 

Chlorophyll is commercially used to give 
a green tint to oils. etc. 

CHOCOLATE. See Cocoa and Chocolate. 

f^sfe ' 



A tuft of Chives 

CHOP: as applied to tea, etc., signifies either the grade — "first chop" then signifying 
"first quality" — or a special brand or lot. The word originally signified a Chinese 
custom-house pass or mark. 

CHOP SUEY: a thick stew typical of the Chinese restaurant in the United States. 
The ingredients vary greatly in different establishments, among the many possibilities 
being chicken trimmings, other meats of any kind, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, rice, etc. 

CHOW-CHOW: a mixture of pickles of various sorts in mustard. Also, and origi- 
nally, a Chinese sweetmeat consisting of pieces of orange-peel, ginger, etc., in syrup. 

CHOWDER: a dish composed of fish, pork, onions, biscuit, etc.. stewed together, popu- 
lar in all parts of the country, but especially appreciated on the New England coast, 
where "clam chowder" and "fish chowder" parties are very common. In New England, 
cider is sometimes added to the slew. The name comes from the coast of France, where 
the Chaudiere is a large cauldron in which the fisherfolk cook a very similar mixture of 
fish. Chowder is now sold canned. 


CHUFAS, Earth Almonds, Rush Nuts: the tuberous roots, about the size of beans, 
of a sedge common to Southern Europe. They rank high in nutrient qualities, and 
are equally acceptable fresh and dried. 

CHUTNEY: a pickle originally made in India, that country still being the source of 
a number of the finest grades. It is generally based on mangoes with the addition of 
many other items, such as tamarinds, raisins, ginger, spices, etc. The formula varies 
greatly with different manufacturers. The Ceylon product is frequently flavored with 
garlic. Domestic products include Apple Chutney and similar types. 


CIBOL: another name for the Welsh Onion (which see). 

CIDER: is the juice of apples, both fermented and unfermented. "Sweet Cider - ' may 
be either unfermented or with fermentation checked at an early stage so as to leave- 
unchanged a considerable amount of the sugar in the juice. "Hard Cider" is that in 
which fermentation has continued until all the sugar has been changed into alcohol 
(and carbon-dioxide) and is consequently sour to the taste. Unfermented cider is fre- 
quently styled "apple juice" to distinguish it from fermented "sweet cider." 

Cider is obtained by chopping and grinding apples to a pulp, and then pressing in 
a mill. A dark liquid is obtained which, unless sterilized for "apple juice," will at once 
begin to ferment and in a few days become the liquid known to commerce as fermented 
"sweet cider." Great care is again necessary to preserve it in that condition or it quickly 
develops into "hard cider." 

Fermented sweet cider contains from 4% to 8% alcohol and also malic and acetic 
acids, sugar salts and extractives. Among the most popular, are clarified types such 
as Champagne Cider, Sparkling Cider and similar imitations of Champagne, generally 
put up in champagne bottles, with the corks wired down and covered with tin-foil. It 
should be stored in a cool place, and it greatly improves with age. 

Bulk Cider should be kept especially cool, as otherwise it is apt to sour after 
being tapped. At a temperature of about 75° Fahr., it will gradually become vinegar. 

If the head of a cask is swollen by pressure from within, a hole should be bored in 
it to relieve the pressure and prevent leakage. 

Cider for bottling should be of good quality, sound and piquant, and at least 
twelve months old. Before bottling, it should be examined to see if it is clear and spark- 
ling. If not, it should be clarified (see Clarification) and left for a fortnight. The 
bung should be taken out of the cask the night before the bottling day, and the filled 
bottles should be held a day before being corked down— these precautions are necessary 
to save the bottles from being burst by pressure. Only the best corks should be used. 

When cider is wanted for immediate use, or for consumption during the cooler 
portion of the year, the bottles may be corked within two or three hours after being 
filled, but in summer, or for long keeping, this practice is inadmissible. 

To keep new cider from fermentation, powdered wood charcoal in the ratio of a 
pint to a barrel is recommended. Place in a cotton bag and suspend in the barrel. 

A small quantity of cider is annually imported, chiefly from Spain and Germany. 

CIDER VINEGAR. See general article on Vinegar. 

"C. I. F.": signifies charges or allowances for Cost, Insurance and Freight. 



CIGARS. A cigar department, if properly managed, generally pays good profits to 
the grocer. Tobacco in every form has always been sold by grocers in the smaller 
towns- and there is no good reason why cigars at all events should not take their place 
among other staples in the larger cities also. The purchase of cigars is not a general 
household expense, but it often falls to the lot. of the housekeeper to supply them, and 
ii is a convenience to her to be able to buy in a store to which she is accustomed and 
in which she feds confidence. 

Further, a clean, up-to-date grocery store selling a good class of wines and liquors 
and a good line of cigars, quickly attracts a very profitable trade from the men them- 
selves. First one and then another will drop in to order some wine or some spirits 
sent "up in i lie house" and if the cigar case is attractive, a purchase follows almost as 
a matter of course. I'roper treatment and first-class goods will mean keeping a large 
proportion of them as steady customers. 

To retain men's trade for the cigar department, a grocer must, however, give it even 
more careful at lent ion than if he were a cigar dealer exclusively. A man getting a 
bad cigar at a regular dealer's, may attribute it to chance or even to himself as be- 
in- off taste — but if he has purchased it from his grocer, he is immediately confirmed 
in his previous general impression that you "can't expect to get a good cigar in a 
grocery store." Eternal vigilance is decidedly the requirement for obtaining and keep- 
ing this line of custom — but it is worth it! 

The merchani adding this line for the first time will do well to avoid the rather 
general error of putting in too large a stock. The result is liable to be that cigars 
are held in the show case longer than is good for them, with a consequent loss either of 
money invested or of your reputation as a purveyor of good cigars! A small stock of 
a tew well-selected lines of moderate price is the best plan. Cigars improve with age 
to a certain point in especially equipped establishments — but not in the average 
retailer's store. 

The next essential is to see that the cigars are kept in good condition. The 
method depends upon circumstances and localities. In summer, for example, the prob- 
lem in coast towns is to keep them from becoming too moist — whereas in inland states 
it is to preveni them from drying out. 

A Havana Cigar Factory 



Tutting the bands on Cigars 

In winter, with artificial heat, artificial moisture is essential nearly everywhere. 
An open pan of water in the case, with rolls of blotting paper reaching to the top of the 
case, will answer the purpose if you do not possess one of the several styles of cigar 

Too much moisture — keeping cigars in a damp place — is as bad as drying them 
out, for even the best varieties will become heavy, soggy and rank-flavored. 

They must also be kept away from any articles of strong odor, such as cheese, 
fish, spices, coffee, tea, etc. — and place fine cigars in a separate case, as contact with 
coarser grades will tend to spoil their flavor. 

The principal divisions of cigars are into (1) those imported from Cuba, (2) 
clear Havana cigars manufactured in a climate as nearly as possible like that of Cuba 
i as Key West, Tampa, etc. i. and (3) domestic. To these may be added a growing 
demand for the Porto Rico and Philippine products. 

For commercial purposes, cigars arc again divided into three grades of tobacco 
— dark, medium and light — these including forty or fifty shades grouped under the 
-■•veil following subheadings: — 

Oscuro, very dark. 

Maduro, dark. 

Colorado maduro, dark brown. 

Colorado, medium dark brown. 

Colorado claro, light brown. 

Claro, very light colored. 

Double daro, or amarillo, lightest of all (this grade seldom seen). 

A light-colored wrapper does not necessarily signify a specially ••mild" cigar. It is 
the "filler" which determines the strength— and both light and dark tobacco is liable to 
be bitter and strong if it has not been properly ripened and cured. 

There is practically no limit to the number of sizes or in winch cigars are 
made, as any manufacturer may Icing out as many styles as he pleases and name them 
to suit his own particular fancy. The prevalence of Spanish names and terms is due 
to the fact that for many generations all the best cigars were manufactured iu and 
exported from Cuba and other Spanish-speaking countries. 

It is impossible to give any fixed set of rules for judging the quality and value of 
cigars and tobacco. The best and only conclusive test— that used by manufacturers 



themselves- -is smoking one or two samples to ascertain the virtues or defects of 
any particular variety. Consequently, unless a merchant is personally a critical smoker 

and a g I judge of cigars, he can be guided only by the reputation of the importer, 

manufacturer or jobber, and the comments of his customers. The safest plan is to 
confine orders to houses of long-established and irreproachable reputation. Many a 
promising cigar department has dwindled to an iguominous finish in the effort to make 
bigger profits by purchases of cigars "just as good and $10.00 a thousand cheaper" 
from plausible manufacturers of the opposite type. 

The merits of color, size and shape as a "selling" proposition must be gauged by 
the popular and individual tastes of consumers. 

(See also article on TOBACCO.) 

CINNAMON ( See Color Page of Spices) : is the spicy bark of young branches of the 
Cinnamon Tree, cut off in strips and dried in the sun, curling during the process into 
the quills with which the consumer is familiar. Ceylon Cinnamon is obtained from 
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, native to Ceylon but also cultivated to some extent in the 
Eas1 Indies. Cassia Cinnamon is from Cinnamomum Cassia, the chief East Indian and 
Chinese type. Both kinds are sold both in quills and ground, their fragrant aromatic 
flavor making them a popular adjunct in cookery, confectionery, etc. 

Ceylon Cinnamon is the variety referred to in the general article on Spices as, in 
earlier days, a commodity of great value and the cause of many wars and 
much bloodshed. It was first carried to the world's markets by Arabs, who 
kept its source a close secret for a number of centuries and contrived to discourage 
possible investigators by stories of fabu- 
lous monsters inhabiting the country 
from which they were supposed to obtain 
it. That the tree grew wild in Ceylon, was 
not generally known until the 14th cen- 
tury, in spite of the fact that the spice 
had been continuously in use since the 
early days of Israel, Greece and Rome. 

Ceylon Cinnamon is of a pale yel 
Lowish-brown color and generally of 
lighter, cleaner and smoother appearance 
than Cassia. The quills (the smaller en- 
closed in the larger) are also usually 
thinner and more tightly rolled, but these 
distinctions are not absolute, as there are 
many different grades of Cassia. 

Cassia Cinnamon was until recent 
years decried as an inferior imitation, 
principally because the greater part of 
the supply consisted of the inferior and 
poorly prepared China product. It has 
however just as good botanical title to 
the general name of "Cinnamon" as the 
Ceylon type, and. as the result of the fine 
quality now exported from French 

A pile of peeled Cinnamon sticks, Ceylon 


Cochin-China and the Dutch East Indies, it is to-day given the preference in the 
United States and in several European countries, because its flavor is more pronounced 
and more lasting — the Ceylon is milder and so much more volatile that it loses readily 
on exposure to the air. The demand for Ceylon Cinnamon has indeed so lessened that 
commercial interests are urging the cultivation of Cassia in Ceylon in order to main- 
tain the island's position in the trade. In analytical circles the Ceylon variety is still 
conservatively described as "True Cinnamon" instead of by the commercial term "Cey- 
lon Cinnamon." 

The lower grades of Cassia are cheaper than any of the Ceylon generally mar- 
keted, but the best qualities are more expensive. The four main grades are those 
known as Saigon, or Saigan, from French Cochin-China (the choicest) : Corintje and 
Batairia of the Dutch East Indies, and China (the cheapest). Saigon Cassia is 
generally used for blending with lower grades. 

CISCO: a small lake fish resembling in size and appearance 
the fresh-water herring. In some localities it is known as 


CITRANGE: a new member of the citrus family (which includes oranges, grape fruit, 
lemons, etc.), produced by cultivation. It resembles an orange in general character- 
istics but is more tart in flavor. It is also described as a "hardy orange," because the 
trees which bear it can withstand lower temperature than the ordinary orange tree. 
The fruit is used for making summer beverages, for cooking, etc. 

CITRIC ACID: is obtained chiefly from lemons and other citrus fruits but is present 
in a majority of acidulous fruits such as currants, cranberries, etc. 

CITRON: a fruit which is cultivated chiefly for its thick, spongy rind, which in can- 
died form — then thick, tender and of delicious flavor — is popular for use in cakes, pre- 
serves, etc. It is also employed in the making of fruit syrups, liqueurs, etc. There 
are many varieties of the fruit, which is generally warty and furrowed in appearance, 
with pulp similar in flavor to that of a lemon but less acid, in the largest types attain- 
ing to a length of nine inches and weighing up to twenty pounds. It grows freely in 
sub-tropical climates but is seldom seen by the average consumer in its fresh condition. 
A small quantity is produced in California but the bulk of the supply is imported. 

The variety known as Leghorn Citron romes from Corsica and Sardinia, where tin 
fruit is cut up, harreled in salt pickle and shipped to Leghorn. After remaining for a 
month or more in the pickle, the rind, freed of seeds, etc., is boiled until tender and 
then set to soak in slightly sweetened water in order to extract some of the salt. The 
following day it is removed to a second solution and the next day to another, the pro- 
cess being repeated for a week or more, each new solution being a little sweeter than 
that preceding. The rind is finally boiled for a short time in heavy syrup and thence 
goes to racks in a heated room to dry and crystallize. The following day it is ready 
for packing, being put up in various styles for different markets. 

The unripe fruit of the ungrafted citron tree is the "Citron of the Law" used by 
many Jewish communities in the ceremonies during the Feast of the Tabernacles. 

CITRON MELON: used for preserving. See article on Melons. 


T Hi: GROO K R ' S E X C Y C L P E D I A 

CITRUS: a genus of plants which produce a great number of useful fruits. Citrus 
lurantium is the family name for the trees which give us sweet oranges; Citrus Biga- 
radia is the bitter or Seville orange; Citrus Limonum, the lemon; ('Unix TAmetta, the 
lime; ('Unix Wedica, the citron; ('Unix Paradisi, the grape fruil ; and ('Unix Japonica, 
the kumquat. 

CLAM: iIh' niosl common American shellfish, eaten fresh in enormous quantities and 

also extensively consumed in canned form, especially in the West, lis great popularity 

has resulted in a demand thai has in 

some sections exceeded even the bountiful 

natural supply, and many of those who 

make a business of supplying the market 

have turned to "clam farming" on the 

tidal mud tlats. 

The Jin nl ('linn — called "quohaug" 

in some parts of the Hast and "]> -quaw" 

in Nantucket — is the variety generally 

offered in city markets. The small or 

young clam is the more tender and in 

most demand Tor eating raw. the larger 

(dams being generally used for soups, 

chowders, etc. Where quality is paramount, the hard part of the large clam is often 

cut off and discarded. 

Hard ( 'lams are also generally known 
as "Little Neck" (lams in contrast to the 
Soft Clam, which has a long distendible 

Soft Clams, also called "Soft Shell 
Clams." have shells which are thinner, 
flatter and less round in shape. They are 
used in a similar diversity of ways — on 
the shell, broiled, fried, stewed, steamed, 
etc. Small, inferior grades are strung on 
cords and sold at a low price by the 
"bunch'' for soups, etc. 

The eastern supply of clams comes 
from Long Island and the New England 

i 'WmWIMi '-: 


■ 7"~. .r. 

{ s^., : 


il.,',l,|. ,1 ill Hm iniul 


'it. ir 

a- --'■■*- 


Digging Clams ;il lm\ tide 

CLAM BOUILLON, or Clam Broth: an excellent article when put up by reliable 
linns. Drunk hot, it is a good remedy in many cases of indigestion. 

CLAM CHOWDER: a stew of (dams and various other items. See Chowder. 

CLARET. What we call "claret" is known in France as Vin de Bordeaux, "(Red) Bor- 
deaux wine." sub-divided by the names of cantons or communes, as "St. Julien," etc. 
The term "claret," an Anglo-Saxon name originally applied only to red Bordeaux wines, 
is a corruption of clairet, a French word applied in France to any light pale wine 

Ton£ln£ for Hard Gams 

Dl££ln£ Soft Clams 



and also to various infusions of aromatic plants with wine, honey or sugar, etc. 

In France, the term "Bordeaux wine'' is applied generally to that produced through- 
out the entire southwest, but the best comes from the Department of the Gironde, of 
which the city of Bordeaux is the capital, and of the Gironde wines a large majority 
of the finest red types, are from the Medoc section, which includes the communes of 
Arsac. Cantenac, Labarde, Ludon, Macau, Margaux, Pauillac, Pessac, St. Estephe, 
St. Julien et Beychevelle and many others of note. Less in quantity, but almost 
equally famous, are the red wines from the vicinity of St. Emilion. 

Bed Bordeaux wine, or Claret, is famous both for its bouquet and as a table bever- 
age generally acceptable even to the poorest digestion. Its tonic effect is attributed to 
the characteristic combination of tannin with a certain low percentage of alcohol. It 
varies greatly in price according to the special vintage, etc., but its general useful- 
ness is enhanced by the fact that, though the fine bouquet of the expensive types is nol 
found in the cheaper grades, the food value of all grades is practically the same — the 
composition shown by analysis varies matter what price is paid. 

Clarets are broadly classified as "Chat3au," "Bourgeois" and "Ordinary" or "com- 
mon." Chateau, are those bearing the name of the chateau or estate on which they were 
produced. Bourgeois, represent the great bulk of medium grade wines and are gener- 
ally named according to the district of production. "Ordinary" or "common," are those 
made by peasant growers, etc. The last-named are seldom exported. 

The best Chateau wmes, the This classes, the total product of which is small in 
comparison with the great bulk of Bordeaux wine, are divided into the five represen 
live "crus" — classes or "growths" — given below. No formal revision of this elassi 
fication has been made for many years, but it is still essentially correct, in spite of 
inaccuracies in the nomenclature of a few of the Chateaux of the second to fifth crus. 




1', ixai- 

Chateau Margaux 

Chateau Brane-Cantenac 

Cos d'Estournel St. Estephe 

riucru-Beaucaillou St. Julien 
iGruaud) Larose 





eau Cantenac Brown Cant 

Giscours Labarde 

La Lagune Ludon 

Becker J/"-' 


Calon-Segur St. I 

Langora St. Julii n 


Chateau Poujet . Cantenac 


Marquis de Terme Itargaux 
Duhart-Milon Pauillac 

Rochet St. EsUphe 

Beychevelle St. 


fiit'RTH CRU— Cont'd. 


Chateau Saint-Pi< St. Jutien 

Latour Carnet St. Laurent 


Chateau Pu Tertre Irsac 

Dauzac Laltardt 

Cantemerle Macau 

Batailley Pom 

Grand I'liy 
Haut B 
Mouton-d' Armailhacq " 
i 'os-Labory St. E 

Belgravi St. 1 


Cachet 'In Chateau wines are those bottled on the Chateau or estate and bearing 
its crest or trade-mark. Other exported Chateau wines are generally matured and 
bottled by wine merchants, many of them of long standing and international reputation. 

Some Cachet du Chateau wines command very high prices, but it must be re- 
membered that though the chateau bottling guarantees the genuineness of a wine, it 
-loes not necessarily vouch for its being of high value, as its merit depends upon the 
qualitv of the vear's vintage. A Chateau claret of an especially sj 1 year is often a 

142 the grocer's b ncyclopedia 

°rea1 deal more expensive than the same Chateau's production of the year before or 


Also, some of the finesl wines are those matured and bottled by high class wine mer- 
chants, who buy largely in bulk when a vintage — either or both Chateau or Bourgeois 

j, r ises to be desirable. In such cases, the reputation of the wine merchant takes 

tbe place of that of the Chateau as a guarantee of its quality. 

The high repute of the fine Chateau types is due to the extreme care exercised at 
every stage — in the selection of the vines and their cultivation, as well as in the mak- 
ing and maturing of the wine itself. 

Bourgeois wines are generally divided into "first," "second" and "third" grade. 
The types licst known here are the various grades of Medoc, St. Julien, St. Emilion, 
St. Estephe, Margaux and Pontet Canet. 

To understand the wide variation in price of clarets bearing the same general name, 
it is only necessary to remember that French claret titles are chiefly geographical and 
that, quite naturally, many grades may be found in the same locality. For example, 
one of the cheapest grades of French clarets imported is generally known here as "Me- 
doc" — and correctly so if the wine comes from the Medoc section — but, as noted in the 
second paragraph, the same section produces also nearly all the very finest French 
clarets — those of the first "cru" or grade being in France specifically known as Vin 
du Medoc, or "Medoc wine." Similarly, a St. Julien may be a moderate-priced wine 
bearing only the name of a district, or an expensive one with a Chateau title. In 
addition, is the variation from year to year in the quality of the wine produced. 

The purchaser who is not a connoisseur is consequently guided either by the 
reputation of the firm selling or by that of the Chateau, if buying Chateau-bottled wine. 

Fine clarets will keep and improve for about fifteen years or a little longer. After 
that, they generally deteriorate very rapidly. They should never be used immediately 
after delivery, as they require at least two weeks to settle and become clear. They 
should, like Burgundy, be drunk at the temperature of the average dining room. 

The best grades will contain about half a wine-glass of thick wine and sediment in 
each bottle, and care must be exercised to avoid mixing this up when carrying from 
i he cellar anil when pouring into the glass or decanter, or the wine will appear dull 
and have a rough, bitter taste. See general article on Wines {decanting, etc.). 

The lower priced clarets form an especially refreshing summer drink, served either 
undiluted or liberally mixed with water. 

America produces a large quantity of excellent wine of Claret type, variously 
labelled according to the fancies of the makers. Some varieties masquerade under 
French claret names, as "St. Julien," "Margaux," etc. Others bear the more honest 
titles of the grapes principally employed, as "Norton." "Ives," "Concord," etc., in the 
East and South, and "Cabernet," "Zinfandel," etc., in California, or special trade or 
locality names. The bulk of American claret is produced in the coast range district of 
California (see American Wines). 

The practice of diluting 'with water is particularly suitable for American claret 
when consumed as a genera] table beverage, as it is usually stronger in alcohol than 
French claret. 

See also Bordeaux Wines (white). 

CLARIFICATION, or Fining: the act of making "clear" or "bright," applied especi- 
ally to "clearing" or "fining" liquids by the addition of albumin, selatine or isinglass. 



etc. The substances used in the process are known as "finings" and their operation is 
similar to the "settling" of coffee by the addition of egg-albumen < egg-white). When 
added to wine, for example, the result of the "fining" is to remove part of the tannin 
— the latter coagulates the fining and the mass drops to the bottom, leaving the liquid 
clear. Clarification is a very delicate process, because the removal of too much tannin 
injures the liquid, jet if too much is left, it becomes cloudy again. 

Boneblack, Charcoal, Bullock's Blood, etc., are still largely used in the clarifica- 
tion of sugar, but centrifugal force is the principal agent in modern refineries. See 
general article on Sugar. 

Many liquids are clarified by filtering through cloth, silk, etc. 

CLOVES {see illustration in Color Page of Spices). Cloves, widely used for flavor- 
ing desserts and confectionery and medicinally, are the dried flower buds of the clove 
tree. As plucked, they are reddish in color, but this changes to the familiar dark 
brown in the process of drying, performed either by the smoke of wood fires or by 
exposure to the sun. 

The clove tree, an evergreen, grows to a height of forty (Vet. bears its developed 
clove buds in its seventh year, and gives two crops annually, increasing its produc- 
tiveness up to an age of nearly a hundred years. 

The clove industry was for many centuries confined to very narrow limits. A few 
islands of the Molucca group furnished the world's supply up to the beginning of the 
seventeenth century; then the Dutch, having driven the Portuguese out of the "Spice 
Islands," tried to destroy all the clove trees except those on the Island of Amboyna, to 
perfect their monopoly, 

Later, the Island of Zanzibar became 
an important producer, but for a number 
of years following 1872 it was again un- 
productive as the result of a cyclone 
which uprooted nearly all of the mature 
fruit-bearing trees. 

An interesting result of the cyclone 
was the release from the Dutch govern- 
ment warehouses at Amboyna of surplus 
cloves that had been accumulating there 
for generations — no sales having been 
permitted except when the bids reached 
the prices set by the government. The 
markings on some of the barrels received 
at that time in New York showed that 
they belonged to the surplus of crops 
reaching back nearly a hundred years — 
some of the barrels were ready to fall to 
pieces, but the cloves were in excellent 

The principal sources of supply to- 
day are the Islands of Zanzibar and 
Pemba (British East Africa) and the 
East Indies (both Dutch and British). 

coriBicirr, iveranoon A i 

A Clove plantation in Zanzibar 


The besl grade of British is thai known as Penang; that of Dutch is Amboyna. Dark, 
well-formed cloves are the best. 

Motht r ( 'loves is the dry ripe fruit. It somewhat resembles the olive in appearance. 
J is flavor is similar to, but much weaker than, that of the ordinary clove. 

CLYSMIC. See general article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

COAL TAR: a by-product of the manufacture of coal-gas and coke, was first noted 
iu the latter pan of the sixteenth century by a German chemist named Johann Joa- 
chim Becher. For a long time it was though practically a waste substance, ill-smell- 
ing, black and sticky, of no market value and difficult to dispose of iu any way, as it 
polluted rivers ami destroyed vegetation. 

Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, the pitch and lighter oils obtained 
by distilling if became of importance in the roofing, paving and chemical industries, 
eventually being used for making briquets and for wood preservation, waterproofing, 
preservative coatings, etc., but its real history commences with the founding of the Coal 
Tar chemical industry by Sir Henry Perkin in 1850. Since that date science has pro- 
duced from it an innumerable variety of chemical compounds of the most diverse char- 
acters and uses — comprising dye-stuffs, antiseptics, explosives, medicines, some of the 
most fragrant of perfumes, saccharin | a substance 300 times sweeter than sugar), flavor- 
ing c\i ractS, etc., etc 

The flavoring extracts produced include vanillin or artificial vanilla, cinnamon oil, 
oil of bitter almonds, coumarin, oil of wintergreen, essence of orange blossoms, essence 
..I' rhubarb, etc. The list might be indefinitely extended, for it has been stated by a 
prominent chemist that a majority of the foods listed on the average bill of fare, could 
be counterfeited in flavor by the use of Coal Tar preparations. 

COCA: the leaves of the coca plant, Erythroxylon, a bush resembling the blackthorn, 
which grows to a height of five to eight feet. They are thin, opaque and oval, tapering 
somewhat like tea leaves in the best types, a Light olive-green above and whitish-green 
on the under-surface. When dried, they have an odor resembling that of tea leaves 
and an aromatic bitter taste. They are employed medicinally and in the manufacture 
of various tonic beverages for their stimulating property — which is akin to caffeine 
or theine but is held in the leaves in larger proportion than caffeine in coft'ee or theine 
in tea. The natives of various parts of South America, particularly Peru, chew the 
dried leaves, generally together with a little pulverized unslacked lime, for the ability 
they give to resist fatigue. Though this use has apparently been a daily custom for 
uncounted generations, it is seldom that any ill effects are noted. The principle 
chemically extracted is the drug Cocaine. 

COCHINEAL: the best example of coloring from animal sources. See Carmine. 

COCKIE-LEEKIE: a Scotch soup of which the "character" ingredients are fowls, 
leeks and seasoning. 

COCKROACH: an orthopterous insect which may be classed among the most offen- 
sive and objectionable of domestic pests. It is extremely voracious, not only devour- 
ing all kinds of provisions, but destroying silk, flannel and even cotton fabrics in the 


absence of anything more edible. It is nocturnal in its habits and exceedingly active 
and swift of movement, its flattened form enabling it to insinuate itself easily into crev- 
ices and thus escape detection. It is found in many varieties and in every part of the 
world — from the Frozen North, where it is often responsible for the destruction of 
the winter's supply of dried fish, to its most favored habitat, the tropical zone. 

The three chief domesticated species found here are, Blatella Germanica, the small 
variety known as the German Cockroach, Water-bug, Croton-bug, etc.; Blatta Orient- 
nils, the Common Cockroach or "Black Beetle''; Blatta Americana, the American Cock- 
roach, which averages the largest of the common varieties, aud Periplaneta Austra- 
lisae, or Australian Cockroach. In spite of their geographical titles, these four are 
now international in distribution. The Australian Cockroach is not so frequently seen 
in northern states, but it is the most plentiful and obnoxious in Florida and other 
parts of the South. 

Except for differences in size, the domesticated roaches of temperate climates 
resemble each other in general characteristics, but the wild roaches of the tropics pre- 
sent a wonderful diversity of size, color and shape, one species attaining the enormous 
length of six inches. Another large, partially domesticated variety found in the West 
Indies is locally known as the "drummer," from the tapping noise it makes on wood — 
the sound thus produced, when joined in by several of the creatures, as it usually is, 
being sufficient to destroy the slumbers of a household. 

The only certain way of ridding an apartment or store of roaches is by fumiga- 
tion, the two most widely approved agents being hydrocyanic acid gas and bisulphid 
of carbon, but this method is not always practicable or convenient. If the warfare 
against them is conducted persistently and systematically, they can generally be driven 
away or destroyed without fumigation, by the distribution of small pills of Phosphorus 
Paste, or by the use of Flowers of Sulphur, fine powdered Borax or Persian Insert 
Powder, blown by bellows into cracks and crevices in the floor, woodwork, walls, etc., 
and distributed in all corners and obscure parts of rooms and closets. 

Another method is to smear a piece of wood with syrup and float it in a broad 
basin of water before retiring. When fires and lights are extinguished, the roaches 
come out of their holes and drown themselves in the water in their efforts to reach the 
bait. The chinks and holes from which they have come should be filled with unslacked 
lime. Traps of this — or any other — character are though seldom efficacious against the 
very astute Water-bug. 

COCKLES: an English shellfish, imported cooked in small flat cans. When taken 
from the can, they are washed thoroughly in cold water, frizzled in butter and served 
hot on toast— or in rice, curried, etc. Cockles are new to the American public, ami. 
unless the housewife is warned to wash them thoroughly, they will not be appreciated. 

COCKSCOMBS: the crests of the male domestic fowl, cut off and blanched. They 
are retailed in bottles by fancy grocers, for use chiefly as a garniture. 

COCKTAIL: a "mixed drink" now largely sold in bottles. The best known are 
Manhattan and Martini— the former being composed of whisky and vermouth, and the 
latter of gin and vermouth— in addition to bitters, syrup, etc., in each case A "dry 
cocktail is one made without syrup. 

The word is also applied to a service of oysters, etc.. in a slass with a special saint 





COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. The word "Cocoa," now universally used in 
English-speaking countries, is a corruption of "Cacao"— the full botanical title being 
"Theobroma Cacao," which, translated, is "Cocoa, the food of the Gods," clearly 
demonstrating the early recognition of its high food value! 

Cocoa beans were used as food in Mexico, the West Indies and elsewhere long 
before the discovery of this hemisphere by Columbus. The earliest references to it are 
found in the writings of the explorers who followed him— tradition has it that the 
first to tell of the new beverage was Bernal Diaz, one of the Spanish officers with 
Cortez, who observed Montezuma quaffing a concoction of it from a golden cup. 
Its use was soon an established custom in Spain and Portugal, which are to this 
day large per capita consumers of cocoa and chocolate, and as early as 1550 chocolate 
factories of considerable size existed in the south of Europe — in Lisbon, Genoa, Turin, 
Bayonne and Marseilles. 

The cocoa-tree grows to an average height of twenty to thirty feet and is of 
spreading habits and healthy growth. Bu care-trees, tropical trees of rapid growth, 
are set between the rows to shade the young trees until they have attained maturity. 
A minimum temperature of 80° Fahr. and plenty of moisture, both of soil and atmo- 
sphere, are required to bring out their full bearing possibilities. 

The trees begin to bear fruit at three or four years, continuing to the age of about 
forty years. Some fruit is ripening all the year round, but two main crops are 
gathered, generally in June and December (or January) — the latter being the more 

The cocoa beans or seeds are found in pods of varying shapes from seven to 
twelve inches long and rather more 
than a third as much in diameter at 
the thickest part. The ripe pod is 
dark yellow or yellowish-brown in color 
with a thick, tough rind enclosing a 
mass of cellular tissue. The beans, 
about the size of almonds, but more 
suggestive of vegetable beans in shape, 
are buried in the tissue, each in a thin 
shell varying from the papery texture 
of the Ceylon and Java beans to the 
hard skin of the other varieties. When 
fresh they are bitter in taste and of a 
light color, turning reddish-brown or 
reddish-grey during the processes of 
sweating and curing. 

A curious fact is that the pods 
groAV most freely on the older branches 
and the trunks of the trees, often on 
those entirely bare of foliage, instead 
of among the fullest foliage as with 
the majority of other fruits. 

In gathering, only fully ripened 
pods are taken. They are first left on 
the ground for twenty-four hours to 

* ITNdBR" 

i ... . frunk of I rei 


Tilt: 6B0C HI! 'S E X C V C I.OPEDIA 

Eccentric Growth of Cocoa Pods 

dry ami arc then cu1 open and the beans taken 
nii'i (the beans still remaining in their shells). 
The next operation is the "sweating" or 
curing. The acid juice which marks the beans is 
first drained oil ami they are then placed in a 
sweating box, in which they are enclosed and 
allowed to ferment for some time, greal care 
being taken to keep the temperature from rising 
,,„, high. The fermenting process is in some 
cases effected by throwing the seeds into holes 
or trenches in the ground and covering them 
with earth or (day. The seeds in this process. 
which is called "claying," are occasionally stirred 
i,, keep the fermentation from proceeding too 


The tinal plantation process is the drying of 
the mass in the sun — the Leans of good quality 
which have been carefully fermented there assuming the warm, reddish tint so highly 
prized. They are then ready to he put into bags and sent out into the markets of the 
world. In the cocoa and chocolate manufacturing establishments the beans are cleaned, 
sorted and roasted — the roasting being most important, for upon it depends to a great 
extent the flavor of the finished cocoa. Too little, leaves the beans crude and tin- 

flavored, and too much will make them 

The roasting machine keeps the 
seeds in constant motion over the fire or 
hot pipes for about twenty-five to forty- 
five minutes. They go next to the 
'•cracker," which cracks the shells and 
breaks the beans into small fragments. 
After the "cracker" comes the "fanner." 
which separates the shells from the bean 
fragments and sorts them later by 
screens into six different sizes, the last 
being as fine as dust. The cracked 
beans are known as "cocoa-nibs." 

The next step is the "blending." 
Cocoa beans of different plantations 
and countries vary in flavor and 
strength very much as do tea-leaves or 
coffee beans, and it is the aim of each 
manufacturer to make a blend which 
will produce the best possible flavor, 
aroma, etc. 

The cracked beans designated for 
each blend go first to the "mixer" and 
then to the "grinders," which reduce 
them to a thick, oily liquid. 

eoriBiGBT, tmi« 

Harvesting Coco i Pod 1 - 



Drying Cocoa Beans on cement floors in Dominica 

If "plain" or "bitter" chocolate is being made. 
the manufacture is then complete. The liquid 
is cooled to the proper temperature and run into 
molds where it remains until cooled to hard ca 
by refrigerating machines. 

For "sweet chocolate." cocoa-butter and 
sugar are added to the liquid which comes from 
the grinders, and mixed in the "nielanger" or 
mixer, and the resulting paste is sent through 
the "rollers," coming from them smooth, even 
and with all the air pressed out. 

For ••Vanilla Chocolate," some high-grade 
vanilla beans, and in some cases a small quantity 
of spices such as cinnamon and cloves, are added 
at the same time as the sugar. 

In "Spanish Chocolate" and similar varieties, 
almonds are often used instead of vanilla and 
with the addition of cinnamon and cloves. 

The paste which comes from the rollers is next weighed off and placed in molds — 
being thoroughly shaken down in them by automatic agitators. 

For "Cocoa" or "breakfast cocoa," the liquid which comes from the grinders is 
deprived of some of its oil or butter, leaving a comparatively hard dry substance 
which is ground to powder and bolted through very fine silk screens. Only the fine 
powder passes through, the remainder 
being held to grind over again. This 
is put up for the market in various 
sizes of cartons and cans. 

One of the distinguishing char- 
acteristics of absolutely pure cocoa 
when ready for the market is a rich. 
reddish color, commonly known among 
artists as "cacao-red." When the powder 
is so dark as to appear almost black 
it is generally a sign that it has been 
artificially colored, or that it was made 
from imperfectly cleansed beans of a 
poor quality. 

Cocoa contains a percentage of 
theobromine which corresponds to the 
stimulating properties of tea and coffee, 
but its high merit lies principally in its 
very large proportion of nutritive sul> 
stances — roasted cocoa beans contain 
an average of 49% pure oil. IS' r protein 
matter, lO^r starch, and 7% other car- 
bohydrates, etc.- — contained in a form 
which is very palatable, however it is 
taken into the svstem — whether as a 

i C!t> «*<■©<» . 

Removing Co..m Beans, Curing <ml Doing 






COCOA POD, two-thirds average size, half of outer shell removed 

beverage or confection, in puddings, cakes, etc. Its value is highly regarded by all 
civilized governments — in Europe and the United States, chocolate is a part of the 
army ration as a food and of the navy ration as a beverage. 

The United States is to-day the largest cocoa consuming country in the world. 
During 1910, more than 115,000,000 pounds of cocoa beans were imported into the 
United States — nearly one-third of the entire world production. The chief sources of 
the crude beans received here are the British West Indies (chiefly Trinidad), Brazil, 
Portuguese Colonies, Ecuador, San Domingo, Venezuela, East Indies, Dutch Guiana, 
Cuba, etc. 

Some prepared cocoa and chocolate is imported from Germany, Holland, France, 
Spain, Switzerland and other European countries, but, on the other hand, the United 
States is beginning to figure as an exporter of the prepared article. 

Dutch cocoas are distinguished by their treatment with sodium carbonate or 
ammonium hydrate. The reason given is that the process makes a greater percentage 
of protein available as a nutrient by destroying the cellular tissues. The objection to 
the process is that it increases the proportion of mineral salts. The apparent result 
is to make the cocoa darker in color and more frothy when prepared for drinking. 

By U. S. standards, Plain or Bitter Chocolate is the mass obtained by grinding 
cocoa nibs without the removal of any constituent except the germ, and contains not 
more than 3% ash, insoluble in water, 3.5% crude fibre and 9% starch, and not less 
Than 45% cocoa fat. Sweet Cocoa should not contain more than 60% sugar. No choco- 
late or cocoa preparation should contain in the sugar-and-fat-free residue a higher 
percentage of ash, fibre or starch than found in the fat-free residue of Plain Chocolate. 

The principal commercial classifications as they interest the consumer are: 
Cocoa: the ground cocoa bean, from which part of the oil or fat has been 
extracted, si. Id in powdered form., ( Because of the smaller quantity of oil, cocoa is 
more acceptable to manylfig^stfrrnsYp^g-the richer chocolate. It may be added that 
the fact that the cocoa tin is not full when opened does not necessarily imply short 
measure. The tins used by manufacturers are larger than required for the weight 


called for, as cocoa fresh from the machines bulks a little larger than after it has been 
shaken down in commercial handling. 

Chocolate: the ground cocoa bean, generally in cake form, sweetened and un- 
sweetened, flavored and unfavored, for cooking and eating. 

The "white" appearance sometimes noted when cake chocolate has been kept in stock 
for a long time is not attributable to age — it probably indicates that it has at some 
time been exposed to excessive heat. When pure chocolate is subjected to a tem- 
perature of 96 degrees or thereabouts, it begins to melt and allows part of the oil or 
butter to rise to the surface. When the temperature is lowered, so that the choco- 
late again becomes solid, the outside of the cocoa will show a thin covering of 
congealed cocoa-butter, which being of a yellowish color looks "white" in contrast to 
the brown of the chocolate itself. It is also erroneous to suppose that this is an 
indication that the chocolate is of inferior quality or is injured for practical use, 
for if it should be melted again and poured into molds and cooled at the right tem- 
perature it would resume its original color. 

Powdered Chocolate: sweetened chocolate of varying styles and compositions, sold 
in a pulverized condition. 

Milk Chocolate: a compound of milk powder and the ground cocoa bean, sweetened, 
flavored, etc. 

Cocoa Nibs: the cracked cocoa bean, without further treatment than the clearing 
of chaff, shells, etc. This is often recommended by physicians who wish their patients 
to receive the full nutriment of the cocoa bean, without the extraction of any of its 
oil and without the addition of any flavoring or sweetening ingredients. The beverage 
is prepared by steeping the nibs in boiling water, very much as for tea or coffee. 

Cocoa Shells: the shells separated from the cracked beans. They contain a very 
small percentage of the food properties, but quite a little of the flavor of the 
cocoa bean, and make a cheap and pleasant drink. They are usually bought as a 
matter of economy, but they are also popular among some well-to-do people of weak 

Cocoa Butter: the fat or oil extracted from the cocoa bean.. It has high com- 
mercial value. The greater part of it is employed in confectionery, especially in 
covered candies, such as Chocolate Creams, but a considerable quantity is used in 
the druggist's trade — in the manufacture of toilet preparations, cosmetics, etc., and 
also in the natural form without change or addition whenever the requirements call 
for a pure fat that will melt at the temperature of the body and will retain its 
sweetness indefinitely. 

Cocoa and chocolate and all allied products should be kept cool and dry to prevent 

In preparing cocoa or chocolate for the table, it should be remembered that the 
full flavor and most complete digestibility are only attainable by subjecting it to 
the boiling point' for a few minutes. Neither is properly cooked by having boiling 
milk or water poured over it— in that way you get all the ••food value" into the 
stomach, it is true, but the same remark applies if you eat it raw— keep it boiling for 
:i few minutes to enjoy it at its best. 




i ;-«vO£j St csdeewood, v. r 

Husking the Crop in a Cocoanut Grove near Mayaguez, Porto Rico 

COCOANUT. The cocoanut palm is 
a native of the islands which dot the 
Southern Pacific, but it is now widely 
grown in many other tropical parts of 
the globe, particularly in the West In- 
dies, Ceylon and parts of India. 

It flourishes best in the sandy soil 
along the sea-shore and frequently at- 
tains to the height of one hundred feet 
— a long straight slender trunk, without 
either branch or leaf — perpendicular to 
the sky or leaning to one side or the 
other according to the mercies of the 
wind in its youth — with a crown of palm 
leaves for its head. The nuts hang- 
downward near the trunk from the 
under-part of the crown — the yield aver- 
aging from fifty to one hundred nuts a 

The tree grows wild without care. 
but for commercial purposes it is raised 
in plantations or "groves." 

The cocoanut, as the average person 
sees it, is a large woody-looking nut, 
three or four inches in diameter, the shell enclosing an inside covering of half an inch 
or more of white meat, and holding a small quantity of cocoanut milk. 

On the tree the nut is enclosed in a husk, two or three inches in thickness, accord- 
ing to the stage of ripeness, and a green outside skin. When the nut is first formed 
inside the husk the shell is thin, and in place of the firm white meat is a thin coating 
of a white, creamy substance — which you eat with a spoon and find delicious — and a 
large quantity, two glasses or more, of sweetish water with a mild delicate cocoanut 
flavor. As ripening continues, the outside skin takes on a brownish appearance, the 
husk shrinks and becomes more and more fibrous, the shell of the nut inside becomes 
harder and the creamy substance and the water inside the shell become the linn white 
meat and the smaller quantity of milk that constitute the cocoanut of general sale 

Theoutsidehusk is removed before shipment here, 
partly to save space in packing, but also because 
it is easier to ascertain the condition id* the nuts 
— any damaged or cracked specimens are thrown 
out as they would either dry up or become rancid 
in transportation. The "eyes" and "nose" in the 
■•face" of tin- cocoanut — the delicate spots in the 
shell — are often tarred over to prevent the en- 
trance of air. 

In places where they are grown, "green" 
cocoanuts are generally preferred for eating raw. 
the "cream" and water being sought — the meat 
of the ripe cocoanuts being principally used for 

COPYRIGHT, betstov* vtsw co. 

A Raft of Cocoanuts Drifting Down a Stream in 
Luzon. Philippine Islands 


T II E geocee's encyclopedia 

cooking, confectionery, etc- — and quite a few green cocoanuts are brought here during 
the year for special stores and individuals. They are gathered by natives who climb 
up, or rather walk up, the trunks — with the aid of a rope in the case of the taller 

Ripe cocoanuts are gathered after they have fallen of their own accord — fortunately 
for the native population they rarely fall except at night when the "seal" is loosened 
by the heavy dew. 

The quantity of ripe cocoanuts sold in this country to be eaten raw is consider- 
able but the most important traffic is in the meat itself — dried, shredded, macerated, 
etc., for cooking, confectionery, etc. — and in the oil produced from it. 

The greater part of the cocoanut meat utilized here is made in this country from 
whole nuts. 95,000,000 being imported during 1910; but large quantities, nearly 27,000,- 
000 pounds during 1910, are imported ready dried, coming principally via San Fran- 
cisco from the Philippine Islands, the East Indies and the Islands of the South Pacific. 
It is commercially known as "copra." 

Cocoanut oil — in temperate climates, a soft white fat — is obtained by pressing 
either the fresh meat or the dried copra, the former being the choicer. It is imported 
in large quantities — principally from Ceylon and the East Indies (both direct and via 
England), in addition to that manufactured here, for use in cooking oil preparations, 
in the manufacture of soap, etc. There is an increasing consumption of cocoanut "but- 
ters'' prepared from cocoanut oil, especially in tropical countries, as it stands greater 
heat than dairy butter and is acceptable to many palates. Marseilles, France, is the 
center of the industry. 

The value of the cocoanut palm to the natives where it flourishes can scarcely 

be exaggerated. There is literal 
truth in the native proverb to 
the effect that "He who plants a 
cocoanut-tree plants vessels and cloth- 
ing, food and drink, a habitation for 
himself and a heritage for his 

He who would do so could build 
himself a home of "porcupine wood," 
which is procured from the trunk of 
the tree and is very durable. Leaf- 
stalk rafters are to his hand, and his 
house is readily completed with a 
picturesque roof of thatched leaves. 
He can cover his floor with matting 
made from the coir (the fiber which 
is about the nut), and the same fiber 
will supply him with clothing, cord- 
age and fishing lines. He can make 
brooms and brushes of the ribs of the 
leaves, and can utilize the old leaves 
in making buckets. The house com- 
pleted, it can be decorated with fans 
and with cups artistically carved from 

Cocoanut Rati the Waterways of Manila. P. 




the nuts. The palm furnishes transportation also, for the sea-going canoe of the 
South Sea Islander is made of rough pliable planks of cocoanut-wood, grooved to fit 
and stitched together with cocoanut-coir twine. 

As regards food, he can sustain life on the monotonous but dainty fare provided 
by the green and ripe nuts. The latter will give him also cocoanut-oil in which he 
can fry any other food he may obtain, aud from which he can manufacture soap 
and candles. The terminal bud may further be cooked like cabbage, and both tem- 
perance and intoxicating beverages may be prepared from the sap and fruit. 

"Tuba," a beverage highly prized and extensively consumed by the natives, is the 
sap of the flowering fruit-bearing stalks. As its extraction destroys the nut-bearing 
capacity, it is generally confined to trees devoted exclusively to the purpose. The fer- 
mented juice is intoxicating and yields on distillation a spirituous liquor known as 
"Coco wine." 

COD: one of the most abundant of food fishes, found in all northern temperate seas 
and taken in large quantities by both nets and lines along the North Atlantic and Arctic 
coasts of both America and Europe. It ranges in size up to a hundred pounds, the 
average market weight though being less than ten pounds. It is a very voracious fish, 
all the small ocean inhabitants serving it for food, and extraordinary prolific, the roe 
often containing from two to eight million eggs and sometimes constituting a full half 
of the weight of the female. See Color Page facing page 250. 

Cod is marketed in various forms, fresh, salted and dried, in the latter state being 
generally sold by the quintal (112 pounds). In addition to the large consumption in 
North America, great quantities of the dried fish are carried from Newfoundland to 
the West Indies, South America and Europe, especially to the Catholic countries of the 
latter continent. 

Fresh cod is at its best during the 
winter months. The head and shoul- 
ders, the choicest portions, are prefer- 
ably boiled, the remainder being usual- 
ly sliced for frying, etc. 

In Norway, cows are frequently 
fed on cod heads and seaweed in order 
to increase their supply of milk. In 
Iceland, the waste parts, bones, etc., 
are utilized as cattle food. 

Salt Cod of all kinds is, when possi- 
ble, cured immediately after catching. 
The fish are first split from head to 
tail and next thoroughly cleaned of 
all traces of blood by repeated wash- 
ings in salt water. Part of the back- 
bone is next cut out and the fish, after 
being drained as nearly dry as practic- 
able, are then placed in vats or similar 
receptacles and covered with salt, re- 
maining thus until sufficiently cured. 

Drying Cod on Racks >t a Cape Ann Wharf, Gloucester, Moss 

1 58 


When the curing process has been com- 
pleted, they are (a ken out of the vats, 
washed and brushed to remove super- 
fluous salt and placed to dry in the sun, 
spread "in mi wooden racks, on the beach 
or elsew here. They are considered, fit for 
markel when they show "bloom" — a 
whitish appearance on the surface. They 
are sold in many forms, popular types be- 
ing Boneless <'<><! and Fluked Cod, put up 
in small boxes; Shredded Cod, in papers 
and cans. etc. 

Dunfish is one of several names for 
dried cod. The title is traced to two dif- 
ferent sources — ( 1 ) as applied to the fish 
dried on open "downs" or "hills," from 
the Gaelic "Duin," a hill; (2) as descrip- 
tive of the color of cod cured by being 
salted and piled below salt grass in a 
dark room for several months, being 
turned once or more during that time. 

Dried Cod in :i Warehouse, Aalesmund, Norway 

Rock-Cod, or Klipp-fish, is applied to the fish dried on the rocks. 

"Scrod" is a term which was originally applied to any fish, particularly cod, "scrodded" 
or "shredded.'" Itiii it now generally signifies a young cod split and slightly salted. 

Cod Sounds, or Swim-bladders, and Cod tongues are popular delicacies, both separ- 
ately and mixed. They are eaten fresh, being then in season from October to May, 
and salted or pickled. The dried Sounds also furnish an isinglass very little inferior 
to that from the Sturgeon. 

Cod Roe is a favorite table delicacy and is also important commercially as a bait for 
fish, Large quantities being used in the French sardine fisheries. 

COD LIVER OIL: the expressed clarified oil of cod livers. It is considered an excel- 
lent aid in the treatment of pulmonary diseases and also in various forms of debility, the 
food value of the pure oil being supplemented by a noticeable percentage of phosphorus, 
iodine and bromine. There are three grades — Light Yellow, Light Brown and Dark 
Brown. The besl qualities of Light Yellow come from the Lofoten Isles, Norway. 

The high grade "cod oil" of commerce is identically the same as "cod liver oil" — 
both arc extracted from the cod livers — but publicity has made the latter title more 
familiar to t he general public. 

Nearly all of the cod liver oil on the market formerly came from Newfoundland 
and Norway, lint Alaska and Japan are to-day also important manufacturing points. 

"Emulsion" of cod liver oil, a popular modern form, is a. milk-like preparation, the 
oil finely divided and held in suspension by the addition and mixing in of, generally, 
glycerine ami tragacantk. 





COFFEE. The civilized world is indebted to Africa for the coffee bean. Its name 
is variously attributed to that of the Abyssinian province of Caffa and the Arabian 
ird K'hawah. Its early history is clouded in tradition, but it appears to have been 
v n by the Ethiopians of Northern Africa from time immemorial. They used it not 
only fo? the making of a beverage, but also as a war food, by mixing the roasted, pul- 
verizer beans with grease and molding into balls— this being the only food' they 
carried on short forays. 

Its use reached Abyssinia toward the end of the thirteenth century, and traveled 

about two hundred years later into Arabia. The latter country seems to have been 

the stepping-stone to its universal consumption— and it was Arabian coffee shipped 

through the port of Mocha that shed a halo around the name of "Mocha'' and led the 

I coffee world into using it as a panoply for millions of tons that never saw Arabia! 

In those days Arabian merchants were the most enterprising in the world thev 

stood at the gateway from Asia to Europe, and they added the coffee bean from 
Africa to the spices and other luxuries of the Orient. The use of coffee quickly spread 
outward — first to Persia and Syria, then to Cairo and in a few years to Venice. A little 
later it became the favorite drink at Constantinople, and Oriental coffee-houses 
sprang up everywhere in the city. 

For the next hundred years, the trade appears to have rested content with the 
conquest of the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean, but in the middle 
of the seventeenth century the demand for coffee arose almost simultaneously in 
London, Paris and other European centers — and coffee-houses in London and cafes 
in Paris became important both in point of number and for the fashionable, literary 
and political classes which crowded them daily. 

The progress of the coffee bean was beset with many obstacles. Religiously 
inclined people denounced coffee as an insidiously pernicious beverage, statesmen sa 1 
political danger in the discussions which marked the attendance at the coffee-hou< 
— on this ground they were closed by government orders on several occasions and in 
several countries — and governments found new sources of revenue by heavy taxa, 
on every gallon of coffee brewed — but the beverage proved its real worth by out- 
living all restrictions, and even all changes from the customs and habits of those 
former generations, and has steadily gained in popularity to the present rather 
staggering figures of an average yearly con- 
sumption of more than 2.500,000,000 pounds. 

Until almost the end of the seventeenth 
century, only a little more than two hundred 
years ago, the world was entirely dependent 
on Africa for its coffee beans — no one had 
apparently attempted to carry the coffee slunib 
into any other soil. Louis XIV is credited with 
being the first to grow it in the French West 
Indian Colony of Martinique — and soon after- 
ward it was successfully introduced and culti- 
vated by other European governments in the 
West Indies and by the Dutch in Java, Sumatra 
and other islands of the Malay Archipelago. 
It was introduced into India in ;,bout 1700 ; 
twenty years later into Ceylon, from Java, by 

9 Bronze-Colored Maidens Assorting Coffee, 



the Dutch) and in 1740 into the Philippines by Spanish missionaries from Java. \ At 
aboul the feme time the first shrub was planted in Brazil, now the world's greatest 

growing country, and a little later it spread to Cuba, Porto Rico and Mexic ,,. 

and thence to practically all other parts of Central and South America. To-da.v 
Africa, Hi' original source is a comparatively unimportant factor in the great 
bulk of coffee production. 

Growing the Bean and Preparing it for Market. 

The common coffee shrub is an evergreen plant, which in its native growth 
is a slender tree of eighteen to twenty feet in height, with the greater part of the 
trunk clear but opening near the top into a few long drooping branches. Under 
cultivation the shrub is kept in a condition of short close growth, from four to six 
feet high, so as to increase the crop and to facilitate picking it — the branches, flex- 
ible, loose and expanding out and downwards, the lower ones horizontal, the upper, 
inclined to trail— the whole very pleasing in appearance. The leaves are oblong- 
ovate in shape, from five to six inches long and from two to three inches in width 
when full grown; smooth, firm and leathery in texture, dark, shiny green on the 
upper surface and pale green underneath. The flowers are white and fragrant, 
resembling the jessamine in odor, growing in dense clusters in the axils of the 
leaves. The fruit, which quickly follows the flower, is a fleshy berry, green at first, 
changing to a yellowish tint, then to red, looking then much like a small red cherry, 
and finally to a smooth glossy purple or dark red. 

There are generally two or three main harvests in the course of a year, and 
cultivation aims to direct the crops as closely as possible to that end, but in a 
greater or less degree the shrub bears blossoms and fruit contemporaneously all 
i lie year round. 

The flesh or pulp of the fruit, sweet and agreeable in flavor and frequently 
eaten by the pickers, encloses two seeds or beans, each inside a thin parchment- 
like skin. These seeds, oval in shape, rounded on one side and flat on the other 
where they rest together, with a little groove running the length of the flat side, 
constitute the raw coffee of commerce. They are at first of a soft bluish or greenish 
color, becoming hard and flinty on exposure and changing generally with age to a pale 
yellowish tint. 

When only one bean is found inside the berry — occasionally in all varieties and 
frequently in a few — the "flat side" still holds the distinguishing groove, but it is 
nearly as round as the other. These beans are known as "pea-berries," "male berries" or 
'caracolillo" (Mexican). They are inost plentiful on old bushes. 

There are many varieties of eoft < ^J ants, but they all have the same general 
characteristics, and botanists differ as to whether or not they are really divisible 
into different families. The variety of ceneral cultivation to-day is that known us 
the Arabian coffee plant. Increasing ; ntion is, however, being devoted to the 
Liberian ami the Maragogipi because of . ire vigorous ^rowtli of the shrubs and 

the larger size of the beans (see Co/or Pag of Coffee Beans). They do not present 
the fine cup quality of the better grade Arabian, but their size and strength of flavor 
uive them value for blending. The Liberian is native to Liberia. Africa, and is culti- 
vated to a considerable extent in several countries, including Brazil, the Dutch East 
Indies and Ceylon. The Maragogipi is a native of Brazil. 

n;i THE grocer's encyclopedia 

The coffee shrub grows best in rich, well-irrigated soil in upland countries. 
I ropicai climate, entire absence of frost and protection from the wind, are among the 

Propagation is by buddings, cuttings and seeds, the custom varying in different 
. .Mm, pies. The young plants are transferred from the nurseries to the plantation when 
aboui eighteen inches high. In some countries they are planted close together — from 
four to eight feet each way; in others they are spaced as wide as ten to twelve feet 
and other crops are planted between the rows. The first crop is generally gathered 
when the shrubs are four years old, and they continue to produce for from ten to 
twenty years — and sometimes longer. 

The berries are picked when just fully ripe — if not mature, the best flavor of the 
beans is lost, and if allowed to become over-ripe they may fall off and become 
spoiled on the ground. The picking is done by hand, the berries being dropped 
into a basket suspended around the neck of the gatherer, or into broad, flat bamboo 
receptacles placed beneath the shrubs, and thence emptied into hampers or sacks 
located at convenient points. 

Under the old method, the berries are allowed to dry before the pulp is removed, 
but in what is known as the "new," "washing" or "West Indian" process (W. I. P.), 
i hey are taken direct and as fresh as possible to the "pulping house," where the pulp 
or meat is at once removed by machinery — leaving only the beans inside their "parch- 
ment" covering. This work is very carefully done, for to scratch the skin of the bean 
itself, called the "silver skin," to distinguish it from the parchment covering, is to 
render it worthless because of the processes to follow. 

From the pulping machines, the "parchment" beans, so called because they still 
retain the outer skin-covering referred to, run into the first of a series of fermenting 
and washing tanks, where by lying in water or moistening they are fermented and 
then washed to remove the saccharine matter adhering to the parchment. 

After the washing, the beans undergo the drying process — by exposure to the 
sun or by artificial heat, according to circumstances. 

This is the last stage of the beans as "parchment coffee." The next step is 
hulling and peeling, but before this is undertaken the bean is allowed to remain in 
its parchment for several weeks, as this "curing" improves its quality and makes it 
retain its color better. The longer it is left — even for months or years — the more, 
as a rule, it will improve, but as lengthy curing makes it very difficult to remove 
the silver-skin, the bean is never left in the parchment longer than is absolutely 

"Hulling and peeling" consists in the removal, generally by milling, of both 
the "parchment" and the "silver-skin." The bean after this process is at first very 
light-colored, but it soon changes to a sort of fern-green or greenish-yellow hue, and 
this color it retains for a considerable time if kept under proper conditions and away 
from dampness. With greater age the tint becomes, as already noted, a pale yellow. 
except East Indian types, which change in some cases to a dark brown as the result of 
-i "rage methods and shipment in slow wooden sailing vessels. 

As the beans emerge from the huller, they come first under the influence of a 
fan. which separates and removes the detached skins, and then go to the "separator" 
—an inclined revolving cylindrical sieve, divided into different meshes. Sand and 
dust drop through the first section, small and broken beans into the next and so on, the 
best i;: d largest beans being retained. 


In the most up-to-date plantations, separators of the eccentric or vibrator type 
have been installed in place of the revolving sieves, as they make possible a more accu- 
rate separation by sizes of the ordinary or "flat" beans, in addition to separating the 
peaberries for shipment as such. 

The separation is followed by a careful sorting over by hand of the better grades 
to pick out any discolored or otherwise undesirable beans." 

As soon as the sizing and grading are finished, the coffee is packed in bags or 
casks and is ready for market. 

The methods outlined are employed only on modern plantations equipped with im- 
proved appliances, but the same principles are followed by all firms or individuals using 
the "washing process" on any scale. By the "dry" method, "milling" is used entirely in 
place of the fresh pulping and washing. 

The value of the coffee marketed by the producer depends to a large extent on the 
care and judgment exercised in bringing it through the various processes— nnd the 
same care must be continued in the transportation of the bags to the port of shipment 
and in storing them in the ships which carry them to the consuming countries. 

The transportation of coffee is also an important item in its cost. Its journey from 
the plantation to some central point is often by human portage through mountain dis- 
tricts and then by slow-, tedious, bullock travel for long distances to the coast — with all 
the risk of deterioration en route. 

Coffee Consumed in the United States. 

The following table of the imports of coffee into the United States during the 
twelve months ending June 30, 1909, gives a fairly accurate idea of the relative im- 
portance of the sources of our supply. The total figures vary considerably from year 
to year, generally averaging less than those shown. The calendar year 1910 showed a 
total of only 804,417,451 pounds. 

Pounds Pounds 

Brazil 818,444,714 Brought Forward 1 ,022.568.807 

Colombia 60,183,641 West Indies :. 113.213 

Venezuela 54,774.402 Arabia (from Aden, the U. S. port of 

Other parts of South America 1,416.768 Mocha coffee) -:.582 

Mexico 35.004,112 Turkey in Asia 1,371.746 

Guatemala 26.370.598 Holland (principally coffee from the 

Salvador 10.025,794 Dutch East Indies re-shipped) 1,593,00 

*Costa Rica 2.956.093 England (including India and Ceylon 

Other Central American States 1,399.529 coffees re-shipped i 2,054,119 

Java, Sumatra and the East Indies Miscellaneous sources (re-shipped from 

generally 11.993.156 Europe, small quantities from 

Africa, etc.) 16.839.298 

Carried Forward 1.022,568.807 Total 1.049.S 

•The imports from Costa Rica generally range from 1! to en million pounds. 

It will be noted that Brazil supplied nearly 78% of all the coffee imported, and 
that other parts of South and Central America and Mexico furnished more than l v 
leaving less than 4% to the credit of all the remainder of the world. In other words, w g 
received during the year 1,010,575,651 pounds from South America. Central America 
and Mexico as against only a little more than 39,000,000 pounds from all other countries. 

The coffee classifications best known to the general public are ••Mocha." "Java." 
"Bio." "Santos," "Maracaibo," "Bourbon Santos." -'Bogota" and "Pea-berry." The 


T ii I. GEOC i: l: ' s ENCYCLOPEDIA 

cheapesl varieties of general consumption are the low grade Rios, and the dearest, the 
high grade "Javas," or Easl [ndian, and Mocha. 

There was formerly ;i greal deal of deception and misunderstanding, much of it 
entirely unnecessary, in the buying and selling of coffei — not only by mixing in low 
grade, imperfect and otherwise undesirable beans for the sake of greater profit, for 
similar practices are found in greater or less degree in every line — but also in the 
marketing of good products under titles to which they have no right. The misuse of 
geographical names was for inanj years so widespread that they lost practically all 
their real significance to the general public almosl any small coffee bean' was passed 

yiocha" and any larger uniform bean for "Java." That this was done is convinc- 
ingly proved when we note thai only a trifle more than one pound in every hundred 
received during the year came from Java or the vicinity of Java, and that all tin' 
coffee from the .Mocha porl of shipment amounted to only aboul one pound in every 
five hundred- yet every grocery store in the country sold enormous quantities of "Java 
; M „l Mocha." The practice of substitution extended also to every variety ami every 
grade of every variety. 

since the passage of the Pure I' I Law there has been a great improvement in 

conditions. .Millions of labels reading "Java ami .Mocha*' were destroyed, others were 
amended by such additions as rendered them permissible. The word "Blend" was for 
;l time so employed as to give prominence to the legend ".Mocha ami .lava** on mixtures 
in which beans of those two types musl bave fell hopelessly in the minority, hut this 
also was checked by the rule that coffees uamed in blends musl hi' given in the order 
id* the proporl ions contained in the package. 

This revolution \\ ill eventually prove 
ol greal advantage to the industry. The 
former methods tended to retard rather 
than advance the proper appreciation of 
coffee as a beverage, which will naturally 
follow consistent retailing of the differ- 
ent varieties, grades ami blends under 
inviolable titles. In many cases, the old 
style nomenclature was a distinct fraud 
on the purchaser by obtaining from him 
a higher price than the value of the beans. 
In others, where no fraud was intended 
and where the product was worth the 
price charged, the masquerade name at- 
tached to it was a foolish following of 
trade traditions. The practice is entirely 
unnecessary, as the average coffee sold 
here is of good quality, well ami cleanly 
prepared, quite worthy of sale under its 
own proper names. 

In defense of the retailer and mer- 
chants generally, it must be added that 
for generations thej were in a majority 
of cases themselves victims of a world- 
wide svstem of false naming and suhsti- 


('ofTee Hush in Klower 



tution and that they only passed goods on as they 
received them and designated them the "same 
as others did." 

When the adulteration of coffee is practised, 
it is generally in the ground bean. Nearly every 
conceivable substitute has at some time been 
ground and roasted to a resemblance of coffee 
— among them rye, rice, holly berries, barley, 
acorns, beet-root, beans, peas, carrots, etc. 

If Chicory is added without the knowledge 
or desire of the consumer, it is entitled to place 
as an adulterant, but it differs 'radically from the 
other articles mentioned as a great many people, 
especially in European countries, consider the 
addition of a certain percentage as an improve- 
ment on the straight coffee (see article on 
Chicory). Under the present law, the addition 
of Chicorv must be announced on the label. 

Coffee Pickers Homeward Bound 

The average chemical composition of raw and roasted coffee is as follows: 



Caffetannic acid .■ 

Fat and oil 


Nitrogenous extract and coloring matter. 


Cellulose (fibre), etc 



Rate Coffee 

Per Cent 
1 + 

9 to 10 

8 to 10 

11 to 13 

10 to 11 

4 to 7 

1 — 


3 to 4 

8 to 10 

Roasted Coffee 

Per Cent 

1 + 

1/2 • 
4 to 5 
13 to 14 ' 

11 to 13 

12 to 14 
1 + 

4 to 5 

The liquid obtained by the ordinary brewing of the ground coffee contains how- 
ever only unimportant percentages of components other than "Caffeine," which fur- 
nishes its stimulating properties, etc.; "Caffeole," the chief aromatic principle produced 
from the fat, oil, etc., by the roasting process, and "Caffeic acid." a secondary flavoring 
component. The sugar is converted into caramel in the roasting. 

The coffee bean contains less stimulating property than the lea leaf, but, as mure is 
used for making the beverage, the two liquids offer approximately the same stimulating 


Some of the albumin and cellulose is dissolved in the brewed coffee, ami a little 
food material is thus included in the beverage, but the amount is necessarily quite 
small. The bulk is left in the "grounds." _ „ 

The United States is the largest per capita pbnsumer of coffee, the average con- 
sumption being about twelve pounds a year,^' 

Coffee Blending. 

Blending is an important branch of the coffee business, bul no exact rules can be 
laid down for its practice, as tastes differ in every country and often in different sec- 
tions of the same countrv. The fundamental intent in high-class blends is to obtain a 

[gg tiii: i, i;urr,ii's ENCYCLOPEDIA 

smooth, mellow, aromatic liquor, to add strength if too mild and to modify if too heavy. 
The genuine Mocha, for example, is a little too acid and the genuine Java generally 
,i,n quite acid enough— hence the advantage of a blending of genuine Mocha and Java. 
1 1, Low grade blends, the aim is to make cheap, coarse beans palatable by adding a cer- 
tain quantity of others of more pleasing flavor. 

The best blends arc obtained by roasting each type separately and then mixing 
and closing them \\\< together immediately after— as old crop and new crop, or "mild" 
and "strong" brans require different lengths of time for the best results in roasting. 
If put in the cylinder to roast together, some are liable to be half raw while others 
are over-cooked. 

Coffee Selection. 

Long experience is essential to the training of a coffee expert. The chapters fol- 
lowing on the different coffee growths give brief descriptions of the beans of the prin- 
cipal varieties— but there are so many different kinds, so much alike and yet with so 
many minor differences of size, appearance, color and cup quality, that very few people 
can correctly judge the quality of a bean by its appearance raw — and only the keenest 
experts can determine its exact classification after roasting. The best test for the aver- 
age merchant or consumer is by a sample infusion after roasting and grinding. 

In purchasing the raw beans, one should also though bear in mind that: 

(1) If all of one variety {i. e., before blending), they should be fairly uniform in 

size, appearance and color. 

(2) They should be free from stems, stones, dirt and all such foreign matter. 

(3) When cut, they should be the same general color all the way through. If 

the inside is considerably lighter than the outside, it will usually be 
found that the beans have been artificially colored. 
Simple tests for ground coffee are: 

(1) Press a little of the dry coffee between the fingers — if it cakes, it is adul- 

terated, probably with chicory. 

(2) Place a little of the dry coffee in a glass of water. If nearly all floats and 

the water does not color — or only a very little — the coffee is probably pure. 
If part of the coffee floats and part sinks, it is adulterated — probably with 
cereals, chicory or similar substances. If the water turns a deep reddish 
tint, chicory has been added to it. 

(3) Spread a little dry coffee on a piece of glass or something similar and moisten 

with a few drops of water. Then pick out some of the smallest pieces with 

a needle — if they are soft, the coffee is certainly adulterated, as real coffee 

bean particles stay hard even after long immersion in water. 

It must he remembered that the above tests apply only to the purity of the bean 

—they tell nothing of the flavor or aroma, which are determining points of value. 

A coffee may lie perfectly pure, yet be harsh, musty, hidey or in many other ways 

undesirable— hence the necessity of testing flavor and aroma by making an infusion. 

Coffee Roasting. 

The proper roasting of coffee alters its appearance and flavor by bringing about 
important changeTTn the component parts of the bean. It develops the "caffeine" 
i the active principle of coffee, corresponding to the theine in tea), by separating it from 
the tannic acid, frees the highly aromatic coffee-oil (the amount and quality of which 

















largely determine the value of the roasted product!, renders the fat more easily 
soluble by releasing it from the fat cells, and reduces the uatural sugar while convert- 
ing the saccharine matter into caramel. The result is that after roasting the bean 
readily releases the flavor and aroma for which it is famous and will, by thorough 
infusion in boiling water, yield a total of more than 40% of soluble matter — though 
in ordinary coffee making only from 10% to 15% is actually extracted. 

The roasting in the average modern United Stales plant is preceded by passing 
the beans through a cleaning and milling machine which removes all foreign matter 
and gives a smooth finish. From this they go into large revolving perforated steel or 
iron cylinders, encased in brick and revolving over brisk fires. The cylinders are fitted 
with interior lateral ridr-js which keep the beans constantly moving in order that they 
may not become "tipped" or scorched. The time of roasting varies, but generally takes 
thirty minutes for a "light," and from thirty-five to forty-five minutes for a "high" or 
"dark" roast. 

From the roaster, the beans pass' to i\e "coolers," fitted with powerful exhaust fans 
which draw cold air through them to stop the roasting process, and then to the 
"stoner," which is an air-suction pipe generally about twelve inches in diameter and 
ten feet in height, the coffee being drawn up this pipe into a hopper, leaving the stones 
at the bottom to be discharged automatically. Finally comes the filling, by machinery, 
into bags, cans, etc. 

The operation of roasting is easy to describe, but it requires much experience and 
good judgment to bring out the full strength, character and aroma. 

A "light" roast should be of a cinnamon-brown color, uniform in appearance and 
free from specks. A "medium' 1 roast should be deep chestnut. A "high" or "dark" 
roast should be of a chocolate-brown color and oily in appearance but free from burnt 
or scorched beans — which will spoil the flavor of any coffee, no matter how high 
grade. The "medium" roast is the 
most desirable for general retail cus- 

So important is this process that a 
Avell roasted minor grade will yield a 
better liquor than the finest coffee a 
little under or over roasted. 

Coffee loses generally about 15% 
in weight in roasting, and afterwards 
should always be kept as tightly sealed 
as possible, as it loses in flavor from 
contact with the air and the beans 
become tough and hard to grind. 

Grinding, Preparation, Etc. 

The manner of grinding or cutting 
the coffee bean depends upon individ- 
ual taste and custom. Coarse-ground 
coffee is not generally desirable, as it 
requires too long an infusion to extract 
the full strength — and too much boil- 
ing tends to spoil both flavor and 

Drying Coffee Beans 


aroma. A medium-fine grind is the most generally serviceable for ordinary home use. 

There are many different formulas for preparing coffee for the table, the majority 
capable of being classified under the three following headings: 

Infusion or drawing: putting the ground coffee into boiling water and keeping it 
hot on the range without boiling for eight to ten minutes. With ordinary care this 
method will produce a very pleasing beverage, but it does not bring out much of the 
stimulating property of the bean. 

Decoction or boiling : putting the ground coffee in cold water, allowing it to come 
to a boil and keeping it boiling for a few seconds. This brings out more strength than 
the preceding method and makes an excellent liquor — but if the boiling is continued 
too long the fine aroma passes away. 

For the "old-fashioned" boiling method, the white of an egg is first stirred into the 
ground coffee. The latter is then placed in the pot and the proper amount of boiling 
water is poured over it — the water, taken fresh, having previously been allowed to boil 
hard for ten minutes. The coffee is permitted to come to a good boil, is stirred 
thoroughly once and then placed on the back of the stove for ten minutes. If any 
grounds appear on top, they are stirred a little and allowed to settle. This process 
gives excellent results but it requires a good deal of care. 

Filtration or distilling: by the use of a "percolator," the boiling water passing 
slowly through the ground coffee held in the center of the machine. This method is 
largely used because the result is nearly always uniform. 

No matter which method is employed, the grounds should never be allowed to 
remain in the coffee for any length of time after it is made. 

In hotels, restaurants and other establishments where it is brewed in large quan- 
tities, the coffee is generally held in a bag or other receptacle in the upper part of the 
urn, in order that the grounds may be the more easily removed. 

The best general advice to the person wishing a good cup of coffee is to buy coffee 
as pure as possible and of flavor that suits the individual taste, to have it fresh roasted, 
fresh !/if,ninl to moderate fineness and fresh made in a scrupulously clean coffee-pot. 
With these points secured, a little practice will produce a fine beverage by any reason- 
able process. 

A little cold water dashed in boiling coffee checks the boiling and causes the 
grounds to settle, leaving the beverage perfectly clear. In Creole cookery, the same 
result is obtained by adding a small piece of charcoal. 

French Coffee. The special flavor noticed in much of the coffee served in France 
is generally due to any one or all of the three following causes: (1) the addition of 
10"a to 30% of chicory, (2) the especially heavy roasting of the bean, and (3) the oc- 
casional addition of a little butter and sugar during the roasting. It is generally made 
in a percolator from fine ground coffee, the liquid being passed through the percolator 
two or three times to acquire greater strength. 

Cafe au lait, ''Coffee with milk" or "French Breakfast Coffee," generally means 
st i«mg coffee served with boiling milk — about half coffee and half milk or to suit 
the individual taste. 

Cafe noir, Blade Coffee or After Dinner Coffee, requires an especially generous 
proportion of coffee, and percolation continued until the liquid is black. 

Demi-tasse de cafe, or cafe demitasse. means literally only a small or half cup of 
coffee, but, carelessly used, the expression has come To signify Cafe noir or After Dinner 
Coffi e. 

174 t 1 1 i: i; 1; <> c i: i: s 1: x cyclopedi a 

Caf( a In creme is made l».\ adding plain or whipped cream to good Cafe noir. 
Vienna Coffee is prepared in a Bpecial urn -which passes and repasses the steam 
through the (finely ground) coffee, thus retaining t lie full aroma. It is served with 

whipped cream. 

Creole Coffe< is prepared by slow percolation. The coffee, fresh roasted and 
ground, is pressed compactly in the filter of the pot and a small quantity of boiling 
water is poured over. When this has passed through, more water is added, the process 
being continued at intervals of about five minutes. The result is a very strong and 
rich extract, which may cither be served fresh or be preserved in an air-tight vessel 
for future use. A small quantity — even so little as a tablespoonful — of good "Creole 
Coffee" is sufficient for a cup of coffee of ordinary strength. 

Turkish Coffee is made from beans ground as fine as powder, placed in a pot 
(either large or "individual" i with cold water and brought to the boiling point. It is 
never allowed to boil and is served as it is without straining or settling the grounds. 

Dutch Coffee is prepared by cold water process from very fine-ground coffee held 
in a special filter with top and bottom reservoirs. It requires four hours or longet 
for the water to percolate through the coffee, and in its passage it extracts a large 
percentage of strength and flavor. 

Russian Coffee is strong, black coffee. 

Coffee Extract or Essence. Genuine coffee extract is made commercially by distil- 
lation — steaming and evaporating the liquid until it is reduced to the desired strength. 
One or two teaspoonfuls is generally sufficient to make a cup of coffee of moderate 
strength. For household purposes, it can be made with nearly the same result 
by following the formula for "Creole Coffee." 

Coffee, whether raw or roasted, should always be kept away from all strong odors, 
as it absorbs them very rapidly. Roasted coffee (as already mentioned) should never 
he exposed to the air. as it will quickly lose its flavor and aroma. 

The Principal Coffee Growing Countries. 

The first division of coffee is into "strong" and "mild." The Rios and some of the 
Santos constitute the "strong" varieties. The other part of the Santos crop and prac- 
tically all the importations of other kinds, come under the heading of "mild." 

The next classification by the wholesale merchant is by the country of export, sub- 
divided in each case into various growths and grades. 

BRAZIL. — Rio, Santos. BoruBox Santos. 

The best known Brazil coffees are the Rios and Santos. 

Rio coffees are heavy in body and with a distinctly characteristic flavor and aroma. 
The beans vary in size and color from large to small, and dark green to light yellow. 

Santas coffees are generally milder than the "Rips" and very smooth and pleasing 
in the cup. The finer grades are of such excellent quality that they have beeu widely 
substituted for even high grade "Javas." They range from large to small and from 
green and rich yellow to very pale yellow. 

"Red Bean" Santos is obtained from the Campinas district. It is considered more 
"flavory" and richer than the yellow or greenish beans. 

"Bourbon Santos" is a small bean variety which has grown rapidly in popularity 
on account of its acid or vinous character. It was formerlv sold as ''Mocha" or "Mocha 

THE GROCER'S E N C i C L P E D I A 17.". 

Among the numerous other types of Brazilian coffee are "1 ictoria" or Capotinea, 
Bahia and Liberian Rio. 

The most generally accepted grades of "Itio" and "Santos" are from 1 to 10 or as 
follows : 

Fancy — large and uniform in color and in size ; clear and perfect in selection and 
attractive in general appearance. Divided into "Light,*' "Medium" and "Dark." 

Prime — very clear and regular in color and size, but not so rich in appearance 
as "Fancy." Divided into "Light," "Medium" and "Dark." 

Good — uniform in color and size, but ranging from "clear" to "strictly clear." 
Divided into "Light," "Medium" and "Dark." This is the average or "standard" grade. 

Fair — only moderately clean and liable to contain some broken and other- 
wise imperfect beans. 

Ordinary — irregular in color and size and liable to contain many black broken 
beans and a proportion of hulls, etc. 

Common — the lowest grade, mixed with bad and broken beans, chaff, hulls, etc. 

COLOMBIA. — BUCARAMANGA, Bogota, "Savamli.a." 

Colombia has in recent years grown largely in importance as a coffee raising 
country and its natural advantages promise still more abundant production. 

The two best known varieties are Bucuramanga and Bogota, which rank among 
the finest of American coffees. 

The Bucaramanga bean is large and solid and the liquor full, fragrant and aro- 
matic. France and the United States take practically all the exportation. 

Bogota is a mountain grown coffee, the bean large, uniform and bluish-green, ami 
the liquor full-bodied, round and fragrant. It is the basis of a great number of high- 
grade blends. 

Medellin is, in the best grades, also very highly considered. 

Other lesser types are Cauca, Ocana, etc. 

Colombia coffees are also commercially known as "Savanillas." 

VENEZUELA. — Maracaibo, La Guayra. 

The two best types of Venezuela coffee are Maracaibo and La Guayra. 

Maracaibo* are divided into several varieties, among them Cucuta, Merida, Boco- 
no, Tovar and Trujillo (the lowest), graded as Washed (the best), Prime to Choice. 
Fair to Good, Ordinary, etc. 

Both the Cucuta and the Merida in good seasons often equal the finest coffees 
grown anywhere. The beans are large, round and solid, rich yellow in appearance and 
making liquor of full ripe flavor. 

The other three varieties mentioned are generally smaller and unattractive in 
appearance and their liquor is light, but they are useful for blending, as their flavor 
is usually pleasant. 

La Guayra coffees are best known by the Caracas. Porto-Cabello and Coro types. 

Choice "Washed" Caracas is an exceptionally fine coffee— rich, heavy and fragrant. 
The bean is large and bluish. 

"Milled" Caracas makes only fair liquor. The bean is yellowish ami medium size. 

"Porto-Cabello" and "Coro" coffees, also largely consumed, vary in the Lean from 
medium to small and from dark to pale green. They are classed as a mild coffee, hut 
their liquor develops good strength as well as flavor. 

Among other varieties largely exported are Campano and Angostura. 

[76 THE grocer's encyclopedia 


TEXTUAL AMERICA.— Guatemala, Costa Rica, Salvador. 

The finest Central America coffee is generally that from Guatemala, where culti- 
vation is conducted on the most modern lines. The best known type is the "Coban," 
a large shapely bine bean producing a fine aromatic liquor. 

Next in importance is the output of Costa Rica. The raw bean averages large and 
handsome and roasts to very good advantage, but the bulk of the best grades goes to 
Europe, and many shipments of the lower qualities sent to the United States give a 
liquor somewhat bitter and not very desirable. 

The Salvador bean is generally of medium size and, in the best grades, is well 
developed, heavy ami greyish-yellow. The liquor is fairly strong, but of only moderate 
flavor. The poorer grades are very uneven and broken and the liquor weak. 

Nicaragua coffee closely resembles the medium grade of Salvador. 

Honduras produces a yellow heavy bean of attractive appearance. The liquor i 
smooth and pleasing but rather weak and frequently marked with a cocoa odor. 

Panama has not yet established any high records, but the quality of the product 
has been considerably improved in recent years. 


Mexican coffee is roughly divided into "Washed" and "Unwashed," the former 
being the choicer. The bulk of the export formerly went to France, but the United 
States receipts have grown largely during recent years. 

The two "fanciest" types of Mexican beans are the Tepic and CaracoUUo, the 
latter being generally known here as "Mexican Pea-berry." 

Tepic, formerly known as "Mexican Mocha," is said to be grown from a later 
introduction of the Arabian shrub, so carefully cultivated that some judges consider 
the product fully equal in quality to that of the parent plant. The bean is small, hard 
and of steel-blue color, making a creamy, aromatic liquor. Very little of this variety 
is exported, local consumers taking nearly all the crop. 

CaracoUUo is a variety almost unique. As already noted, "Pea-Berries" are found 
to some extent in all coffee-bean crops, but the shrubs from which the Caracolillo 
product is obtained bear it almost exclusively. 

After these two special types, which do not affect the general market, come 
Oaxaca, Cordoba, Coatepec, Colima, etc. 

The Oaxaca (pronounced Wah-har-Jcar) bean is large and well developed, blue in 
color when new, but becoming whiter as it ages. The liquor is strong, rich and 

Cordoba is sometimes styled "Mexican Jack." The bean is large and yellow and 
the liquor rich and full, resembling a fine Maracaibo or a medium fine "Java." 

The Coatepec bean is large, well developed and more acid than the preceding types. 

Colima is a medium-sized bean, flat, fairly well developed and with liquor pleasing 
in flavor and moderately rich. 

Small quantities come also from Tuxpan and several other lowland districts, but 
the quality is generally inferior. 


The Dutch East Indies, especially the islands of Java, Sumatra and Celebes, are 
famous as the largesl exporters of fine coffees. They are best known to the lay public 
by the name of the island of Java, the most populous of the group and the central point 


of Dutch commercial activity, but the greater part of the East Indian coffee consumed 
in the United States is of Sumatra growth. That from Celebes is generally rated the 
highest in European markets. 

Other countries produce in certain sections beans as choice as the very best 
"Java/' but the quantities they can export are comparatively unimportant. The 
greater output of the Dutch East Indies is partly due to the natural adaptability of 
soil and climate and partly to the systematic cultivation by native inhabitants under 
the rule of Holland. In spite of government care there is, however, much variation 
in the beans grown — a considerable quantity of those exported do not deserve the 
reputation the fine "Javas" have earned. 

East Indian coffees are in this country principally graded by color — '"Brown."' 
"Yellow" and "Pale" — the darker beans bringing the highest prices. 

This discrimination was originally founded on the fact that some of the choicest 
varieties of "Java" beans become at the same time browner in color and more mellow 
and pleasing in flavor in storage and transport — being in the former respect entirely 
unique. The distinction is not fundamentally accurate, as some of the light bean 
varieties are better than many of the dark types. In Europe, the yellow colored beans 
are preferred. When fresh, all East Indian coffees are light sea-green, or blue-green. 

Dutch East Indian coffees, other than those grown on the island of Java itself, 
are now generally described in trade and government circles as "Dutch East Indian," 
or by trade titles, or by districts, as Padang, Mandheling, Corinchie, Timor. Kroe, etc. 

The title "Government" is sometimes applied as a distinguishing title to coffee 
produced on plantations operated under government supervision — as are all of the old 
and many of the new plantations. 

The title "Old Government Java" was at one time a name to conjure with, for, as 
first employed, it applied only to beans that had been held — sometimes for considerable 
periods — in the government storehouses. Until recently, nearly all the produce of the 
Dutch East Indies was sold by quarterly government auction, and any goods for which 
the upset price was not bid were held in the warehouses to await an improvement in 
market demands — the result being in many cases an improvement also in the coffees, 
spices, etc., by the opportunity thus given them to mature under the best possible con- 
ditions. The term long ago though deteriorated into a practically meaningless trade 
title from being applied indiscriminatingly to any brown East Indian coffee irrespec- 
tive of growth or quality, and it is now "out of date," as the government auctions were 
discontinued in June, 1909, present sales being by contracts with firms or individuals. 

"Plantation" or "Private Growth" coffees are those raised on plantations owned 
and operated by individuals in contradistinction to those under government super- 
vision. Some are of very high quality. 

"Blue-bean Java" is a title occasionally applied to W. I. P. or "Washed" East 

"Liberian-Java" is that grown from shrubs of the Liberian species. Its quality 
is aenerallv inferior to the Arabian bean varieties. 

e v 


Arabian coffee is universally termed "Mocha." though no coffee was ever grown 
in Mocha — which is only a shipping town surrounded by deserts, and not to-day even 
an important shipping point, as the opening of the Suez Canal transferred nearly all 


the traffic to tin- ports of Aden and Hodeidah. This country is supplied from Aden. 

The best Arabian and the tine "Mocha" coffee is that from the province of Yemen. 
The most surprising point iu connection with its cultivation is that though the coffee 
shrub requires iu other countries rich soil and favorable conditions to produce an 
acceptable crop, here in Arabia some of the choicest coffee in the world comes from 
stunted shrubs growing in hot, sandy, stony mountain-side gardens. All conditions, 
climate and soil seem to be against the shrub's best growth, but by way of recompense 
it receives the most careful and painstaking human attention. The gardens are 
arranged on rocky terraces, one above the other, and are irrigated from large reservoirs 
of spring water placed above the highest. 

There are two main crops during the year. The berries, instead of being picked, 
are allowed to ripen until they fall. They are then carefully gathered up, dried, hulled 
and cleaned with scrupulous exactness. 

The separation of the finest "Mocha" beans by growers and merchants is in itself a 
study of infinite detail — they are assorted and re-assorted into a perfect graduation of 
sizes and qualities. 

The true Yemen "Mocha" bean is very small, hard and round, regular in size in the 
best qualities, olive-green when new and a rich semi-transparent yellowish when aged. 
Its odor when fresh roasted is characteristic, and the liquor is creamy, rich, rather 
heavy, a little acid, and extremely aromatic and fragrant. 

"Tehama" Arabian coffee — that from the province of Tehama — is distinctly 
inferior to "Yemen." The bean is of about the same size, but it is immature in 
appearance and often mixed with fragments of hull, etc. Its flavor is quite second-rate 
when drunk alone, but it imparts a pleasing fragrance and delicacy when blended with 
a good "Java," etc. 

Abyssinian coffee from the vicinity of Harrar and properly called "Harrar Coffee" 
was formerly shipped via Aden as "long-berry Mocha." It is of the same color as the 
real ''Mocha' 1 but is longer and more pointed and has a rank, leathery odor. 


The West Indian islands produce a large quantity of excellent coffee, but the bulk 
of the finest grades is exported to Europe, as better prices can generally be obtained 
there than in this market. The greater part of the supply shipped to this country 
comes from the British West Indies, principally from Jamaica, and Haiti, with small 
quantities from Santo Domingo, Cuba and the Dutch West Indies. 

The best Jamaica coffee, known as "Blue Mountain," is a bean of fair size, attrac- 
tive appearance and bluish color, making a full, rich, fragrant liquor, but "Plain- 
grown," the variety chiefly imported, is a much inferior grade. The bean, large, whit- 
ish and flat, is generally "hully" and the liquor is strong and rather rank or "grassy" 
in flavor. It is employed almost exclusively for blending with beans of other varieties. 

Haitian and 8a n Domingo beans are large, flat and whitish. Their appearance is 
spoiled by crude preparation, which leaves them hully and includes broken beans, stems, 
etc.. but their liquor is rich, mild and pleasant. 

The best Cuban grades come from the Guantanamo, Alquizar and San Marcos dis- 
tricts and the Sierra Maestra plantations. The beans are large and whitish and rather 
especially rounded on the flat side. They are generally excellent in cup quality. 

Porto Rico produces very good coffee, the beans regular and well-formed, from 
o greenish in color, and making a very good flavored liquor, but the product 




I ■ - ■ 

48 :■ 







- almosl exclusively to Europe. Proposed Government co-operation with the growers 
may result in stimulating traffic with this country. 


There are several distinct varieties of Ceylon coffees, as follows : 

-Native,'" grown in the lowlands — a large, flat white bean of poor quality. 

"Plantation," the product of carefully cultivated modern plantations — the bean 
large, of light-bluish or green tint, well developed and very regular, giving a liquor which 
is sun mill, rich and aromatic. 

"Liberian-Ceylon," a hybrid of the Liberian species — the bean smaller and paler 
than the parent variety and the liquor less strong, but smooth and pleasant in flavor. 

•■( !eylon-Mocha," a small bean, very even and uniform — generally obtained by 
separating from the regular '"plantation" crop. Both in appearance and flavor it 
resembles the genuine "Mocha." 

The two best known varieties of Indian coffee are "Malabar," a small hard bean of 
tine quality; and "Mysore," a large bluish-green bean, giving a rich, strong liquor, 
resembling "Java." 

ECUADOR.— Guayaquil. 

Coffees from Ecuador are generally known under the title of Guayaquil, from the 
general port of that name. The beans vary from medium to large, are fairly uniform in 
appearance and give good full fragrant liquor. They are quite largely shipped to the 
Pacific Coast States. 


The coffee industry in the Philippines bas in the past suffered from lack of proper 
cultivation, but it is only a question of time when it will fill an important position, 
for both soil and climate are admirably suitable. In spite of scanty attention and poor 
preparation, the better grades have won high esteem in European markets because of 
their rich flavor and pleasing aroma. 

The beans are generally classed as Luzon, Manila and Zamboango, the two latter 
from the names of the shipping ports. 

Luzon is a small bean type, hard in texture and rich in cup quality. If properly 
cleaned and prepared, it would rank high. 

The Manila bean is medium in size, regular in shape and pale green in color, with 
fine aromatic liquor. It comes principally from the districts of Cavite, Batangas, La 
Laguna and the immediate vicinity. 

Zamboa/ngo, from the Southern islands, is the poorest grade. The beans are large, 
yellowish and rather flabby and the liquor is weak and coarse. 

In addition to the countries referred to in the foregoing pages, there are a number 
of others which produce coffee to a considerable total, including some of very fine quality, 
but tin- imports into the United States are not sufficient in volume to affect market 

COGNAC, pronounced Konc-Yak: the best variety of Brandy (which see). 

COKERNUT: a method of spelling "cocoanut" introduced by the London Custom- 
House, in order to distinguish more widely between this and other articles spelt much 
in the same manner ana 1 extensively used in commercial circles— as Cocoa, Coca, etc. 


COLA NUT: one of several spellings of Kola Nut (which see). 
COLD SLAW. See item under heading of Slaw. 

COLD STORAGE. The cold storage system, first attempted about 1860, has grown 

to extraordinary proportions. It has revolutionized the meat supply and extended tin- 
fruit seasons. It has rendered possible an uniform distribution of fresh foods through- 
out every part of the country aud carried the surplus, not only of America but also^of 
Australia and Russia, to the markets of Europe. It has remedied immense waste which 
was formerly unavoidable, and in countless ways improved the world's food supply. Its 
system includes a transcontinental chain of big storage houses for meats, fruits,' poul- 
try, eggs, etc.; refrigerator cars running from ocean to ocean, and great steamers 
especially equipped for the transoceanic transportation of perishable food products. 

The temperatures most suitable for preserving food products of general consump- 
tion are named elsewhere in this volume in the articles descriptive of each. The fol- 
lowing table shows the lowest and highest temperatures to which the goods mentioned 
may generally be subjected without injury under the conditions stated". Any tempera- 
ture below or above the degrees named is liable to damage them. 

Lowest Outside Temperature Above 

Temperature. Which Injury Occurs. 

Degrees Pahr. Degrees Fahr. 

Apples, iu bbls., covered with straw 20 75 

Apples, loose, packed in straw 28 75 

Apricots, baskets 35 70 

Asparagus, in boxes covered with moss 28 70 

Bananas, in bulk and in boxes with straw 50 90 

Beans, Snap, in barrels or crates 32 65 

Beer, in kegs, packed- in manure and shavings 32 75 

Beets, in crates 26 70 

Bluing 30 

Cabbage, early or late, in barrels or crates 25 75 

Cauliflower, in barrels with straw 22 70 

Celery, in crates 10 65 

Cheese 30 75 

Cider 22 70 

Clams, in shell, in barrels 20 C5 

Coeoanuts, in barrels or crates 30 90 

Crabs, in baskets and barrels 10 65 

Cucumbers, in boxes with moss 32 65 

Drugs (non-alcoholic), packed in sawdust 32 

Eggs, barreled or crated 30 80 

Extracts (flavoring) 20 

Fish, in barrels always iced 10 65 

Fish, canned 18 

Ginger Ale 30 

Grapes, packed in cork 34 

Grape Fruit 

Ink 20 

Lemons, in boxes or crates 75 

Lettuce, in boxes or crates 26 70 

Melons 32 80 

Milk 32 75 

Mucilage 25 

Mustard, French 26 


Lowest Outside Temperature Above 

Temperature. Which Injury Occurs 

Degrees Fahr. Degrees Fahr. 

3, iii bulk, in barrels 28 

Olives, in glass 2 j> ■• 

Onions, in barrels, boxes or crates 20 

Orangi askets, boxes, barrels or crates 28 80 

l-s, in shell, in barrels 20 5 3 

Oysters, shucked, in barrels 30 ™ 

Parsley, in baskets 33 ^ J 

Parsnips, in baskets or barrels 33 70 

I V:|1 . s 32 80 

Peaches, fresh, in baskets 33 s0 

Peaches, canned -" 

Peas, in baskets or barrels 32 80 

Pickles, Brine, in bulk, in barrels 22 

es. Brine, in glass 20 •; 

Pineapples, in barrels, in crates, or in bulk 3 ~ 75 

Plums, in boxes with paper 35 75 

Potatoes, Irish, in barrels or baskets 33 80 

Potatoes, Sweet, in barrels or boxes 3.5 80 

Preserves "° 

Radishes, in baskets : -0 65 

Rice, in barrels and sacks 20 90 

Spinach, in barrels or crates 15 75 

Squashes, in crates 32 75 

Strawberries 33 65 

Tomatoes, fresh 33 i)0 

Tomatoes, canned, in boxes 28 

Turnips, late, in barrels 15 75 

Vinegar, in barrels ■■ 

Watermelons, in barrels and in bulk 20 85 

Waters, mineral 28 

Wines, light 22 

Seasl 28 65 

Foods which have had the benefit of proper rare in cold storage are jnst as whole- 
some and nutritions as the fresh items and in a majority of cases retain their full flavor. 
They should, however, be used as speedily as possible after their removal from storage 

as they are somewhat more susceptible to "spoiling" than fresh foods — this is espe- 
cially the ease with poultry and fish. 

The methods of modern refrigeration are described in the article on Ice and 

COLLARD: a variety of smooth-leaved cabbage whose leaves do not form a head. The 

term is also sometimes applied to the leaves of any kind of cabbage when cut very young 

COLOR and COLORING MATTER. A great improvement has been made during 
the last few years in the class of coloring matters employed in the preparation of foods, 
candies, etc. The use of unwholesome chemicals has been practically eliminated and 
there is no longer any reason why the consumer should look suspiciously at an attrac- 
tively colored confection. Every tint desired can now be obtained in perfectly harmless 
vegetable and other extracts, supplemented by a number of coal-tar or aniline dyes ap- 
proved by the ( lovernment after painstaking analysis and investigation. 

The dves referred to are employed in such minute quantities that they cannot 
harm anyone. A quarter of an ounce of "orange," for example, will give a strong yel- 
low color to 500 pounds of candy. 


The animal color most used is Cochineal (red). Vegetable colors are derived prin- 
cipally from Beets, Currants, Heliotrope, Indigo, Litmus, Magenta or Fuchine, Per- 
sian Berries, Rhodites (a salt of the Rose), Safflower, Saffron. Spinach and Turmeric. 

The use of artificial coloring matter still needs — and in most states receives — very 
close inspection and regulation. There is no longer, except in very flagrant cases, 
any danger to health, but proper control is necessary to prevent commercial fraud by 
the use of colors — i. e., so improving the appearance of inferior articles as to make it 
possible to sell them at the price of better class goods. The use of colors solely to 
enhance the enjoyment of foods— as in candy, liqueurs, and many other articles— is 
entirely legitimate. To do so to conceal their inferiority, is reprehensible. 

Colors for domestic uses are retailed in both paste and liquid tonus. 

COLT'S FOOT: a plant named from the shape of its leaves. It is supposed to possess 
medicinal properties, and to alleviate coughs, asthmas and chest troubles, its leaves 
being smoked as a tobacco. 

Colt's Foot Candy and Colt's Foot Rock are confections based on the herb or its 

COMESTIBLES : a term borrowed from the French, used in England and Continental 
Europe to embrace the entire class of edible goods. 

COMFITS: "Pan- Work" candies, such as Sugared Almonds, with a distinctive center 
covered by successive coats of sugar (see Candy). 

COMPOTE. See list of Culinary Terms in Appendix. 

COMPRESSED VEGETABLES : vegetables evaporated at a comparatively low tem- 
perature, from 120° to 140 D Fahr., until they are well shrunk but have not become 
brittle, then spread in layers and compressed into cakes about V2 inch thick. The 
cakes are frequently stamped into "one-ration" tablets of about 1 ounce each. They 
are very useful under some conditions, but unless carefully and successfully prepared 
they are liable to have too strong a "hay" flavor to be generally liked. 

COMPRESSED YEAST: the most powerful of all fermenting agents in domestic 

life, was introduced from Germany about 1862, and has grown in popularity until 
thousands of wagons make the daily rounds of the grocery stoics to supply fresh cakes, 
and exchange the stale. See article on Yeast. 

COMUS: the "god of revelry." The luxuries of the table are called the "gifts of 

CONCORD CLARET: a wine of claret type from the Concord grape. 

CONCORD GRAPES. See general article on Geapes. 

CONDENSED or EVAPORATED MILK. The invention of the process of condens- 
ing milk is generally attributed to Gail Borden in 1856, bul some authorities assert 
that it was invented in Switzerland. In view of the enormous present dimensions of 

184 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

the industry, it is interesting to note that the Patent Office Examiners were with diffi- 
culty induced to grant a patent because they insisted that milk could not be evapo- 
rated in a vacuum. 

It was the exigencies of the Civil ^^"a^ which first secured national recognition for 
condensed milk and advertised its merits throughout the world. It soon after be- 
came a commodity of universal use on ocean steamers and in mines, forests and con- 
struction camps, reaching ultimately every nook and corner of the universe. 

There are to-day more than two hundred factories in the United States, ail using 
the vacuum process. The industry consumes yearly more than 600,000,000 pounds of 
tiuid milk and the product totals to between five and six million cases of forty-eight 
cans each. 

The fundamental requirement of all first-class condensed milk is absolutely pure 
milk produced under the most hygienic conditions. As typical of the pains taken to 
ensure this, one may take the contract between a first-class factory and the farmer. It 
is full of all manner of stringent conditions. The factory binds itself to take an average 
of so many pounds of milk per day for each month of the year, at so much per hundred 
pounds — the price being higher during the winter than during the other months. The 
farmer, on his part, agrees that his cows shall be fed upon particular food, that they 
shall not eat turnips, brewery or distillery grain, or any other food that will impart a 
disagreeable flavor to the milk or reduce its richness ; to hold the milk room at a cer- 
tain temperature, and with a certain amount of ventilation; that the cows shall be kept 
clean and groomed; that the cans shall be washed and placed in the sun when they are 
not in use, and that they shall be turned down, bottom upwards, on a rack at least three 
feet from the ground ; that he will report any sickness in his animals, employes or fam- 
ily, etc. In short, every possible precaution, including traveling inspectors, to see that 
all requirements are fulfilled, is taken to secure proper care and cleanliness. It is in 
these respects that milk used for making condensed milk is generally superior to the 
ordinary store milk. 

To fully appreciate the principle employed in the manufacture of condensed milk, 
one must remember that the' composition of milk includes from 84% to 90% water 
(see article on Milk). Any desired part of this water can be extracted without taking 
anything from its food value, for the latter is found in the fats, milk-sugar, casein, 
etc., all of which remain in the condensed or evaporated product. 

In the manufacture of Siceetened Condensed Milk, the liquid milk is strained, 
cleansed in centrifugal separators, heated to the proper temperature to expel the gases of 
the milk and destroy the germs, again strained, mixed with a certain quantity of standard 
granulated sugar and run into vacuum pans where it is "condensed" by evaporation — 
boiliug in a vacuum at a very low temperature — of part of its water contents. It is 
then ready for canning. 

The vacuum pan employed is an egg-shaped copper vessel heated by interior steam 
coils and an outside steam-jacket around the lower portion. In one side of the dome is 
a small window, through which a light illuminates the interior, and opposite is an eye- 
glass through which the condition of the contents may be observed. The pan is also pro- 
vided with a vacuum gauge, test sticks, etc. 

Good sweetened condensed milk will keep for years, but all kinds will gradually 
thicken in time — poor brands naturally becoming thick and hard far sooner than well 
made full-cream products. The cases should not be stored near boilers, steam pipes or 
any extreme heat. At home, as a can seldom outlasts the day, it is not likely to spoil. 

THE grocer's ex cyclopedia 185 

but the best place for it is in the refrigerator, so covered as to prevent it from absorb- 
ing the flavors of meats, etc. 

The Unsweetened Condensed Milk, largely used for city consumption and delivered 
in bottles, is made by the same method as the Sweetened except that the sugar is omitted. 
It is not intended for long keeping. 

Evaporated Milk is the trade designation for milk, without sugar additiou. evapo- 
rated iu vacuum pans to the consistence of cream, then run over cooling pipes and 
into cans and immediately sealed, followed by the same "cooking'' for sterilization pur- 
poses as any other canned goods. The result is an unsweetened product which will 
keep good almost indefinitely. After coming from the sterilizer, the cans are agitated 
in a shaking machine which breaks up the fat globules and are then stored in warm 
rooms until "cured" to the right degree. 

Though the same principle is employed in all condensed and evaporated milks. 
there is plenty of room for discrimination in purchasing different varieties. The best 
grades should be creamy-white, smooth, free from a "cooked" taste, of just the right 
consistence, etc. Furthermore, there is a wide range in food values, for the latter 
naturally depend on the amount of water extracted. 

Evaporated milk of good quality is, when diluted with two-thirds of its bulk of pure 
fresh water, almost if not quite the equal of fresh milk. 

U. S. "Standard" Condensed or Evaporated Milk must contain not less than ~ r ~'< of 
milk fat and not less than 28°r of milk solids, including milk fat. 

CONDIMENTS: substances taken with food to season or improve its flavor, or to 
render it more wholesome or digestible. They include such articles of general eon- 
sumption as salt, vinegar, spices, etc. A majority of them, in moderation, stimulate 
both appetite and digestion, but their excessive use tends to vitiate the gastric juice and 
injure the stomach. 

CONFECTIONERY. See article under heading of Candy. 

CONSERVE: a word often used as of the same meaning as "preserves." but really a 
term of pharmacy or of candy making. Conserves are fresh flowers, fruits, roots, etc., 
preserved by beating with powdered sugar to the consistence of stiff paste, the object 
being to retain as much as possible of the natural properties of the raw fruit, etc. The 
conserves of the candy maker are made for consumption as sweetmeats ; those of the 
druggist are frequently employed as a vehicle for medicines. To the working confec- 
tioner, the term "conserves" means sugar and added ingredients so cooked as not to 
produce a "grainy" effect. 

CONSOMME. See sub-head in article on Soups. 

COOKERY. The fundamental principles of cookery may for general consideration 
be divided as following under the headings of Par-boiling, Boiling, Steaming, Stewing, 
Roasting and Baking, Broiling, Frying and Sauter. 

Par-boiling is a process principally designed to improve the appearance of poultry, 
tongues, etc. It imparts a whiter color and softens some items, while adding firmn 
to others (as Sweetbreads). The usual method is to put the article in cold water. 

1 8(j x 11 E GKOCEE'S E X C Y C L O P E D I A 

gradually raise the temperature to the boiling point, then take it out, plunge in cold 
water and leave there until quite cold. It is later removed and wiped dry, prepara- 
tory i" dressing. 

Par-boiling meat, although it renders it more sightly, lessens the nutritive quali- 
ties i'.\ abstracting a portion of the soluble salts which it contains, especially the phos- 
phates, and thus deprives il of one of the principal features which distinguish fresh - 
from salted meat. Animal food, before being dressed, may be washed or rinsed in cold 
water without injury, provided it be quickly done; but it cannot be soaked in water 
at any temperature much below the boiling point without the surface, and the parts 
Dear it, being rendered less nutritious. 

The term "blanching" (which see) is sometimes but incorrectly employed in place 
of "par boiling." 

Boiling, in the general culinary acceptance of the word, is the simplest and, when 
properly performed, the most economical method of cooking, as the cooked flesh and 
tlie accompanying broth represent practically the entire nutritive value of the raw food. 

The actual boiling temperature, 212° Fahr., should be maintained throughout the 
cooking of all green and a majority of other vegetables, but in the cooking of meats it 
should be restricted to the rirst five or ten minutes — after that, the meat should be 
"simmered" at a temperature of 175° to 185° Fahr. The first few minutes' boiling 
coagulates the albumen in the surface of the meat, forming a kind of hard envelope 
which prevents an excessive amount of the nutritive elements escaping into the water 
— then the "simmering" cooks the inside but leaves it tender, as the heat which reaches 
it is not high enough to harden it as the outside "envelope" is hardened when the 
water is allowed to boil. The pot should always be covered to avoid loss by evapora- 
tion, and the food should always be kept covered with water — if more water is required 
to take the place of that lost by evaporation, hot water should be added so as to avoid 
changing the temperature. 

Fresh meat for boiling should always be put into boiling tenter; salt meats into 
cold water. 

No exact rules can be given as to the time required to boil foods properly, but mod- 
erate care and judgment will nearly always suffice to determine this point. 

i See also additional suggestions at the end of the article on Beef and in the article 
on Vegetables. | 

Boiling Meat for Broth. When strong broth is desired more than the meat itself, 
the meat should be put into cold water, as that permits a large part of the nutritive 
ingredients to escape into the water, then gradually brought to a boil and thereafter 
simmered until done. See also article on Meat Extract. 

Steaming: is slower than boiling, but with proper utensils it is considered especially 
desirable for the cooking of small pieces of meat and some vegetables and puddings. 

Stewing follows the same theories as "Boiling," for it is nothing more nor less than 
"simmering" in a smaller quantity of liquid the meat and liquid being served together 
as a "stew" instead of separately as "boiled meat" and "soup" or "broth." 

It offers the great economic advantage that, properly performed, it will render 
tender, palatable and nutritious the coarser, cheaper parts which would seem undesira- 
ble if broiled, roasted or baked. 



The meat chosen should have little fat, the cooking should be slow and easy, the 
scum and fat should be removed occasionally aud the pot or pan should always be 
covered. The meat is frequently partly fried ("browned",) or par-boiled before setting 
to stew. 

Roasting and Baking. Old-fashioned "roasting" consisted in cooking meats on a spit 
before an open fire, as still done in England, but in this country the term is now 
applied almost exclusively to meat cooked in the oven. The term "baked," formerly 
applied to all foods cooked in the oven, is now confined to fish, vegetables, etc., as "baked 
weakfish," "baked potatoes," etc. — meats such as beef, lamb, etc., are similarly cooked 
but are known as "roast beef," "roast lamb," etc. 

"Roasting" involves a considerable loss of weight, but it lias always been and still 
remains one of the most popular methods. 

The chief points to be observed are: 

(1) To keep the oven clean. 

(2) To regulate the temperature to avoid both waste of time by too slow cook- 

ing and poor results by excessive heat. 

(3) That the greatest heat should be for only the first ten minutes, to obtain the 

outside "envelope" of coagulated albumen to retain the juices — as men- 
tioned under the head of Boiling — and then should be more moderate — and 

(4) That the meat must be basted frequently, as this greatly assists in the cook- 

ing, keeps the meat juicy and improves the flavor. 
Both roasting aud baking develop the meat extractives or flavor to a high extent, 
lightening the meat at the same time by the melting of some of the interleaved fat and 
changing some of the connective tissues into gelatine. 

Braising is a popular French method which may be described as a combination of 
roasting and stewing. Small joints or pieces of meat are placed in a "braiser"— a shal- 
low stewpan with a closely-fitting, grooved lid— and the cooking, very slowly done, is 
started on top of the range and finished in the oven. 

The braiser is always lined with a "mirepoix," a layer of slices of bacon or ham, 
vegetables, herbs, etc., and the meat is generally moistened with stock — broth of meats, 
vegetables, etc.— or stock and wine. Delicate meats are protected by covering witli 
buttered paper. The result is a very savory and aromatic dish. 

Broiling is the principle of old-fashioned roasting applied to smaller pieces of meat. 
Important points to be remembered are: 

(1) To keep the gridiron clean and well greased. 

(2) To have a clear, bright fire. 

(3) To season the meat before putting it on the gridiron. 

(4) To quickly harden both sides to avoid loss of juices. 

(5) To avoid dropping fat into the fire, as this results in jerky, smoky flames 

which are liable to spoil the flavor of the meal. 

(6) Not to over-cook. 

Frying has been erroneously described as "boiling in fat"— -in effed ii more nearly cor- 
responds to the principle of roasting, as fat or oil attains a much higher temperature 



than water and inure effectually seals the outside of the meat, etc., being cooked. 

"Dry frying" signifies the use of only a small quantity of fat or oil. 

"Deep" or "wet" frying is the use of sufficient fat or oil to cover the article being 
cooked. Butter is not suitable for deep frying as it is liable to burn before the food 
is cooked. Olive and other high-class vegetable oils of similar character, do not offer 
this objection. 

Care should be taken to avoid over-frying as the result is to make foods very indi- 

Sauter means "to toss." The food is "tossed" by moving the pan quickly back and for- 
ward over a brisk fire. When applied to meats, it is practically the same as "dry fry- 
ing." When applied to items such as French peas, for example, the "tossing" is con- 
tinued only long enough to heat them through. 

COON: a colloquial form of Raccoon (which see). 

COPRA: the meat of the cocoanut, dried. See Cocoanut. 


CORDIALS. See general article on Liqueurs. 

CORDON BLEU, "Blue Ribbon" : a term applied to a first-class cook, generally 
female cooks. The "Blue Ribbon" originally represented an ancient French order 
Knighthood and was first conferred upon a female cook by King 
Louis XV at the suggestion of Madame Du Barry. 

CORDON ROUGE, "Red Ribbon": a culinary distinction 
granted by an English society to clever cooks, both men and 
women, and others who have invented valuable methods of pre- 
paring foods, etc. 

CORIANDER SEED: the fruit of a small plant, growing 
chiefly in the south of Europe. It is used as a culinary flavor, 
especially for curries, in confectionery, and to aromatise spiritu- 
ous liquors. 


CORK: is the outer layer of the bark of a species of oak tree which grows in Southern 

Europe and along the North African coast. It is principally 
cultivated in Spain and Portugal, those two countries furnish- 
ing the greater part of the world's supply. 

The first stripping is taken when the tree is from fifteen 
to twenty years old, the cork bark being subsequently removed 
every eight to ten years. The first two "crops" though are of 
poor quality and are suitable only for coarser commercial 
purposes. The bark for bottle corks is not obtainable until the 
third stripping and each coat thereafter is generally better and 
liner than the one preceding. 

The stripping takes place during the months of July and 
Vugust. (lie bark being taken off in sections. After removal, it is scraped and cleaned 

Cork Tree 



and then flattened by beating and pressing. It is then ready for manufacture or 


For making "corks" for bottles, the cork is cut into strips and the strips into 
squares about the size of the particular cork desired. The squares are rounded and 
shaped by a broad sharp knife — by hand, for no machine has as yet been able to give 
continuous satisfaction. 

In addition to its use for closing bottles, cork lends itself to a variety of other 
purposes — for life belts and jackets, hat and shoe linings, artificial limbs, archi- 
tectural models, etc. The chips and cuttings are ground up and used in the manufac- 
ture of linoleum, etc. Old corks of all kinds have, consequently, real value and should 
not be thrown away. 

So numerous are the commercial possibilities of cork, that in spite of the large 
annual production, the supply is never equal to the demand — prices are continually 
growing higher and substitutes are used wherever practicable. 

CORKSCREW. A grocer who sells bottled goods and has no corkscrews in his stock, 
is short-sighted. They can often be sold to ladies, especially the Patent Lever types 
which involve no strain in pulling the cork. That a grocer must have one corkscrew ad- 
mits of no question — customers naturally expect to have their purchases opened if they 
request it. A five-cent corkscrew readily given with a purchased bottle, especially to 
a new customer, will very often be much appreciated. The more easily a bottle, or 
can, is opened, the more quickly it is consumed, and the sooner the grocer may expect 
another order! 

CORN. The title "corn" is used in a general way to designate all the principal grains 
— wheat, rye, etc. — but as particularly applied in this country it refers to "Indian Corn" 
or "Maize" — the most beautiful and luxuriant of all grain "grasses," resembling rather 
the sugar cane of the tropics than other cereals, and the most abundant in product. It 
is native to this country and was used as food by the Indians centuries before the era of 
Columbus, and probably by the civilization which antedated the "Red Man." 

Corn is lower in protein than hard wheat and oats, but is fully equal in that 
respect to other grains and it surpasses many in the proportion of fat or oil. It 
does not make as good bread for general purposes as wheat because of its smaller pro- 
portion of gliadin, but otherwise its use as a food ranks very high in national importance 
— being enjoyed in a great variety of styles — coarse ground into hominy, cornmeal, 
etc., and boiled as "hominy," "mush" or "hasty pudding," or baked in hoe-cakes, johnny- 
cakes, corn bread and muffins, converted 
into syrup, ground fine as "corn-starch" 
for puddings, etc., eaten green — boiled 
with beans to make "succotash" or "on 
the cob," and canned for use when "green 
corn" is unobtainable — and very often 
preferably when it is. 

The consumption of canned corn has 
grown to very large proportions, the 
annual output of the State of Maine alone 
reaching about twenty-three million cans 
a year. Maryland, New York, Indiana, 

eel Corn 



Ohio and other States are also constantly increasing the big totals of their products. 

The average annual crop of corn in the United States is about 3,000,000,000 
bushels. This staggering total is variously utilized. Part of it is employed iu the starch, 
brewery, whisky, glucose aud other industries and part in the food products already 
mentioned, but the bulk is transformed into meat — for corn is our most important live 
stock food, rounding out the steer and putting fat on the hog. Comparatively little 
is exported as grain, but a very large quantity, au annual value of a great many million 
dollars, in the form of meat products — cattle and swine on the hoof, fresh, salted and 
canned, and lard and various other items. 

The greater part of the "field com" grown is of the "Dent" species, sub-divided 
into innumerable varieties, but capable of a general grouping into two classes — "yel- 
low" and "white.'' It is this field corn which is used in the manufacture of cornmeal, 
hominy, corn starch, coin syrup, etc., and for cattle food. 

Of the other kinds, the best known commercially are "sweet corn" — grown prin- 
cipally for canning and for green corn "on the cob," and pop-corn (which see). 

Sweet corn is distinguished by its crinkled, semi-transparent appearance when 
dry. When cut for green corn, it should always be consumed as soou as possible after 
picking as ii deteriorates rapidly in holding. The husks should be bright and fresh look- 
ing. Wilted or partly dried specimens should*be avoided. 

The corn grain may be divided iuto the germ (the oily part), the endosperm (the 
body of the corn, consisting principally of starch, together with some gluten), and the 
hull or "bran." In the manufacture of corn products such as starch, syrup, etc., the 
initial step is the separation of these parts by steeping, grinding, etc. 

The germs are used in the manufacture of Corn Oil (see following). 

The hulls are mixed with the water used in steeping the corn before separation, 
and the water containing the gluten separated from the starch of the kernel (see 
Starch 1. the product being used as cattle-feed. 

From the starch are produced three principal varieties of products: 

(1) Dry starches of various qualities, both edible aud laundry. 

(2) Corn syrups and corn sugars of divers grades (see Corn Sugar, Corn Syrup 
and Glucose). 

i 3 i Dextrins (see Dextrin i. 

The Corn Products Refining Company furnish the following table, giving in detail 
the trade products of the grain. See also Color Pages, opposite and facing 186. 





Oil Cake 

(Cattle feed; 

Corn Oil 





N P Corn Syrup 
export corn Syrup 
70 Sugar 
SO Sugar 
Anhydrous Sugar 

Corn & Cane Syrups 

Table Syrups 


Sp white 


Sp Dark Canary 
American Gum 
British Gum 

Dry Starches 



Gluten feed 
ifor Cattle) 



thin boiling confectioners 
Thin boiling laundry 
Corn Starch 
ivory Starch 



CORN FLOUR: made from white corn, is used in the manufacture of many pancake 
flour mixtures, and also to some extent by bakers and confectioners for dusting 

CORNMEAL: is made from both yellow and white coin. The principal divisions are 
into '"bolted" and "granulated." The Granulated represents the harder part of the 
corn, which remains granulated after grinding. The Bolted is the softer part which 
passes through the bolting cloths. 

White cornmeal of both classes is used extensively in the South, for cooking, 
baking, etc. The White Bolted is used in the North also by bakers and confectioners 
for dusting purposes, and in some parts to a considerable extent in the making of corn 

Yellow Granulated is consumed in large quantities in the Northern Stairs but is 
seldom seen in the South, where the White Meal is almost universally preferred. 

Yellow Bolted is used in the manufacture of Brown I tread, etc, and is exported 
to the West Indies for native consumption. 

Cornmeal varies with the quality of the corn used and quickly deteriorates in 
warm weather or in heated houses. When fresh ground and promptly consumed, it 
has a much better flavor than when held in stock. In many country houses the care- 
ful housewife puts a large round stone in the center of the cornmeal firkin to prevent 
the meal from "heating." 

In Italy, cornmeal mush called "'Polenta'' is the principal article of peasant diet 
for many months of the year. 

CORN OIL: used in various degrees of refinement as a cooking and edible oil, in the 
manufacture of soap, lubricating oil, oil cloth, rubber substitute, etc., is made from 
the germs, which, after separation from the body and hull of the grain, are dried, ground 
ami pressed into cakes, to be later subjected to high pressure, the oil running out into 
collecting tanks. When pure it is golden yellow in color and marked by a pleasing 
taste and aroma somewhat suggestive of freshly ground grain. 

The residue of corn oil extraction is pressed into oil cakes, to be used as cattle 
food, etc. 

CORN SALAD: also called Fetticus, Field Salad, Fat Hen, Lamb's Quarter, Marsh 
Salad. Ho</ Salad and Doucette: a salad plant, found in numerous varieties and known 
locally by many names. Several kinds form "rosettes," others resemble Seed Lettuce in 
appearance and growth. It makes an especially good salad mixed with lettuce, the 
outer stalks of celery or sliced beeis, giving a slightly bitter taste which is generally 
very well liked. 

CORN-STARCH: used in the manufacture of puddings, etc., is made from the raw. 
starch of corn by breaking it up, washing and siphoning repeatedly, running oyer 
refining sieves of* fine silk which remove any particles of fibre still adhering, putting 
through various refining processes, drying until the content of water has been reduced 
to only about 10% and finally pulverizing. 

CORN SUGAR or Commercial Dextrose, etc.: used in the manufacture of caramel or 
sugar coloring, beer, vinegar, etc.. is made in the same manner as Corn Syrup except 

L96 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

that the evaporation is carried on for a longer time. The end product is run into 
barrels or other receptacles where it crystallizes, and is then shipped either solid in the 
barrels or broken up by chipping machinery. See also "Commercial Dextrose" iu 
article on Glucose. 

CORN SYRUP, or Commercial Glucose, etc.: is used as table syrup (see Syrup); 
in confectionery, baking, etc. (see Glucose), and in the manufacture of jams, vinegar 
and various other food products, in addition to the large quantity employed in other 
industries. In manufacture, raw (corn) starch is mixed with water- to form what is 
known as ''starch milk," then a small quantity of hydrochloric or muriatic acid is 
added and the whole is run into "converters" — large closed copper vessels, where steam 
is applied under about 40 pounds pressure, quickly changing the starch into a mixture 
of glucose and dextrose. The product is next run into a tank where alkali is added 
to neutralize the acid used and the liquid is then filtered and decolorized by passing 
through bone-black, in much the same way as cane sugar is purified, and finally evapo- 
rated to the proper consistence in vacuum pans. 

CORNED BEEF, Pork, Etc.: meat preserved with brine. 

Good grade corned beef is made from the rump, chuck and plate (See article on 
Beef). It should consist exclusively of meat cut from young cattle in good condition. 
If canned, it should be well trimmed, the skinny and connective tissues removed and 
freed from gristle, bone, blood clots and excessive fat. No soft fat at all should be 
included. It should not contain more than about one thirty-second of jelly — which 
should be made only from soup stock and bones — and should not show excessive liquor 
when opened. 

For Corned, or Pickled, Pork, see article ou Pork. 

CORNED BEEF HASH: as put up in canned form, consists of about 50% corned 
beef and 50% vegetables, chiefly potatoes and onions, seasoned with pepper and salt. 

COS LETTUCE. See item under title of Eomaixe. 

COSTERMONGER: a term applied to a person selling any kind of food — fruits, 
fish, vegetables, etc. — in the street from barrows or carts. The title is a corruption of 
"Costard Monger" or "Costard Seller," Costard being an Old English name for "apple" 
— first applied to a special variety, but later to any kind. 

COTTOLENE: a frying and shortening material resembling lard, made from cotton- 
seed stearin (see Cottonseed Oil) with enough beef suet added to give it the desired 

COTTON. Crude cotton is the soft, woolly fibre contained in the seed "boll" of the 
cotton-plant. The boll bursts when ripe, presenting then the appearance of a small 
bunch of cotton-wool attached to the dried calyx. The fibre varies from one-half inch to 
two inches in length, is either white or yellow in color and is variously named from the 
land on which it is cultivated, the place of production, etc., as Upland Cotton, Sea 
island Cotton, Florida Cotton, etc. The seeds scattered through the fibre are extracted 
by means of tli<> machine known as the cotton-gin. 



Cotton Plant— the lower bolls 

ready for gathering 

COTTONSEED, Flour, Meal, Oil. Cottonseed comes from 
the gin with short soft lint still adhering to the shells. Its 
general commercial treatment produces from each hundred 
pounds, about 46 pounds of lint and shells, 36 pounds of oil 
cake or "cake" and 16 pounds of crude oil. The lint is mar- 
keted as cotton batting, etc., the shells are used as fuel and 
fertilizer, the oil-cake as fertilizer and cattle-feed, and the oil 
for edible purposes, soap manufacture, machinery uses, etc. 

The seed, when freed from the down, somewhat resembles 
a small coffee-bean in size and form. 

Cottonseed flour, or (whole) meal. The ground whole 
cottonseed has in recent years attracted attention as a valua- 
ble food material. The decorticated seed contains an average 
of 10% water, 19% protein, 20% fat, 24% carbohydrates, 22% 
fibre and 5% ash (see Food Values). It is too rich to be suit- 
able for use as a substitute for wheat flour in bread, for ex- 
ample, but it may be advantageously employed in combination with it or other flour. 

Cottonseed Oil, when thoroughly refined for edible purposes, serves as an excellent 
and inexpensive substitute for olive oil in cooking. It is also largely used as a salad 
oil, for packing sardines and other products, etc. "Choice" oil is of a light lemon 
color and mild and neutral in flavor. "Prime" oil is slightly darker in color and is sweet 
in flavor but without any seedy taste. Cottonseed Stearin, used in the manufacture 
of cottolene, compound lard, etc., is obtained by separation from the refined oil. The 
iower grades of oil and the residue separated in refiniug, employed for mechanical pur- 
poses, soap manufacture, etc., are reddish or brownish and unpleasant in flavor. 

The value of the oil obtainable from the average American cotton crop is estimated 
at nearly one hundred million dollars, yet less than a hundred years ago the bulk of 
the seed was treated as a waste article and considered troublesome because of the 
difficulty of disposing of it. The real importance of the present extensive industry 
commenced with the still more recent date of 1855, when improved methods of decorti- 
cating the seeds were invented. Part of the seed has always been employed as a fertili- 
zer, but even the full exploitation of its oil possibilities would not interfere with this use, 
as experience warrants the belief that the cotton-meal residue, after the extraction of 
the oil, is nearly or quite as valuable for fertilizing purposes as the whole seed. 

COUMARIN: the flavoring principle of the Tonka Bean (which see). 

CRABS: the most popular of all crustaceans. They are found in great variety, some 
existing entirely in the sea, others in shallow water, both fresh and salt, and yet others 
on land. They multiply rapidly and are in season all the year. At the mouth of the 
Chesapeake, the beach is often covered for miles with a layer of crabs a hundred feet 
wide, driven ashore by the wind during weather cold enough to partly numb them. 

In this country the type principally consumed is the Blue Crab, but we also en- 
joy, particularly as a garnish, the tiny Oyster-Crab— which makes its home within the 
oyster shell, but is nevertheless a true crab. The Hermit Crab is another small soft- 
tailed variety which makes its home in univalves or single shells, as the Oyster Crab 

L98 i i i i: <; r o c i: i: ' s encyclopedia 

in bivalves. As f 1. the two important divisions of Blue Crab existence are into Hard 

Grabs and Soft Shell Crabs. 

Sofl Shell Crabs, in season from April or May (according to the season) to October 
15, are those which have just cast off their shells. At one stage they are called Shed- 

ders. They come t arket packed in seaweed, and should be kepi ist, and in such a 

position thai the gills are always wet. 

The male crab has a long white narrow tail turned around its under part. The 
female has a broad, brownish feathery tail. The meat principally eaten is that from 
i he inner top of the back and the claws. The center of the body is filled with the liver, 
a sofl yellow substance which is not generally consumed, but which some people con- 
sider a delicacy, especially when mixed with the eggs or "coral" of the crab. 

Canned Crab Meat: is a convenient and desirable article for salad and similar 
purposes. The best packing is that in which the tender white "lump'' pieces predomi- 
nate or are exclusively used. Other grades consist chiefly of the smaller, but also very 
delicate. "Hakes" and claw meat. An increasing quantity is imported from Japan. 
The crab catch on the Chesapeake and the canning of the meat are thus described: 
"Each of the boats carries six hundred feet of lines, anchors, buoys, etc. Small 
lateral lines are attached to the main line at intervals of eighteen inches. To these 
the bait is attached — tripe generally being used. At stated periods the boats are visited 
by a larger one which collects the catch and carries it to the factory. There the crabs 
are carefully assorted, and any that may have died during the trip are thrown out. 
Those that pass the inspection are placed in latticed cars, each holding two hundred and 
fifty dozens. The cars are run into steaming tanks and sixty pounds of steam is in- 
stantly turned on. Each individual crab, with one spasmodic twist, immediately relin- 
quishes all earthly ambitions and dies, that man may profit by his involuntary sacrifice. 
There is no lingering torture, as in the old-fashioned way of boiling, to cause the meat 
to become fevered and soggy — it leaves the shell as white, sweet and dry as it is possi- 
ble to get it. After the steaming the crabs are passed to the 'strippers.' These, stand- 
ing before the trough of clear, cold water, dexterously remove the top shell, viscera, 
etc., and after carefully washing each crab pass it to the pickers, who occupy long 
tables running the length of the house. The meat is here picked out into half-gallon 
buckets to the tune of 'We'll Put John on the Island!' and 'I'm Traveling' to My Grave,' 
a hundred colored voices taking up the refrain. Afterwards it is weighed and care- 
fully examined to see that it is clear of shell — if not up to the standard, it is returned 
to the picker. From the weigher it goes to the canning-room, where it is packed in one 
and two pound cans, and then passed to the process room, sealed and cooked. Every 
can is afterward examined to see that it is perfect. If found so, it is varnished, 
wrapped in a handsome label and packed two dozen in a case, ready for market. Thus 
packed, it will keep for an almost unlimited time in any climate." 

CRAB APPLE: the parent from which all the varieties of 
the cultivated apple have sprung. It is a small fruit, about 
"lie inch in diameter, having a harsh, acid taste, which renders 
it almost uneatable when raw. It is generally used for making 
preserves and jellies. 

CRACKERS. See general article on Biscuits. 

Crab Apple 



CRACKNEL or Egg Biscuit: a high-class plain biscuit made in various shapes, all 
thicker than the average biscuit bur extremely light, very finely grained and of a pecu- 
liarly smooth and shiny surface. As only first-grade wheat flour, eggs ami a small 
percentage of sugar euter into their manufacture — no water or other moistening 
being added — they are valued as a delicate and nutritious fond. 

Ck.\nbkhrik< -"Bugle," "Bell' 
" Cherry " types 

CRANBERRY: a small acid fruit, growing in boggy and marshy ground, largely 
used for making tarts, sauces, jelly, etc. Four varieties 
are generally recognized — the Cherry, the Olive, the 
Bugle and the Bell, their titles being more or less de- 
scriptive of their shape. 

The berries were first cultivated at Cape Cod, and 
Massachusetts is still the largest producing state. The 
markets also receive large quantities from New Jersey 
and Wisconsin, and small supplies from several other 
states. The soil for producing them must be a marsh 
ef muck or peat that can be drained a foot below the 
surface and is capable of being flooded in winter to pro- 
tect the roots. 

In the districts where they are grown extensively, the cranberry "picking season" 
is a bonanza to every man, woman and child. The pickers are generally paid about 
75 cents a bushel. Two bushels is considered an average day's work, but experts often 
gather five, and sometimes seven bushels. 

In Germany and some parts of the United States, the berries are gathered with a 
wooden comb, but the best method is to 
comb them off with the extended fingers. 
This does less injury to the fruit and to 
the plant. 

More money has been made and more 
lost in the culture of cranberries than in 
almost any other berry. Too frequently 
the crop is a total failure. The cranberry 
worm devastates the bushes, or an early 
frost kills the berries. 

Cranberries vary widely in price. 
They are at times so cheap that it is in- 
teresting to know that if all soft berries 
.ire picked out, the remainder can be kept 
sound for months by putting them in jars 
covering with water, setting in a cool place and occasionally replenishing the water. 

Medium-sized berries are generally more solid and therefore keep better than those 
that are especially large. Great care should be taken in cool weather to avoid buying 
berries which have been bitten by frost. 

The fruit of the High Bush Cranberry, or Cranberry Tree, which attains a height 
of eight to twelve feet, resembles the ordinary cranberry in flavor and general appe 
ance but it is smaller and contains only one seed. In spite of its similarity, it is not 
related to the cranberry proper, belonging instead to the same species as the old 
fashioned Snowball Bush. 

Gathering Cranberries, Mass. 

200 the grocer's encyclopedia 

CRAYFISH or Crawfish: a diminutive lobster found plentifully in our rivers and 
in season from September to April. It is popular as a garniture because of its form 
and color, and the flesh from its tail forms many delicate entrees, salads, etc. 

CREAM: the fatty element of milk. In good rich milk the proportion varies from 
one-fifth to one-third. The proportion in milk sold by different dealers is usually 
easily ascertained by putting a sample of each in bottles or tubes and letting them stand 
undisturbed for forty-eight hours — the difference in color will distinguish the cream 
from the milk, and show the relative quantities contained. Most of the cream sold as 
such is now separated from the milk by centrifugal separators instead of allowing it 
to rise. 

U. S. Standard cream must contain not less than 18% milk fat. State standards 
vary from 15% to 20%. Good cream by natural separation will average, about 22%. 
By centrifugal separation it can be made to vary from very "light," as low as 9%, to 
very "heavy," as high as 55%. 

CREAM CHEESE. See sub-head in general article on Cheese. 

CREAM NUT: one of several names for the Brazil Nut (which see). 

CREAMERY: an establishment for the manufacture of butter, etc., from cream 
obtained from the farmers of the neighborhood. The product is sold and quoted as 
"Creamery" or "Creameries." See Butter. 

CREAM OF TARTAR: is refined Argol, or Tartar, a substance found in the juice 
of grapes and obtained as a precipitate after its fermentation. It has an acid, cooling 
laste. and is used in the preparation of summer drinks, as an aid in raising bread and 
cakes, etc. Its sale by grocers has been greatly lessened by the increase in the popular 
use of baking powders. 

There are usually from one to three inches of dark "grounds" or lees at the bottom 
of a full barrel of new wine after it has stood long enough to settle. After a certain 
time, the lees are removed in a "cake" and then dried and broken up till they are about 
the size of common sand and of a pinkish tinge, like the "tailings" of a Nevada quartz 
mill. This product is sold to tartar manufacturers. 

In refining, the powdered lees is put into vats of hot water, cooked for about two 
hours and then run off into shallow receivers around which the crystals speedily form 
in a thick mass. The same water is used repeatedly as it always holds a certain quantity 
of tartar in solution. 

Tartar from wine that has been cleared with plaster is richest in Tartaric Acid, 
while that formed in wine that is cleared with eggs is richest in Cream of Tartar. The 
tartar takes a tinge of pink or cream, as the wine in which it forms is red or "white." 

Cream of Tartar is generally adulterated, sometimes to the extent of two-thirds or 
three-fourths of the bulk sold. As a majority of the articles added are insoluble earths, 
it can be tested by boiling it in water eighty times its own bulk — if any sedi- 
ment remains, it is not pure. 

CREME, "Cream": a name applied to many compound spirits and liqueurs, as Creme 
de M< a the, etc. (see Liqueurs). See also article on Soups. 



CREME DE MENTHE, "Cream of Mint": a popular liqueur of peppermint flavor, 
some varieties containing also other aromatic principles. It is put up in "white," 
green and red colors and is generally sold in bottles of fancy shape. 

CRESCENTS: (1) rolls of Vienna Bread dough in crescent shape; (2) shapes of 
Genoese Cake with water icing of various colors; (3) a kind of French bonbon. 

CRESS, or Pepper Grass : a name applied to a number of pungent flavored plants of 
tbe mustard family, used as a condiment, for garnisbing and in salads, etc. The leaves 
of the common varieties are very much divided and frequently curled. Those of the 
Broad-leafed types have the blade entire except for occasional notches along the edges. 
In the market-gardens surrounding Loudon, cress is grown in enormous quanti- 
ties. It is generally sown together with mustard, the growth being forced and the leaves 
cut when from IV2 to 2 inches high. Rape is frequently substituted for Mustard and is 
considered preferable by some people — the flavor is not so pungent but the leaves are 
stiffer and keep fresh longer. See also Watercress. 

CROSS BUNS: small circular cakes or buns, so-called because marked with the cross, 
especially baked in many sections for consumption on Good Friday. They are popu- 
larly known as "Hot Cross Buns'' and as such are in many English towns cried about 
the streets on the morning of Good Friday. 

CROUSTADES: are cases or shells of biscuit or pastry composition, made in 
various shapes and used for the service of creamed fish, etc., and some entrees and des- 

CROWN OF JAPAN. See Japanese Artichoke. 

"CROWNS." The word "crown," as commercially applied to dates, figs, raisins 
and some other food products, signifies "grade" or "quality." The higher the number 
used as a prefix, the choicer the grade — 9-crowns raisins being, for example, a little 
choicer than 8-crowns, etc. 

CRUSTACEANS : . animals with jointed shells, as the lobster, etc. See Shellfish. 

CRYSTALLIZED FRUITS. The theory of crystallizing fruit is to extract the juice 
and replace it with sugar-syrup which, upon hardening, preserves the fruit from decay 
but retains its natural shape. 

The general method to boil the fruit — preferably unripe and in the case of "stone" 
fruits while the stone is still soft— until tender and then suspend it in strong syrup 
until it has become almost transparent, occasional evaporation keeping the syrup at 
the fullest strength. The fruit is next dried in stoves or drying rooms at a temperature 
of about 120° Fahr., until the syrup has crystallized. 

Another process — that principally employed in Portugal, one of the most important 
producing countries — consists essentially of repeated boilings of the unripe fruit in 
strong syrup, followed by draining and, lastly, drying on trays in the open air. 

A wide variety of fruits are now candied, among the latest additions being the 
"Pricklv Pear" of California. Thev constitute a form of sweets admirably adapted 


in the grocer's counter as they are closely allied to his regular stock and are very attrac- 
i he in appearance. 

The housewife can make a very showy confection by cutting the red heart of the 
watermelon into slices and then into fancy shapes, immersing them in crystallizing 
syrup and then allowing to dry. The pink and red color showing through the crystal 
coating makes an extremely pleasing appearance. 

CUCUMBER: one of the mos1 popular of salad vegetables. Ii is somewhat indi- 
gestible, Inn when properly prepared and dressed — with plenty of oil — it may be eaten 
withoul the slightesl tear of evil consequences. The rind is considered poisonous, so 
paring should be thorough and deep. 

Cucumbers when marketed should be crisp and firm to the touch. For sale fresh, 
they are selected according to both ripeness and size, the latter varying greatly with 
different varieties. For general pickling, they are gathered when from 2V2 to 5 inches 
long. Very small pickled cucumbers are known as Gherkins (which see). 

Dill pickles are made either from fresh or sailed cucumbers — the former being 
considered the choicer, but the latter baving better keeping qualities. The Dill pick- 
ling process employs pickled dill seed or herb and "dill spice" — composed of allspice. 
black pepper, coriander seed and bay leaves — in addition to the brine. 

The English cucumber, of which there is a small sale in Eastern markets, is round 
instead of triangular like the American, generally very much longer in proportion to 
diameter, more uniformly green and with very little seed. 

In England and the Continent, cucumbers are often boiled in thick sections and 
served with hot butter or cream sauce. 

CUMIN: a herb of the caraway type producing seeds of aromatic odor and taste 
which are popular in Europe and Asia for flavoring soups, pastry, liqueurs, etc., but 
are little used here except in curry powders. 

CUMQUAT. See matter following title of KUMQUAT. 

CURACOA: one of the most popular liqueurs. The best varieties consist chiefly of 
lemon and orange peels and bitter oranges distilled with clear spirit and rum. The 
finished product may be red, orange or "white** in color and is marketed both in tall 
narrow jugs and in bottles. It is excellent for flavoring sweet sauces, jellies, etc. See 
Color Page of, and article on Liqueubs. 

CURCUMA, Curcumin: a yellow coloring matter extracted from Tubmeeic (which 

CURRANTS. Two varieties of fruit, entirely different except in size, are known as 
"Currants" — one used as a fresh, and the other as a dried fruit. 

The fresh currant, a small acid berry sometimes eaten raw but principally con- 
sumed in the form of jelly and cooked in pies, etc., is the fruit of a bush resembling the 
gooseberry bush. The most common type is the Red Currant. "Green currants" are 
Redwnirrants gathered for cooking before they are ripe for the sake of their peculiar 
tartness. The While Currant is a similar variety produced by cultivation — it is less 
acid and consequent ly more pleasing for eating raw. The Black Currant is a separate 




London Red 

London Market White "grape" Transparent 


Moore's Select 

type and of different flavor — its juice, credited with being aperitive, is used for flavor- 
ing purposes and in making wine, liqueurs, jellies, etc. 

The dried currant, extensively used in cakes, etc., is a small seedless ■•raisin." the 
fruit of a species of grape vine grown principally in the Grecian Islands of Xante i hence 
the term "Zante Currants" I. Cephalonia and Ithaca and in the vicinity of Patras. The 
fresh ripe fruit is also locally employed in wine manufacture. 

The title "currant" is a corruption of Corinth, the name of the now unimportant 
Greek town of Gortho at the time when it was one of the must prosperous of Mediter- 
ranean cities. During the middle ages, currants were known as raisins de Gorauntz. 

CURRY POWDER or Curry Paste: a condiment so highly seasoned that it is only 
within recent years that it has obtained a substantial foothold in temperate climates, 
though it has been extensively used in India and other Eastern countries for many 
generations. In India it generally consists of black pepper, cayenne pepper and 
a variety of spices — nutmeg, cinnamon, chives, etc. — made into a paste or powder with 
turmeric. Its composition varies with different makers. That sold here usually con- 
tains chiefly turmeric, coriander seed, cayenne, black pepper, fenugreek seed, ginger 
and lime juice. It is retailed in packets, jars, bottles, etc. 

The word ''curry" is of (Asiatic) Indian origin and originally signified there a 
"stew" — generally of chicken, veal or lamb. The "finishing" or seasoning of the dish 
was frequently performed at the table by the host or some other member of the party, 
many English officers at one time priding themselves on the special combinations of 
spices, etc.. that they had learned or invented, just as in every country many epicures 
pride themselves on their ability in making a salad or sauce. Later, the word came to 
be applied more particularly to the mixture of spices added titan to the dish itself. 

In India and Ceylon, curry sauces are added to a variety of dishes—generally a 
few minutes before serving or before the completion of cooking. Vegetables of all 
kinds, in addition to meats, poultry and fish, are so treated. 

Curry is best kept in a bottle or jar. tightly corked or stoppered. 

206 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

CUSK: a fish similar to and about the same size as the cod, sold fresh and salted. 

CUSTARD APPLE, or Anona, Coster, Bullock Heart, etc.: local titles of a West 
Indian fruit somewhat resembling the Northern Papaw. It is a 
member of the Anona family, which includes the Sweet-sop, Sour- 
sop, Cherimoya, etc. It is generally round in shape, with skin vary- 
in- from yellowish to reddish brown and greenish-white pulp of light 
texture which is sometimes described as of "Custard" consistence. 

CUTTLE-FISH BONE: as known to the retailer, is the bone of a 
kind of shell-fish, placed in cages for birds to whet their bills upon it. 
It should be kept by all grocers who sell bird food as it is a small and 
profitable item and not liable to spoil. It is also sometimes used in 
the preparation of tooth-powders, for polishing metals, etc. 

DAB: a title applied to several fish of the flounder family, found 
along the North Atlantic coast. The best known types are the Rough 
Dab aud the Rusty or Sand Dab. cntUe-Fish 

DAIRY: a term which covers everything pertaining to milk — the "dairy" may be the 
farm, milk-house, place of butter and cheese manufacture or retail store. 

The best situation for a small dairy building is on the north side of the dwell- 
ing-house, in order that it may be sheltered from the sun during the heat of the day. 
Necessary features are ample ventilation, the absolute exclusion of flies and other 
insects and cool even temperature. The walls should be double, or at least especially 
thick, and the windows provided with shutters or doors. 

Farm dairies have been largely superseded by cheese and butter factories or 
"Creameries," generally divided into a number of departments. 

Association, State and Government dairy schools, and the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations have greatly increased the efficiency of those engaged in the industry. 

DAMAGED GOODS. The liability of many goods to damage en route makes it im- 
portant for the dealer to act cautiously in throwing the blame on the wholesaler or 
shipper. Nothing can be more unwise than to receive a shipment of goods by freight 
and return a damaged cheese by express, or to return an entire invoice because one item 
in it is wrong. Write carefully and coolly to the shipper, stating the particulars ami 
saying that such articles are held subject to his order — and expense and trouble will 
be saved to all concerned. Many goods, especially in winter, are sent at the risk of 
the party ordering them and it is best to understand all the circumstances before mak- 
ing claims. Just claims should always be made promptly, but it is very dangerous to 
contract the reputation of making claims on trivial grounds. 

DAMSON: a species of peculiar-flavored small black or blue plum, much used in the 
filling of tarts, etc., and in liqueur manufacture (see Slivovitz). It is delicious 
cooked, but too astringent to be enjoyed raw. 

DANDELION. The dandelion, one of the most common and familiar of sprin.u 
flowers, is entitled to much higher place than it at present holds in general estimation 



here. Perhaps because of excessive familiarity with it as a "weed,'' and partly also 
in some sections because it is regarded as of essentially medicinal properties, the" aver- 
age person ignores its manifold virtues and possibilities as a salad plant, alone or with 
other plants, but John Evelyn placed it among his famous seventy-three salad herbs and 
European gardeners and cooks have made it fashionable on the other side of the 
Atlantic. In this country also it is now extensively cultivated by Eastern market 
gardeners, being raised in hothouses between seasons. 

The leaves when "blanched" by covering with earth, or potted and grown, from 
strong roots, in a warm dark cellar, are white, crisp and delicious. The young leaves 
resemble Endive. Even the ordinary green leaves lose much of their bitterness if 
washed and macerated in several waters and they make excellent spring '-'greens." especi- 
ally if stewed with an equal quantity of sorrel leaves. 

"Dandelion Coffee'' and "Dandelion Chocolate" are made from the root, roasted 
and ground. The "coffee" is a mixture of ordinary coffee and powder, or extract, of 
dandelion root. The "chocolate" contains one-fifth chocolate and four-fifths root. 

DATES. In Persia, Arabia and northern Africa, the date palm forms one of the prin- 
cipal sources of natural wealth. The wood and leaves are used in every imaginable way, 
just as natives in other parts of the world use the 
cocoanut, and the fruit, fresh or dried, frequently 
serves the Arab as his only food. Its prepon- 
derating content is sugar, the protein percentage 
being small, but the sugar is of so pure and 
wholesome a quality that it is very easily di- 

The date palm commences to bear fruit at 
from six to eight years, continuing to one hun- 
dred years — and often for several centuries. It 
is particularly valuable to humanity because it 
will flourish under conditions which kill all other 
vegetation. Excessive alkalinity of soil and a 
hot, dry climate, which would make any other 
growth almost impossible, result in its very finest 
product. The finest of all dates are the Deglct 
Noor, from the "Sunken Gardens" of the Algerian 
Sahara, the palms growing in dells of sand, the 
lower parts of the trunks buried in the sand and 
the strong rays of the desert sun reflected from 
the sandy slopes on each side. 

In addition to its own growth, it has con- 
verted many parts of the Sahara into richly pro- 
ductive zones, the shade it affords making it pos- 
sible to grow figs, almonds, etc., in the oases. 

The palms are divided into male and female 
trees. In a wild condition there are generally about equal numbers of each, but under 
cultivation one male tree serves for from forty to one hundred female trees, the fertiliza- 
tion of the blossoms of the latter being insured by tying to every flowering branch a 
sprig of the male flowers. 

Part of a bunch of dates hung up to ripen 



Under ordinary conditions a good 
tree will bear annually from sixty to two 
hundred pounds of fruit, the amount be- 
ing sometimes increased by careful culti- 
vation to from four hundred to six hun- 
dred pounds. The fruit is borne in 
bunches weighing from ten to forty 
pounds, hanging directly beneath the 
feathery head of the palm, the individual 
dates adhering to numerous slender twigs 
at (ached to the central stems. As the 
dates do not all ripen at the same time, 
the branch, after cutting, is usually 
placed in a dry and shady location for 
the green fruit to mature. For specially 
early fruit the first ripening dates are 
sometimes picked from the bunch before 
the branch is cut. 

There are three principal types of 
dates — the Sweet, the only variety known 
outside the home of the palm; the Mild 
Sweet, generally eaten as a fresh fruit; 
and the Dry or "Camel' 3 date, preferred 
by the Arabs as a general food article, 
both pressed whole and ground into date 
Hour, as under proper conditions it will 
keep for years. The flavor of the Camel 
Kate is excellent, but it is too dry to cor- 
respond to the ordinary consumer's conception of what the fruit should be. 

of the Sweet Dates, the choicest are generally those which are large, softish 
but not sticky, not too much wrinkled, of a reddish or yellowish brown on the outside, 
with a whitish membrane between the flesh and the stone. 

Nine-tenths of the supply imported into the United States comes from Arabia, 
chiefly by way of Smyrna. The bulk arrives pressed in large boxes, gunny bags or 
frails, but the finer types are packed in small fancy boxes, baskets, etc. 

The choicest dates are those from Tunis, Algiers and Morocco. Among the best 
known varieties are the Deglet Noor, already referred to; the Tafilat from the Mo- 
rocco Sahara; the Menakher, a long, large brown date from the Tunis Sahara, and the 
Rhars. The high price of these "fancy" dates is due to European competition for the 
comparatively limited supply. 

Fard dates are a black, rather hard variety, extensively used for stuffing. Per- 
sian dales are generally lighter in color and of softer flesh. 

The Khars and similar varieties are especially full of sugary juice, and the Arabs 
make "Date Honey" from them by hanging the hunches tip to drain. The fruit used is 
afterwards packed for general consumption, sometimes pounded and pressed into cakes. 
A special method of preparation for the best oriental trade is to press out the 
juice of a certain number of dates and use this as a syrup in which to pack other rich 
dates in larsje \ase>. 

tiering dates, Elche, Spain 




Young Date Palms bearing fruit in an orchard near Phoenix. Arizona 

The fermented sap of the palm, and also the fermented juice or syrup of the 
crushed fruit, are consumed locally as Palm Wiue or Date Wiue, etc.; the young 
leaves may be cooked as -Palm Cabbage," and the stones are ground kito "Date Coffee," 
for human use or for cattle food, or are pressed to obtain "Date Oil." 

In other parts of the world are found numerous special varieties of the date palm, 
among the most noteworthy being one common to South India and the East Indies, 
which is even higher in sugar content than the African or Arabian type. Date sugar 
from this palm is a commercial product of considerable value. 

Another small fruited species gives a specially desirable date meal. 

A considerable measure of success has already rewarded efforts to grow dates in 
this country, in several parts of California, Colorado and Arizona. The climatic and 
soil conditions have proved entirely suitable, and the result will probably be the trans- 
formation of sections so alkaline as to be otherwise worthless, into richly productive 
areas. The value of the product is indicated by the importation of twenty or more 
million pounds every year. 

Stuffed dates are prepared in constantly increasing variety — tilled with almond 
and other nut meats, separately or mixed with date, fig or raisin meat or the latter 
without the nuts; ginger, peanut or walnut butter, various forms of confectionery, etc. 

DATE PLUM: a name applied t>t the American Persimmon I See Persimmon i. 

DECANTATION: the operation of pouring or drawing off the clear portion of a 
liquid from the impurities or grosser matter that has subsided. It is commonly per- 
formed either by gently inclining the vessel, or by a syphon or pump. See Wines. 

DECANTER: a bottle especially designed for the service of nines, liquors, etc. 

It is often difficult to clean decanters, especially after port wine has stood in them 

for some time. The best method is to wash them out with a little pearlash and warm 
water, adding a spoonful or two id' fresh-slacked lime, if necessary. A few small cinders 
or pieces of raw potato may he used to facilitate the action of the fluid against the side 
of the ulass. A little strong oil of vitriol will also rapidly dean glass bottles. 


DELAWARE WINE: a class of domestic wines, red and white, sweet and dry, made 
principally from Delaware grapes. 

DELICATESSEN. The delicatessen stores now so numerous in all our large cities 
started with one place in Grand Street, New York, opened about 1868. Their stocks 
embrace a wide variety of food items — ready-cooked meats, cheeses, fine canned goods 
— such as sardines, mushrooms, caviar, etc. — packet teas, olive oil, etc. — in short, all 
the most profitable articles of the grocer's stock. 

DEMERARA SUGAR: a name given to the finest flavored of "raw sugars'' — sugar 
before the refining process. The term was formerly restricted to that from the Demer- 
ara section of British Guiana but is now applied also to similar sugar from the West 
Indies. It is usually of a light straw color and large crystallization. 

DEMIJOHN: a very large-bodied bottle with a small neck, generally protected by 
wickerwork covering. 

DENDANG: a local name for the sun-dried meat of the East Indies. 

DERMESTES: commonly called the Bacon Beetle. The larva of this insect is very 
destructive to bacon and other dried meats and often to cheese. It is a worm about 
..inch in length, tapering towards the tail, dark-brown above, white beneath, with long 
hairs and two horny hooks on the end of its body. 

DESICCATED MILK. Evaporated milk finely powdered. 

DESICCATED or DRIED SOUPS. There are two main classes of desiccated or 
dried soups, put up for army, camp and similar pm-poses — those entirely of meat, and 
those entirely or principally of vegetables. The former should consist of meat extract 
obtained by extracting and then condensing the juices of lean meat at a low tempera- 
ture, the completed product appearing in tablet form or in tubes of paraffin wax, etc. 
The vegetable soups consist of several varieties of dried vegetables chopped up and 
mixed with dried flavoring herbs, etc., with sometimes the addition of a certain 
quantity of gelatine or meat basis. For commissary and export purposes, cubes of com- 
pressed dry vegetables are enclosed in jackets of gelatinous soup, both jacket and con- 
tents being dissolved in the hot water to be used in making the soup. 

All dried articles of this kind should be carefully guarded from moisture. 

DEWBERRY: an early variety of Blackberry (which see). 

DEXTRIN or British (linn : a substance obtained by roasting starch. Its principal 
use is in the textile industries, as gum for postage stamps, in mucilage manufacture, 
cii., but it is also sometimes employed as a glaze for certain candies. It was discovered 
by the accidental overheating of starch and its process of manufacture was for a long 
time kept secret. Its name arises from the fact that under polarized light it turns the 
plane to the right or "dexter." 

DEXTROSE. See article under heading of Glucose. 



DIAMOND BACK: the most famous variety of Terrapin (which see). 

DIASTASE: a ferment found in grains and other seeds during germi- 
nation (see Malt). It is also present in human and animal saliva. 

DIGBY CHICKS: smoked herrings from Digby, Nova Scotia. 


DILL: a herb of the parsley family, grown chiefly for its aromatic 
pungent seeds, which are employed in the manufacture of sauces, pickles, 
etc. See Cucumber. 


DISTILLATION: is, in its fundamental features, the vaporizing of a liquid by heat 
in one vessel and then conducting the vapor or steam into another cool vessel, where it 
is condensed into a liquid. The value of the process is found in the fact that very few 
liquids become vapor at the same temperature. Ethyl alcohol will vaporize at 173° 
Fahr., and water at 212° — so that each can be readily separated from the other or from 
other components. 

Distillation in its simplest form, may be explained by remarking that if one places 
a kettle of wine, for example, on a stove, the steam which comes out of the spout prior 
to the water-boiling point, 212° Fahr., is principally alcoholic vapor, which, if passed 
into another vessel and held until it condenses iuto a liquid, will be a crude brandy. A 
simple distillation will not produce a complete separation — the alcoholic vapor passed 
out contains a certain percentage of water — but the process can be repeated until nearly 
all water is eliminated. A complete separation can only be secured by placing the 
liquid, after distillation to the highest possible percentage, in suspended skin bags. 
The water, being heavier than the alcohol, settles to the bottom and gradually drips ' 
through the bag. 

The principal use of the process of distillation is for the manufacture of commercial 
alcohol (see. Alcohol) and liquors such as brandy, whisky, rum, etc., and to add 
special flavors and properties to alcoholic liquors, as in the manufacture of perfumes, 
liqueurs, etc., but it is also employed to separate light and heavy oils, in the manufac- 
ture of certain products from coal tar, to purify drinking water, to separate volatile 
from non-volatile substances either in watery or alcoholic solutions or mixtures, etc. 
Another familiar example is the changing of sea water into fresh water by distillation 
— the fresh water passes over as steam, leaving the salt behind. 

In the manufacture of brandy, rum, whisky, etc., distillation is preceded by other 
processes which produce a fermented liquid consisting of alcohol, water and solids, it 
being the duty of distillation to separate the alcohol and water from the solids and 
then to eliminate a part of the water and certain other volatile substances. Brandy is 
made from wine (the fermented juice of grapes) ; rum from fermented molasses and 
other residue of sugar manufacture; whisky from a fermented grain mixture (see 
article on Whisky). 

The fermented liquid is placed in a "still." The old-fashioned pot-still consists of a 
large round pot with a short copper "chimney" for the vapor, with a bend at the top 
and a horizontal continuation in the shape of an elongated neck or spout. The still is 
heated to 173° Fahr. and over, by direct fire beneath in a brick "oven" surrounding 


the "pot," and the alcohol in the ferment changes into vapor or steam and passes up 
and along the neck. This neck connects with a long tapering copper pipe, called the 
"worm," coiled in a tank of running water, which cools and condenses the vapor into 
a liquid and runs it into the receiving vessel. The process is continued until practi- 
cally all of the alcohol contents of the liquor have been extracted. This first product 
is again distilled and the result is "whisky," "brandy," etc.. according to the charac- 
ter of the fermented liquid employed and the method of distillation. 

In a majority of present day establishments, large modern stills, the contents 
heated by steam coils, have succeeded the old-fashioned pot still, but the principle 
employed is identical. 

The still with a short "chimney'' leading into the "neck" — in some cases it is only 
the turn of the neck itself — is employed where it is desired to carry over as much 
flavor or perfume with the alcohol as possible. 

When for other purposes very strong and tasteless spirits are desired, "patent" 
or high chimney stills are employed, as the flavor-oils, etc., being heavier than the alco- 
holic vapor, fall away in its passage upwards. In addition, three and sometimes four 
re-distillations are employed to further abstract the water, etc. 

Distillation in its Leading principles and cruder forms is a process easy of accom- 
plishment, but much care, experience and judgment are required to produce spirits of 
high grade and quality. 

Dry Distillation: is a separation of one or more components from a solid body by the 
action of heat without the addition of liquid 

In Destructive Distillation, a term which is synonymous with Dry Distillation in 
the majority of its uses, the substance is placed in ovens or "retorts" of various shapes 
and compositions, of metal, clay, etc., which are subjected to sufficiently great heat to 
decompose their contents. The Destructive Distillation of bituminous coal, for example, 
^ives gas for illumination, power, etc.; coal tar, a thick liquid substance, now of great 
commercial value l see article on Coal Tar) and coke, the dry residue, generally utilized 
as fuel for blast-furnaces. 

DISTILLED WATER. See subhead in general article on Water. 

DRIED BEEF, Smoked Beef, Chipped Beef. The thick flank is the part generally 
used for Dried Meat. It is divided lengthwise, set for about ten to fourteen clays in a 
pickle of salt, sugar (or molasses) and a little saltpetre, then hung up and smoked like 
ham. Large quantities are sold in thin slices, put up in tins or glasses, in that condi- 
tion being generally known as "Chipped beef." A popular method of service is to 
blanch, drain and serve with Cream Sauce. 

DRIED AND EVAPORATED FRUIT. The great industry of drying and evapo- 
rating has made a diet of domestic fruit possible the year round irrespective of cli- 
mate ami season. It is also possible to sell the product at prices within the reach of all 
classes of people, because of the cheapness of the process and the lower cost of trans- 
portation per pound of actual food, as a result of the elimination of the bulk of the 
water which forms so large a percentage of both fresh and canned fruits. 

The comparative merits of the open-air "drying" and the indoor "evaporating" 
processes hinge entirely upon the matter of climate, hi California, open-air drying 



is almost universally employed, as the sections of the stale where fruit is dried are 

practically free from rain and excessive most tire during the drying season. In nearly 
every other part of the United States, the evaporating process "has entirely superseded 
open-air drying for commercial purposes and lias resulted in fruit that keeps better 
and consequently commands a higher price than sun-dried fruit from the same localities. 

In drying peaches, apricots and similar fruits they are firsl cleaned and cut. then 
placed cup-side up on wooden trays about three by seven feet in size and given a pre- 
liminary sulphur bath to sterilize them, before the trays are placed in t lie sun to dry. 
In good weather, five or six days are sufficient for thorough curing. The fruit is finally 
graded and packed in boxes and bags of various sizes. 

Evaporation. The history of the evaporating process begins about 1868. Two 
years later Charles Alden patented a tower form, known as the Alden Process, which 
temporarily achieved great popularity. Since that time many machines have entered the 
market, and it is said that in Wayne County, X. Y., alone, mote than 2,000 small evapo- 
rators are used on the farms. The system most in favor now among the larger packers 
consists of a slat floor with a furnace underneath, the fruit being spread thickly on 
the floor and dried by the heat rising through it. The newest method is by means of 


216 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

steam pipes running back and forth through the chamber of the evaporator. The advo- 
cates "I' tliis process claim that the heat is more evenly distributed and the temperature 
more uniform, avoiding all danger of scorching the fruit. 

In order to secure the best results of evaporation it is necessary to run the tempera- 
ture as high as possible without injury to the fruit and to keep the air in rapid circula- 
tion throughout the chamber. It is under these conditions that the slight chemical 
changes in perfectly evaporated fruit take place — the albumen, instead of being slowly 
dried, is coagulated and greatly assists in the preservation of the fruit with the richness 
and flavor it possessed in its natural state. After the trays are removed from the evapo- 
rator, the fruit is put into bins where it is stirred occasionally and allowed to remain 
until it has passed through the sweating process. Next comes the grading, by appear- 
ance, quality, etc. 

Ipples are generally peeled, cored and sliced by special machines before being 
passed to the evaporator. Pears and peaches are usually cut in halves and evaporated 
with or without being peeled. 

The cores and skins are evaporated separately, but in the same way as the fruit. 
When properly cured, they possess commercial value in home and foreign markets for 
the manufacture of jellies and vinegar. 

Standards, etc. Much trouble formerly arose from the lack of a standard of dry- 
ness in evaporated fruit. A bushel of green apples, for example, weighs about 50 lbs. 
and should make 7 or 8 lbs. of white stock and 4 lbs. of waste — five-sixths of the fruit 
being water. Apples when thoroughly dried still contain about 25% of water, but many 
lots were formerly sent to market containing 30 to 35% — being only half dried, they 
molded, discolored and fermented or soured. The present food law fixes 27 : /2% as the 
limit, which has practically eliminated that particular trouble — to the great advantage 
of the industry as a whole. 

During the Summer months and in warm climates generally, dried fruit is best 
kept in cold storage. If in good condition when put in, it will maintain its quality, 
flavor, etc., for a long time. If held in stores where it is exposed to dampness, it is liable 
to sour or become moldy. 

Preparation for the Table. In preparing dried or evaporated fruits such as apples 
and peaches for the table, the best results are attained by cooking slowly for several 
hours at a temperature just below the boiling point, enough water being added at first 
to cover the fruit. Every package of dried fruit should bear printed directions for 
making pies and for other forms of cooking, as very few housewives know how to use 
it to the best advantage. 

See also articles on Apples (dried), Dates, Figs, Prunes, Raisins, etc. 

DRIED HERBS, VEGETABLES, etc. See Herbs, Beans, Compressed Vegetables. 
Julienne, Lentils, Peas, Potato Chips, etc. 

DRUMFISH: a Southern sea fish, resembling the black grouper, which averages in 
weight from one to ten pounds. 

DUCKS. There are twelve "standard" varieties of domestic ducks raised in this 
country, but the most popular and abundant is the White Pekin, first imported from 
China about 1872. It is a large bird, a pair often reaching a total weight of twenty 
pounds, of delicate flesh and an excellent layer. It may be recognized by the peculiar 


White Pekin Duck? 

turned-up effect of its tail and its erect carriage — its 
legs are set so far back that it walks in an upright posi- 
tion. In a good specimen, the back is long and broad, 
and the breast round, full and very prominent. The 
plumage is downy and of creamy or snow-white through- 
out, and the bill yellow. The "standard" weight of the 
adult drake is eight pounds and the adult duck seven 
pounds; that of the young drake and duck, each one 
pound lighter. The average market weight is about five 
pounds each. 

Next to the Pekin in popularity is the White Ayles- 
bury, a famous English variety, similar in general ap- 
pearance, excepting the special Pekin effects of carriage and tail, and averaging a little 
heavier in weight. 

Other well-known types are the Colored Rouen — the name probably from Rouen, 
a city of Normandy, which is famous for its poultry — with the heavy domestic duck 
shape but with plumage closely resembling that of a wild Mallard duck; the Black 
Cayuga, a purely American variety, and the Colored and White Muscovy. 

Ducks are sent to market both dry-picked and scalded, opinions being divided as 
to the better method. 

Ducklings are generally in the market from May to November. The older birds 
then take their place from December to April. 

The general tests for age and conditions given under the head of Poultry apply in 
buying ducks. An additional test for age is found in the windpipe, which can be easily 
squeezed and moved in a young duck, but which becomes fixed and stiff in older birds. 

Wild Ducks. The best known varieties of wild ducks are the Canvasback, Mallard, 
Redhead, Ruddy, Green-winged Teal. Blue-winged Teal, Pintail, Black, Grey, Widgeon 
and Wood. See Color Page of Canvasback, Mallard and Ruddy, opposite page 218. 

The epicurean value of the cooked wild duck depends principally upon its diet dur- 
ing life. The delicious flavor of the Canvasback is attributable to its feeding princi- 
pally upon the eel grass called "Wild celery." which grows plentifully on the Chesa- 
peake shores and along the Great Lakes and western rivers. The proof of this statement 
is in the fact that the Canvasback when found in parts where the wild celery does not 
grow, offers no choicer flesh than the more ordinary members of the wild duck family. 

The delicacy of the flesh of the other varieties named is due to their feeding prin- 
cipally on grain, aquatic plants, small mollusks, ere. avoiding the fish diet which gives 
the rank taste to the Merganser duck. 

The last named, the Merganser— also variously known as the Sheldrake or Saw 
Bill — should always be avoided. Its adherence to a fish diet makes its flesh rank and 
unpleasant. It may be known by its hooked and saw-toothed bill. 

The descriptive items of plumage given in the following paragraphs refer, be it 
understood, only to especially characteristic markings — a fully detailed description of 
the elaborate costumes of the wild ducks of American habitat would require a good- 
sized volume exclusively devoted to the subject. Furthermore, in some varieties the 
plumage varies considerably with the season. 

The Canvasback takes its name from the plumage of its back— of ashy white, 
marked with ziffzajj black lines. It is further distinguished by a very short hill, and 


a rather long narrow liead sloping back from the bill. The crown of the head is a rich 
chestnul color, with parts Dearly black. The average market size is from five to six 
pounds a pair, sometimes going as high as eight pounds. The female is somewhat 
smaller than i lie male. 

Tin' Mallard is the ancestor of a majority of our domestic ducks of colored plum- 
age. The head and neck of the male are a glossy green and the back brown and grey, 
shading to black, witli blue and white markings on the wings. The female is princi- 
pally dark In-own and huff. The average market weight is five pounds a pair, though 
it often goes higher. 

The Red-Head resembles the Ganvasback in general appearance, hut it averages a 
little smaller and it also differs from it in several details — the black and white lines 
on the hack are nearly equal in width, giving a silvery appearance; the head is well 
rounded instead of sloping hack from the hill, and there is no black in its coppery 
chestnut crown. The upper part of the female is a greyish, mottled-looking brown. 

The Ruddy is again smaller than the Red-Head. The crown of the head and neck 
are glossy black and the sides of the head are dull white. The upper part of the body 
is encircled by a band of red brown and the lower part of the hack is white with brown 
bars. It is also distinguished by the stiffness of its (ail quills. The tipper part of the 
Female is a grey-brown. 

The Green-Winged Teal is one of the smallest of the wild duck family. The head 
and neck are chest nut color with green on the sides of the head ; the upper hack and sides 
are marked with waving black and white lines, and the lower parts are dark grey- 
brown. The wings are distinguished by the green patches which give the bird its name. 
The upper part of the female is mottled brown, with head and neck streaked with light 

The Blue-Winged Teal is a little larger than the Green- Winged. The head and neck 
are dark grey with a while crescent between the eves, and the back and wings reddish- 
hrown with purple tints. The female is brown and buff in colors. 

The Pintail is so named because of its long greenish-black tail feathers. The head 
and throat are of greenish-brown, the neck is especially long and slender, the back is 
marked with waving black lines and the breast and under parts are white. The upper 
part of the female is mottled grey, yellow and brown. The tail is shorter than that of 
the male but the central feathers are sharp-pointed. 

The Ulacl: Duck is about the same size as the female Mallard. The head is a rich 
brown and the upper part of the body dark, rather dull brown. 

The Grey Duclc has a head streaked with black or brown, the upper part of the 
back a brownish-grey and the lower part changing to black. The female is smaller and 

The Widgeon has a back of grey-brown mixed with black and a head white or buff 
on top and green on the sides. The female is smaller and darker. 

The Wood Duel; is a bird of such elaborate plumage that it would be difficult to 
name any one or two points as particularly distinguishing it. It is so beautiful that 
many sportsmen advocate its complete and entire protection as a bird of plumage. 

DULCIN: (it a highly sweet coal-tar product of the same charactei as Saccharin 
(which seei. (2) a crystalline sugar compound, resembling that from manna, obtained 
from several plants. 

Canvas Back 




DULSE: an edible red seaweed found on the North Atlantic coast, be- 
ing especially abundant in New England. It is rough dried in the sun 
aud eaten dry as a relish, cooked with butter to be eaten with fish, etc., 
or boiled in milk to be served as a vegetable. 


DUNFISH. See sub-head in article on Cod. 

DURIAN : one of the most important of Malay fruits. It is greenish 
in color, inclined to oval in shape, about the size of a large cocoanut 
and the thick skin marked with spicules. Its odor is unpleasant to the 
novitiate, but the pulpy flesh has a pleasant taste, and the seeds also 
make good eating when roasted. 


"DUTCH STANDARD 16 " : is a sugar standard used in the custom-house, in 
conjunction with the polariscope, to determine the quality of sugar imported and the 
duty payable. Sugar below it in grade is subject to the Raw Sugar duty; that above ir, 
the higher rate for Refined Sugar. The "16" corresponds to one of a set of sixteen -lass 
bottles or tubes of sugar of various grades of purity and color, originally used by the 
Dutch government for classing sugars, and generally so employed by other nations 
also until the introduction of the Polariscope (which see). 

DYES, Aniline: are put up in convenient packages for dyeing a great variety of 

articles, from Easter Eggs to clothing and household furnishings. They are based on 
Aniline, a coal-tar product discovered in 1S56. 

A majority of aniline colors are soluble in water, some in alcohol and some in oil. 
A few of the water-soluble can be made into oil-soluble. If alcohol or oil soluble colors 
ape desired, it should be designated when ordering. 

Certain of these dyes are now largely employed as very effective and harmless 
colors for confectionery, etc. (see Colors and Coloring Matters). 

EDAM: one of the best known of Dutch cheeses. See Cheese. 

EELS: are found in all countries and climates and in both fresh and salt water, and 

are in season the year around. The most general classifi- 
cation is into River or "silver," and Sea or "conger." The 
three best known types are "snig," "sharp-nosed" and "broad-nosed." All kinds are very 
much alike in appearance, and have the same black tough skin. The principal differ- 
ence is in size, the sea or conger eels sometimes reaching enormous proportions. 

EGGS: one of the most generally valuable of food products, because of the many 
ways in which they are utilized. 

When lightly cooked, eggs are easily digested and are well suited to sick or deli- 
cate people. Boiled hard or fried, they are more difficult of assimilation. A fresh egg 
is said to equal in nourishment one and a half ounces of meat and one ounce of bread 

In ordinary parlance, hen's eggs are always nnderst 1 when "eggs" are men- 
tioned, but the omnivorous human diet includes also those of various other creatures. 
There is, for example, a limited consumption of the eggs of ducks, geese and guinea- 
fowls, and in some sections of gulls and other wild birds, those of the plover being 


222 the grocer's encyclopedia 

considered a great delicacy. The eggs of turkeys and, in California, of ostriches are also 
occasionally eaten, but they are ordinarily too valuable for hatching to use them for 
the table. Again, terrapin eggs are served with the meat, the eggs of the sturgeon as 
caviar, those of the shad as "shad roe," etc. These, however, are topics foreign to the 
art icle following, which refers to the eggs of domestic hens. 

Tliere is a great similarity in the proportion of shell, white and yolk in fowls' 
eggs. Roughly speaking, the shell makes up one-tenth, the yolk three-tenths, and the 
while about six-tenths. The white is nearly seven-eighths water. The solids of the 
w bite are practically all nitrogenous matters, principally albumen. The yolk is about 
.me half water, one-third fat and the remainder principally nitrogenous matter. 

The egg meat varies though somewhat in different seasons and conditions. Those 
received in the spring are generally firmer and fuller than those gathered later in the 
summer and the thickness of the shells varies in different sections — those of Ohio and 
Indiana, for example, being generally harder and thicker than those of Michigan and 
New York — owing, perhaps, to the difference in the gravel of the soil. 

All eggs are examined by "candling." The process, in a cold storage house, is per- 
formed iu a dark room where electric light spots glow inside dark green metal shades, 
each with a single open space or hole. The egg is placed against this hole and an elec- 
tric ray penetrates its very being. 

For months during the egg gathering season, a force of men stand at these light 
holes, candling eggs with marvelous rapidity and grading them in boxes which an ele- 
\aim- is carrying ceaselessly to cold storage rooms. 

New-laid eggs appear semi-transparent, of a uniform pale pinkish tint, with only 
a very small air-chamber — a separation of the skin from the shell, filled with air. 

If incubation has begun, a dark spot is visible, increasing in size in proportion to 
the length of incubation, and the entire contents appear cloudy, becoming worse as 
the egg grows older. Other similar spots are caused by fungus growth. A rotten egg 
is dark-colored, almost opaque. The air-chamber also becomes larger with age. 

There are various degrees of badness classified in the trade by different colors. 
Those absolutely unfit for food are used in the tanning industry. 

A great many eggs are not "full" — the fact does not mean that the egg is not a 
good product, but it must not be rated as either a "fancy fresh" or a "fresh-gathered 
extra." Again there are "checks." A "check" is an egg that has met with an accident 
that has cracked the shell so slightly that the crack is ordinarily invisible — the egg is 
not necessarily bad, but it must not be sold at the same price as a perfect one. 

A writer in the New England Grocer says of the egg trade : "The original owners of 
the eggs know as little about the history of their distribution as do the men aud women 
who finally devour them. 

•To these first and last persons who handle the product, the eggs are either good 
or bad, and there's an end on't ! But to the man who handles them between the farm 
ami the breakfast table there are Fancy Fresh, Fresh (lathered, Storage Packed. 
Storage, Limed, Known Marks, Extras, Firsts, Seconds, Dirties, Checks, etc. The dis- 
tinctions become very necessary when one realizes that practically the whole enormous 
egg business is conducted by telegraph and that the dealer who purchases a carload of 
eggs lias no opportunity to examine them until they arrive." 

With the exception of those which, because of their proximity to a large city, can 
profitably be shipped by express, eggs always travel in refrigerator cars — winter as well 
as summer, for the heavy construction of the perambulating ice-chests is equally serv- 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 223 

iceable for protection against cold and heat. One carload contains four hundred cases, 
or one hundred and forty-four thousand eggs. 

On large poultry farms, eggs are produced and handled very much as the product 
of any other factory — the poultry man knows his cost of production by dozen or case, 
the operative cost, etc., etc., just as does his contemporary in any other line of business 
— but the greater part of the country's egg supply is still represented by accumulations 
from thousands of general farmers scattered all over the country. 

''The history of one of these farm eggs reads like 'a gathering of the clans.' The 
hen that laid it may be the property of a small farmer in a Western state, located 
fifty or a hundred miles from the nearest good-sized town. The egg is one of a dozen 
that the farmer takes to the nearest village store and either sells for a small sum of 
money or barters for sugar, calico, tobacco or some other commodity that he needs more 
than he needs eggs. 

"Other farmers in the neighborhood are doing the same and the store is thus the 
recruiting station for a goodly company of eggs that must necessarily find a market 
somewhere else. These eggs are sent to a larger center, where they pass into the con- 
trol of a large, or small, shipper who mobilizes them, to continue the figure, no longer 
by companies but by battalions, regiments and armies — i. e., carloads. 

"When the shipper has a carload of eggs ready for the eastern market, he tele- 
graphs the fact to an eastern dealer. A certain amount of dickering goes on over the 
wire, and the eggs are finally sent East. The eggs are not though for immediate con- 
sumption, heuce the necessity for the refrigerator car and the storage warehouse to 
retain the condition in which they were purchased. 

"Comparatively few eggs are found to be bad, and all shipments are now sold 'at 
mark,' a technical way of saying that a case of eggs at wholesale is supposed to be with- 
in a small percentage of the requirements or standard of each grade, and there is no 
rebate for damaged eggs. Formerly there was a rebate during a part of the year that 
was called the 'loss off' season, because a certain percentage of the eggs were not expected 
to come up to the standard of the various grades. 

"There are very few disputes between shippers and dealers that are not settled 
peaceably between the persons directly concerned, but occasionally they form the basis 
of expert examination by either the Chamber of Commerce or Fruit and Produce 
Exchange inspectors, sometimes indeed getting as far as the Arbitration Committee." 

There is a wide difference in the weight of eggs — although all cooking receipts 
say "take two eggs," or whatever number seems suitable, without any allowance for 
variations in size! 

The breeds that lay the largest eggs, averaging seven to a pound, are the Black 
Spanish, Light Brahma, Houdan, La Fleche, and Creve Coeur. Eggs of medium size 
and weight, averaging eight or nine to a pound, are laid by the Leghorn, Cochin. 
Minorca, Bed Cap, Poland, Dorking and Games. Hamburg eggs average about ten to 
the pound. There is thus a difference of three eggs in one pound weight. The average 
weight of twenty eggs laid by different breeds is 2% pounds. 

The most popular types of fowls for egg-producing are Leghorns, Minorcas, Black 
Spanish, Hamburgs and Bed Caps, their average total output being larger than from 
other varieties. 

The size of the egg varies also with the care and treatment of the fowls. Those from 
the South formerly averaged small for all breeds, but a marked improvement has been 
noticeable during recent vears. 


A bulletin of the North Carolina station of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
wives the following figures as the results of tests made to ascertain the comparative 
values of eggs from a number of Southern-bred standard fowls, both as pullets and 
mature hens. 

The firs! named type, Single Comb Brown Leghorn Pullets, is taken as the start- 
ing point — the eggs from the others following being found of higher food value to the 
extent of the percentage named. For example, if eggs from the Single Comb Brown 
Leghorn Pullets were at that time worth 30 cents a dozeu, those from Single Comb 
Brown Leghorn Hens were worth 20% more, or 36 cents a dozen, and those from the 
Ught Brahma lh ns, 60% more, were worth 48 cents a dozen. 

These averages arc subject to variations as a result of differences in feeding and 


Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Greater Value Greater Value 

Singh Comb Brown Leghorn Pullets *** Buff Cochin Hens 31.8 

Single Comb Brown Leghorn Hens 20.7 Black Langshan Pullets 31.8 

Silver-Laced Wyandotte Pullets 23. Barred Plymouth Rock Pullets 34.S 

Light Brahma Pullets 30. Barred Plymouth Rock Hens 40. 

Late-hatched Barred Plymouth Rock Hens 30.4 Buff Cochin and Black Langshan Pullets 47.2 

White Wvandotte Hens 30.4 Black Minorca Pullets 47.2 

White Wvandotte Pullets 30.4 Black Langshan Hens 51.4 

White Plymouth Rock Pullets 31.1 Light Brahma Hens 60. 

By far the greater part of the eggs held over for future use are kept in condition in 
cold storage, but when this is impossible they may be preserved by immersion in a solu- 
tion of water-lass (Sodium and Potassium Silicate). Experiments, both in a practical 
way and in laboratories, have demonstrated that a 10% solution of water-glass will 
preserve them so effectively that even at the end of three or four months they will 
appear fresh. In most packed eggs, the yolk soon settles to one side, and the egg is then 
inferior in quality, but in those preserved for three and a half months in water-glass, 
the yolk retained its normal position. One gallon of the solution is sufficient for fifty 
dozen eggs if they are properly packed. 

Eggs varnished with vaseline or preserved in limewater also keep well but the 
former is too laborious and the latter sometimes communicates a disagreeable odor and 

Eggs in cold storage are held at temperature ranging between a little below and 
a little above the freezing point. They are seldom kept longer than six months, but 
under -oikI conditions they will retain a fairly fresh flavor for a year or more, losing 
however in weight from the evaporation of the whites. 

Eggs enter into commerce in many forms in addition to those in the shell — including 
whole eggs removed from the shell and stored in cans at a little below the freezing point, 
powdered yolks, crystallized whites, desiccated eggs, etc. 

Large quantities of egg substitute are consumed in mining camps and desert 
regions. Some of these consist chiefly of starch, others are of animal origin. They 
an- of varying degrees of value. 

Fresh eggs should be kept in a dry. coo] place free from any strong or objection- 
able odor. If packed in salt or sawdust they will remain fresh longer than if exposed 
to the air. 

Boiling Eggs. There are other ways of boiling eggs than by their immersion for a 
pertain number of minutes in boiling water. A more pleasing result can be obtained. 




(1) by placing them in cold water and gradually bringing it to a boil, removing them 
when the boiling point has been reached, or (2) by placing them in boiling water and 
then turning the gas flame out, or setting the pot well back on the range, removing the 
eggs in from seven to ten minutes. By either procedure, the white will be tender and 
jelly-like instead of the somewhat tough and leathery consistence of the ordinary 
boiled egg. 

{see Color Page) 

a fruit-vege- 


table which is growing in popularity in this 
country. In many parts of the tropics it is a 
staple and important article of diet. There are 
several varieties of the plant, yielding fruit of 
varying qualities and of different colors, shapes 
and sizes. The best known type is somewhat egg- 
shaped, three to five inches in diameter and from 
light purple to black in color. It is generally 
tried in slices, but is eveu more palatable when 
cut in une-inch cubes. It is also excellent stewed. 

ELDER: a bush bearing flat clusters of berries 
of a deep purple color. Elderberry Wine is 
prized for its medicinal properties, and is also employed in the manufacture of imita- 
tion Port. 

( . ithei in- t jgplani - 

ELEME: a Turkish word for "selected," as Eleme -figs i see Figs). 

EMERY: an impure hard black or greyish-black granular corundum, employed in 
pulverized form for polishing and grinding metals, etc. Emery cloth or Paper U 
coated with a mixture of emery powder and glue. The colored varieties of corundum 
include the sapphire and several other precious stones. 

ENDIVE, Gichorium Endivia: a salad plant of the Chicory family and closely allied 
to the dandelion, originally brought from China to Europe in the sixteenth century. 
The two principal types under cultiva- 
tion are those known to gardeners as 
"Curly Endive," with narrow, feathery 
leaves, and "Broad-leafed" or "Bata- 
vian" Endive, with leaves large and 
rather broad, generally twisted and 
waved and with thick white midribs. 

In Eastern markets. Curly Endive 
and other small leafed varieties are 
generally known as Chicory i which 
see) because of their resemblance to 
Common Chicory, and Broad-leafed 
Endive by the French title of Escaroh . 
The title Endive is reserved for the 
winter-grown heads of the Witloof or 
Brussels Chicory, a sub-variety of the 



Magdeburg Large-Rooted Chicory, which onsist of a Dumber of thick creamy-white 
leaves from four to six inches in length and one to two inches in width, pressed tightly 
together and generally tapering to a 

Curly Endive, or Chicory, is grown 
both for summer and winter markets, 
generally blanched more or less in culti- 

Broad-leafed Endive, or Escarole, is 
more highly considered as a winter than 
a summer salad but it is raised for both 
seasons, its natural tendency to blanched 
centers being accentuated by gardeners. 

^'itloof Chicory, or Endive, is a 
winter salad exclusively and is obtained 
by cutting off the summer tops of the 
plant, setting the roots in sand in cellars, 
etc., and forcing the desired new growth. 
It is eaten both raw and cooked. For 
salad purposes it should be very crisp 
as otherwise it is liable to be too bitter. 
The greater part of the Eastern supply is 
imported from Europe. 

" Endive" 

ENTREE, ENTREMET. See list of Culinary Terms in Appendix. 

ERBSWURST: an important army ration, originated in Germany. It consists of 
a mixture of pea-pulp, bacon and seasoning. 

ESCAPERNONG: an Indian name from which is derived the title of the best 
known Southern grape, the Scuppernong (which see). 

ESCAROLE. See article on E 


ESPAGNOLE: one of the principal fundamental sauces in cookery and used as a 
basis for many brown sauces. It contains the essence of a variety of articles — ham, 
veal and beef, several vegetables, a number of herbs and spices, fowls (old birds are 
taken for the purpose) and wine. The proper cooking, preparation, etc., require several 

ESSENTIAL OILS, or Volatile Oils. See general article on Oils. 

EVAPORATED FRUITS, Etc. See Dried and Evaporated Fruits. 

EXTRACTS: as familiar to the average retailer and consumer, consist of a certain 
percentage of true extract or essence, or its chemical imitation, in an alcoholic solu- 
tion. The aromatic principles of a great many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some 
flowers, are thus marketed, among the best known of true extracts being almond. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 229 

cinnamon, cloves, ginger, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, pistachio, rose, spear- 
mint, vanilla, violet and wintergreen. 

A majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from 
the blossoms, fruit, roots, etc., or the whole plants, by expression, absorption, distil- 
lation or maceration. The first method, that of Expression, can only be employed when 
the oil is very plentiful and easily obtained, as in lemon peel (see Lemon Oil). The 
second, Absorption, is generally accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans 
(see Vanilla Extract). The third, Distillation (which see) is sometimes compara- 
tively easy, as when following Maceration in making peppermint extract, etc. i see 
Mint), but in many cases it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of 
costly stills. 

The distinctive flavors of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, 
are very desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but unfortunately there are only 
a few from which it is practicable to obtain a concentrated flavor extract of the 
necessary strength. Among those which lend themselves readily to the manufacture 
of "pure" extracts the most important are lemons, oranges and vanilla beans. 

A majority of other concentrated fruit flavors, as banana, cherry, currant, peach, 
pineapple, raspberry and strawberry, are produced by chemical combinations of com- 
pound ethers, together with special oils, etc , the desired colors being generally obtained 
by the use of coal-tar dyes. Among the ethers most generally employed are Acetic and 
Butyric (which see). The chief factors in the production of artificial banana and pine- 
apple extract, and also important in the rninufaeture of strawberry extract, are amyl- 
acetate and amyl-butyrate, Amyl Alcohol being the principal constituent of that part 
of the alcohol obtained by the distillation of grain and potato starch, etc., which is 
popularly known in this country as "fusel oil" and in Europe generally by the title of 
"potato oil." 

Artificial extracts do not as a rule possess the delicacy of the fruit flavor, but 
they get sufficiently close to it to be of real service and convenience when true essences 
are unobtainable. 

EXTRACT OF MEAT. See special article on Meat Extract. 

FALERNIAN WINE. "Falernian Wine" is a familiar expression — the reference is 
to the famous wines of ancient Rome produced in the district of Falernus, near the 
Massican Hills. 

FARINA. The word Farina indicates properly the flour of any grain, starch, root, 
etc., but as used generally in this country it signifies either a coarse "flour" from corn 
(maize), used principally for making puddings and desserts, or a wheat "cereal" for 
breakfast purposes, etc. 

Wheat "farina" corresponds to the product known in Europe as Semolina or 
Semola. It consists of very fine wheat "middlings"— the small particles of wheat left 
in the bolting machine after the flour has been passed through its meshes. The besl 
is that obtained in the milling of the very bard-grained wheats. 

Semolina is perhaps most popular in France where it is used in a great many ways. 
including a favorite variety of fine wheat bread known as pain de gruau, etc. In Italy 
it is used with other grains and meal in making Polenta I which see). Tt is the original 
macaroni "flour." 



FEME SOLE TRADER: is the legal term applied to a woman who secures a license 
to carry on business in her own name without liability for the debts of her husband 
and without rendering her husband liable for her own. 

FENNEL. Common Harden or Siceet Frnnr] is a plant 
leaves which are consumed both fresh — for garnishing, 
as a salad, etc. — and cooked as a vegetable, in the latter 
case generally tied in bunches and boiled with fish and 
«ci tain other foods. It is very popular in Italy, especi- 
ally in the vicinity of Naples. The seeds are also used 
for seasoning and in the manufacture of liqueurs. 

Florence Fennel is a different variety, grown princi- 
pally for the bulbous lower parts of the leaf stalks, 
which are usually eaten boiled. In flavor it somewhat 
resembles celery but is sweeter. 

chief! v cultivated for its 

FENUGREEK: is a herb which resembles clover. Its Florence Fennel 

seeds are used as an ingredient of curry powder. Separately, they are strong, bitter 

and of unpleasant flavor. 

FERMENTATION: in its broadest sense, is the chemical change by which organic 
-lances are decomposed and re-combined in new substances or compounds. Ferment" 
are of two classes — ''organized," or living, as yeast fungi, lactic bacteria, etc., and 
"unorganized," as diastase, pepsin, etc. 

In its most widely used significance, fermentation is the chemical change produced 
in substances, more or less liquid, containing some sugary solution, by which the latter 
is converted into a liquid, alcohol, and a gas, carbon-dioxide (see article on Yeast). 
Wine and beer fermentation is called Vinous. Under favorable conditions of tempera- 
ture, etc., fermentation continues until the growth of the yeast cells is stopped by the 
exhaustion of the particular chemical components adapted for their subsistence, or by 
the formation of other substances in quantities inimical to their growth. As already 
noted, alcohol is one of the chief results of vinous fermentation, but it is itself adverse 
to yeast growth, and will stop it entirely, and with it fermentation, if a sufficient 
quantity is added to the liquid, or formed in it. 

Vinous fermentation is followed under certain conditions by acetous fermentation 
—a class of acetic bacteria oxidizing the alcohol and producing vinegar. 

The "souring" of milk is lactic fermentation — the milk sugar being converted by 
the action of lactic bacteria into lactic acid. See article on Bacteria. 

Putrefaction of meat, etc., is Putrefactive Fermentation. 

FETTICUS: one of the many names for Corn Salad (which see). 

FIG: the fruit of the fig tree, of which there are several hundred varieties. It consist s 
of a pulp containing about 60% sugar, enclosed in a thin skin varying in color from 
nearly white to dark purplish or black. 

Figs are besf known to the average consumer in their dried condition. Next in 
poinl of popularity are those preserved in syrup, brandy, maraschino, etc., and in 

FIG Tree and Fruit (fresh and dried) 



"marmalade" form. There is also a fair demand for Stuffed Figs, tilled with nut 
meats mixed with chopped figs or with any of the materials used in the stuffing of 
dates. The fresh fruit is too perishable an article for handling by any other than 
"fancy" fruit stores, except iu districts with a large Latin population. 

Some choice qualities of both the "plain" and "stuffed" are put up in fancy boxes, 
baskets, jars, etc., but the greater part of the supply, from the very finest "Smyrna 
Extra Fancy 3-in Layers" to the more ordinary types, come in bulk, chiefly in boxes, but 
also in drums, bags, etc. 

The greater part of the consumption of dried figs is of the imported variety, chiefly 
from Asia Minor, of which Smyrna is the principal seaport — hence the name "Smyrna 
Figs." Greece and Italy supply a minor quantity and there is a constantly increas- 
ing production in California and the South. 

Dried figs can be kept without deterioration for from eight to twelve weeks if stored 
in a uniform temperature of about 40° Fahr. 

Minor grades are in Europe utilized in large quantities in the manufacture of 
brandy and, in Germany, as a substitute for coffee. 

Imported Figs. The two principal types of "Smyrna Figs" — which set the quality 
standard for all fig-producing countries — are those classed as Eleme, the best known 
type of "pulled figs," and called also ''Layer Figs" because of the style of packing, and 
Locoum. "Eleme" is a Turkish word signifying "selected." "Locoum" figs are those 
packed in the shape of cubes — Locoum being the Turkish name for a square-shaped 
sweetmeat. The title also stands for quality, because only thick and meaty figs can be 
packed in Locoum style. 

"(Smyrna I Naturals" are the inferior fruits, shipped loose in bags and boxes. The 
term "natural" is applied because they are not compressed in packing. 

In packing Eleme Figs, the fruit is first "pulled" and drawn between the fingers 
and thumb into a flat disk-like form, and then the back part is split to allow still 
more spreading. In "pulling," the "eye" part is brought into the center of the disk. 
The "pulled" figs are then placed in "layers" in boxes and the piling up of the boxes 
on each other presses the contents. A few bay leaves are generally placed on top 
of the filled boxes, partly for the flavor and partly to exclude insects. 

Eleme or Layer Figs are graded from "choice" to "extra fancy." etc., and by size. 
1% in. to 3 in., etc. 

—w- , 

1 J 

■St. i 


Locoum Ki^s— American style (rounded) 

Locoum Figs— London style (squared) 

A Smyrna Fig 1 Packing establishment 

rowi eh ■ o. 



For Locoum Figs, the fruit is merely pressed between the fingers to somewhat 
cubical shape. 

The square-shaped Locoum-packing shown in the center box iu the illustration 

at the foot of page 233 is generally known as the "English" or "London" style. It 
has the advantage that the absence of air-passages is an additional safeguard against 
the deterioration of the fruit. The round or "American" packing is also frequently 
known in the trade by the specific title of "Pulled Figs." The English style is 
usually preferred in New England markets, but elsewhere the American is the best 
selling type of Locoum figs. 

The greater part of the basket and carton output is further generally described as 

Most of the fig trees grown in Asia Minor are of the varieties which require 
"caprification." They bear only female blossoms, and these are hidden iuside the imma- 
ture fruit. The only method of fertilizing the fruit is by means of the fig wasp, a little 
insect which is found abundantly in the fruit of the wild fig, known as the "Caprifig." 
When the wasp emerges from the ripened caprifig in which she has developed to 
maturity, she seeks an immature caprifig to enter for the purpose of depositing her 
eggs in it. If a cultivated fig tree is nearby, she may enter its immature fruit by mis- 
take — and as she is covered with the pollen of the caprifig, she unwittingly fertilizes 
its numerous blossoms by piercing their bases and thus brings the fruit to maturity. 
Where caprifigs grow in the vicinity of "Smyrna" trees, the wasps will of their own 
accord fertilize the fruit of the latter with more or less thoroughness, but to insure 
complete and uniform fertilization of the entire crop, 
growers take charge of the caprification themselves 
by attaching caprifigs to reeds and suspending them 
over the fruiting branches of the cultivated trees. 

Grecian Figs are chiefly of varieties similar to 
the "Smyrna" and require caprification. The fruit 
is generally of inferior quality. After drying, it is 
usually strung on reeds, bent into "wheels," of various 
shapes and containing each from .fifty to several hun- 
dred, and packed in large rases. 

Italian Figs are principally of types which do 
not need caprification. The drying is frequently by 
artificial heat and is facilitated by splitting the fruit. 
A popular style is to insert an almond or piece of 
citron in the pulp after drying. 

Grecian and Italian figs are cut as they ripen, 
instead of being allowed to fall as in Asia Minor. 

. K CO. 

A "wheel" of Greek figs 

California Figs. Fig culture has become an industry of considerable importance in 

California. The greater part of the crop is dried, generally in the sun, and the variety 
chiefly grown for that purpose is known as the Adriatic. The best qualities are packed 
in small cartons with fancy ribbons. Next in importance are Preserved Figs, generally 
the fruit of the "Magnolia" or Brunswick Fig. 

The self-pollinating trees which until recently have been exclusively cultivated in 
California, do not produce fruit to compare in quality with the tine imported Smyrna 
product, but during the last few years a considerable number of true Smyrna Fig trees 

236 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

have been successfully grown there. Owing to the necessity of caprification, it was 
formerly impossible to fertilize the blossoms of these trees in California, but a number 
l laprifig trees have been imported and a few of these are planted in each "Smyrna 
Fig" orchard, in order to breed the necessary supply of fig wasps, and to afford them 
a suitable place to sojourn during the winter. 

Southern Figs are most familiar to consumers in the form of skinless fig preserves 
put up in syrup. The skin of the fruit is removed by chemical or mechanical means 
—during the entire process of preserving, the fig is not touched by human hands 
after the preparatory processes of sorting and inspecting the fresh fruit. The variety 
known locally as the "Magnolia," though really of the Brunswick type, is the most wide- 
ly cultivated in the South. It begins to ripeu about the middle of June, continuing until 

The last decade has seen thousands of acres of land sold in Texas on the strength 
of its adaptability for the Magnolia fig crop, and millions of the trees have been planted. 

Other figs grown to a considerable extent in the South are, in Texas, the Mission 
Black, known locally as the "Brunswick" or the ''Black California," and, in Louisiana, 
the Brown Marseilles, known locally as the "Celeste," and the White Marseilles, known 
locally as the "New French." 

FILBERTS or Hazel Nuts (See Color Page opposite 414) : the fruit of the Hazel 
bush or tree, growing in clusters, each enveloped in a husk which opens as the nut 
ripens. FiUn rts, "full-beards," are those with fringed husks extending beyond the nuts; 
Hazels, "hoods," have husks shorter than the nuts. When ripe and deprived of the 
husks, only an expert can tell the difference, as there are several styles and sizes of 
each. In this country they are all classed as "filberts." 

The two chief varieties of the American nut are the "Common" and "Beaked." The 
former is the more desirable, its kernel being sweet and pleasing in flavor, but it is too 
small to be of much commercial value. 

The best known imported varieties are the Sicily and Naples, the bulk of the sup- 
ply coming from Sicily. One Naples type is distinguished by its large oblong shape. 

"Barcelona Nuts" are hazel nuts, generally kiln-dried, from Barcelona, Spaiu. 

FILLET or Filet: a market term for the Tenderloin (see Beef and Pork). Also a 
culinary term for a strip or Viand of meat without bone. 

FINES HERBES: a French culinary term for a combination of Chervil, Chives. 
Parsley, etc. 

"FINGER ROLLS," Salt Sticks, Soup Sticks: Italian bread made in stick form, 
from twelve to eighteen inches long. The term is also applied to finger-shapes of crusty 
bread, cut in various sizes and thicknesses to be eaten with soup. 

FININGS and Fining. See matter following title of Clarification. 

FINNAN HADDIE or Findon Haddie: the popular title for smoked haddock— the 
name being after the fishing village of Findon, Scotland. It is marketed in cans and 
boxes and is considered Lest during the winter months. It is an excellent breakfast 



dish. The supply was formerly almost entirely imported, but now some of the finest 
comes from New England. 

FIRKIN. See tables of ~SYeights and Measures in Appendix. 

FISH. The annual catch of fish in the United States — sea, lakes and rivers— averages 
about 2,200,000,000 pounds, most of which is consumed in this country. To obtain the 
actual quantity of food represented, the figures must be considerably reduced, as the 
loss of weight in dressing varies from 15% to 50%. To the net total is added the impor- 
tation of nearly 200,000,000 pounds — fresh, salted, canned, etc. The final figures sound 
very impressive, but when due allowance is made for the large per capita consumption 
in certain sections, the result represents only a small per capita consumption by the 
general public. 

Public opinion has been enlightened from time to time by medical aud other scien- 
tific advocacy of a greater consumption of fish as especially suited to the semi-seden- 
tary habits and lives of a very large percentage of the population, and the result has 
undoubtedly been an increased appreciation and consumption, but it remains true that. 
by probably the majority, fish is still looked upon as an "extra'' course, an exclusively 
Friday meat or, in the case of canned goods, as an emergency item. A more general 
use of fish would tend to decrease the cost of living by relieving the pressure of our 
ever-increasing numbers on the beef supply. 

It is somewhat curious to note the tenacity of certain erroneous impressious con- 
cerning fish as a food. It is still commonly believed that it is an especially good brain 
stimulant because of the phosphorus contained in the flesh. .\s a matter of fact, fish 
contains little if any more phosphorus than beef, and even if it did. there is uo reason 
to believe that it would therefore exercise any perceptible influence on the brain. On 
the other hand, many people undoubtedly eschew fish because they fear ptomaine poi- 
soning — yet, under conditions of proper care and cleanliness, there is no more danger 
of poisoning from fish than from many 
other articles of food. 

Stripped of all prejudices and tra- 
ditions, fish is very similar to lean beef 
in its food composition. The many vari- 
eties differ considerably in their propor- 
tions of the different elements, hut they 
are all similar in that they supply the 
human system with a considerable per- 
centage of protein — muscle and flesh 
building nutrients. 

The fish which most closely corre- 
spond with the average beef percentage 
of protein are the halibut, pollack. Maine 
salmon and sturgeon. Those exceeding 
the beef average in protein include: cod- 
steaks, smoked and salted cod, smoked 
and salted halibut, smoked and salted 
herring, mackerel, California salmon and 
canned sardines. 


A Japanese Fish M 

238 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

A third of those averaging a little below in protein percentage, takes in black 
bass, sea bass, bluefish, butterfish, cusk, fresh herring, fresh mackerel, yellow perch, 
pickerel, ponipano, redsnapper, shad, trout, weakfish and whitefish. 

The average of protein of all fish sold, including the lesser varieties, is about 
two-thirds of that of beef. 

It will be noted (hat in the fourth paragraph fish was described as tallying closely 
witli lean beef. The average cut of beef contains a considerable percentage of fat, 
but this element is found in similar proportions in comparatively few varieties of 
fish — the majority having more water and less fat. 

There are however, a number of fish which contain as much fat as such meats as 
young chickens, veal, etc. — among them being butterfish, smoked or salted halibut, 
smoked or salted herring, mackerel, salmon, canned sardines, trout and turbot — and a 
few which equal medium-fat beef in fat percentage, chief among them being California 
salmon, smoked and salted halibut and salted and canned mackerel — the last-named 
indeed frequently exceeding it in fat. The fat of beef is, though, generally more easily 
digested than that of fish. 

Other fish which contain a fair proportion of fat are alewife, striped bass, fresh- 
smoked haddock, fresh halibut, fresh herring, mullet, pompano, porgy, shad and 

Shellfish, being treated under a separate head, have not been included in these 

The digestibility of fish varies with the different varieties, but as a general rule 
it may be stated that those with the smaller amount of fat are the more easily digested, 
and that fresh fish, though less rich in food values, is more easily assimilated than 
i hat smoked or dried. Canned uncured fish corresponds very closely in digestibility 
with the fresh fish of the same variety. 

In buying fish, freshness should be insisted on as essential. The flesh should be 
firm and the skin and eyes bright. Avoid any whose meat is so soft that the pressure 
of the finger leaves a mark. Cleanliness both in storing and handling are very impor- 

Most fish are at their best just before spawning time, except shad, which is con- 
sidered the choicest when spawning; and when very fresh, except halibut, which 
improves in flavor with a little age. After spawning, fish loses greatly in quality — the 
flavor is less desirable and the flesh becomes soft. 

It should be remembered that the ordinary temperature of a cooling room or re- 
frigerator is not cold enough to keep fresh fish in prime condition. It should instead 
be buried in fine cracked ice. For shipment and storage, it is frequently frozen into 
blocks of ice. 

All fish should be thoroughly cleaned before cooking. 

Dried, Salted, Smoked and Pickled fish should always be kept out of the sun and as 
cool as possible. If the brine dries out or leaks away in transit or in the cellar, rebrine 
them at once. Keep the barrel covered and use a special fish fork for hand- 
ling the fish. 

Smoked and cured fish of all kinds are best in cold weather. 

Canned fish, as also all other kinds of canned goods, should be emptied into a china 
or glass vessel or dish when the can is opened — it should never be left in the can. 

Of the fresh fish, striped bass, butterfish, cod. cusk, eels, haddock, halibut, king- 
fish, Spanish mackerel, pollack. Pacific salmon, imported sole and sturgeon are found 



in the eastern market all the year round. The other, are, generally, in seas,,,, h, accord- 
ance with the following list : 

Angel, or Moon Fish— July and August. 
Bass: Lake or Black — June to December. 

Sea — May to October. 
Blackfish, or Tautog — April to October. 
Bluefish — May to October. 
Bloaters — October to April. 
Bonito — June to October. 
Carp, Common or Buffalo — Middle of July to 

October. German — October to April. 
Codfish Tongues and Sounds — October to 

Flounders — Spring and Summer. 
Frost-Fish — October to March. 
Grayling — September to January. 
Grouper — November to March. 
Hake — See Whiting. 
Herring — October to April. 
Lafayette — Middle of August to November. 
Lamprey — April to May. 
Mackerel — April to September. 
Mullet — June to October. 
Muscallonge — June to December. 
Perch — September to May. 

Pickerel— June to December. 

Pike — September to April. 

Pompano— May. July, latter half of November 

and December. 
Porgy — June 15 to October 15. 
Redsnappek— October to middle of July 
Salmon i Kennebecj— May 15 to September 30 
Shad — January to June. 
Sulepshead — June 15 to November 15. 
Skate, or Ray Fish— -September to June 
Smelt— August 15 to April 15 
Spotfish— August to May. 
Trout, American— January to middle of July. 
English — January to March. 
Brook— April to August. 
Turbot, American — January to July. 
English — January to March. 
Weakfish— May 15 to October 15. 
Whitebait t Imported 1— March to August. 
WniTEFrsii — November to July. 
Whiting, or Silver Hake— S e p t e m b e r to 


See also additional matter concerning the fish mentioned in their respective alpha- 
betical positions. 

FISH CULTURE or Pisciculture. Propagation of the principal food fishes is con- 
ducted on a steadily expanding scale in the United Stales and the results long ago 
demonstrated the immense national profit derived. The salmon, the shad and many 
other important fishes would in all probability be practically extinct to-day if tin 
hatcheries had not supplied billions of young fish to help take the place of those liar- 
vested from the waters for human consumption. Such assistance is especially neces- 
sary in the case of all freshwater fish and such salt-water fish as the salmon and 
shad, which leave the ocean to deposit their spawn in river beds and thus make total 
extermination possible. 

The greater part of the work is now performed under the jurisdiction of the 
U. S. Fisheries Commission, supplemented by that of the State Fisheries Commission^ 
and various sportsmen's associations and clubs. The U. S. Fisheries Commission 
maintains a number of hatcheries along the coast, in the chief shad and salmon rivers, 
at various points along the Great Lakes, etc. Their product is variously utilized — 
part of it is distributed in the natural spawning grounds of the immediate vicinity: 
great quantities are shipped, principally as '-fry'' and "fingerlings," to all parts of the 
country for the stocking and replenishing of ponds, rivers, lakes, etc.. and a small 
percentage are brought to maturity for breeding purposes. 

The fish most extensively cultivated are the various varieties of salmon, shad, cod. 
flounder, whitefish, trout, perch, pollack, smelt, bass, lobster, oyster, clam and terrapin. 

In addition to helping replenish the natural supply, tish culture has resulted in 
creating new sources of food by introducing valuable varieties into waters in which 
they were previously unknown. Shad, for example, was formerly unknown on the 
Pacific coast, hut it is now nearly as plentiful there as on the Atlantic. 

The eggs are obtained from many sources — purchased from fishermen, taken from 
fish caught for the purpose, obtained from fish specially bred. etc. They are first 



Main Deck of the Fisheries Steamer fish Hawk, equipped for hatching shad 

fertilized and then placed in the hatchery. With some varieties, the hatching appara- 
tus consists of wire trays held in troughs of varying size — a single tray of the kind 
generally used for salmon, about 1 foot wide and 2 feet long, will hold two gallons, or 
30,000, of salmon eggs. Others, as for whitefish, shad, lobsters, etc., generally consist 
of glass jars, similar to those shown in the accompanying illustration, from which the 
"fry" as hatched are discharged into glass tanks. 

The "fry" may be distributed as such or, according to circumstances, held in 
troughs or artificial ponds or enclosures until six or seven months old. A seven months 
trough-raised "fingerling" salmon averages from 2 1 -. to 3 inches in length. 

During the year ending June 30, 1909, the U. S. Fisheries Commission distributed 
724,558,703 eggs, 2,370,975,068 "fry" and 11,598,140 fingerlings. yearlings and adults. 

FISH GLUE. See general article on Glue. 

FLAGEOLETS: shelled green young kidney beans, generally put up in bottles or 
cans, but also sold dried to a limited extent. The beans of the best grades are of special 

II seeded varieties. 

FLATFISH: fish with flattened bodies and both eyes on the upper, more highly 
colored side, as the Flounder, Halibut, Plaice, etc. 

(1) Klngflsh 
(21 Striped Bass 

(5) Flounder 

(3) Sea Bass 
4 W hltlng 


FLAVORS, or Flavoring Extracts. See Extracts. 

FLAVORS OF FOOD. See sub-head in general article on Food Values. 

FLAX: is the soft silky fibre of the flax plant, an annual which grows to a height of 
about two feet aud is widely cultivated in different parts of the world, principally in 
temperate climates. It is made into linen and employed also in the manufacture of tint- 
writing papers, known as "linen"' and "bond," and some varieties of cordage, err. 

FLAXSEED: the small flat mucilaginous seed of the flax plant, better known as lin- 
seed — see Linseed Meal and Linseed Oil. "Flaxseed tea" is a decoction of the boiled 

FLIES: are the natural enemies of the grocer and his stock — and of the housewife 
and her peace. They destroy goods, discourage trade and transfer disease. Screen 
every door and window and then catch those which intrude by fly-paper — screened or 
covered if possible, for dead flies are never attractive. 

FLIP: a mulled beverage of spirits or ale, sweetened and flavored with spices, etc., 
drunk hot. 

FLITCH of Bacon: the English name for a whole side of salt pork. The term is 
also sometimes applied to any large piece of side meat. 

FLORENCE OIL: a title sometimes used for high grade Olive Oil (which see). 

FLOUNDER, or Flatfish {See Color Page opposite 240) : a common and well-known 
flatfish found at the mouths of rivers and along the coast. It varies in size from very 
small — five to the pound — to five pounds each. The spring and summer are the prin- 
cipal market seasons. The flesh is excellent — the fish being often skinned, filleted and 
served as "sole." 

The Common or Winter Flounder, is the variety generally known under Tin' ritle 
of "Flounder," but there are numerous other types, prominent among them being the 
Dab, the Four-Spotted flounder and the California flounder. 

FLOUR: is grain of any kind ground to fine powder, as wheat flour, rye flour, etc. In 
general use, except when otherwise specified, the term signifies wheat pour. 

Flour is an article of prime importance to the grocer, as the quality whirl, he 
furnishes has a direct effect on the growth of his trade, especially in country districts. 
Great care should therefore be taken to purchase reliable brands which do not vary 
in quality and of which the stock can be constantly renewed. 

In manufacture, the wheat is thoroughly cleaned, crushed by steel mils into meal 
("whole meal") and sifted or "bolted" through silk cloths to separate the "flour" 
from the germs and bran (see Wheat). The "flour" is then ground, sifted and purified 
— once or several times, according to the grade required. 

The following rules may be used as preliminary tests for flour: 

First, look at its color. If for bread making especially, it should be creamy- 
white, for this generally indicates a strong flour. If for pastry, a starchy-white color 


is acceptable, as this indicates a soft flour. If it is so white as to have a bluish or 
grayish cast, or if it contains small black or bran specks, it is not desirable for either 

Next, examine its adhesiveness. Make a dough by mixing a small quantity with 
water. If it works dry and elastic, it is good; if soft and sticky, it is poor. If when 
pulled apart it breaks short, it is deficient in gluten and therefore not suitable for 
bread making, though if it is good in other respects it may be satisfactory for pastry, 
etc. If the dough is tough and tenacious, it shows a large percentage of gluten. 

The place where flour is stored must be moderately cool, dry, well-lighted, airy and 
never exposed to a freezing temperature nor to excessive heat. An even temperature of 
Tit to 75° Fahr., is best if it is to be used within six months; that to be held longer, 
should be kept in a cooler temperature. Whether in barrels or sacks, etc., it should 
alwavs be placed on a rack at least two inches from the floor in order to allow a cur- 
rent of air to pass under and prevent dampness and it should not be placed in contact 
with grain or other substances which are liable to generate heat. 

Flour is peculiarly sensitive to atmospheric influences — hence it should never be 
stored in a room with any material which emits an odor — any smell perceptible to the 
human sense will be absorbed by it. Damp cellars or close lofts are especially unsuit- 

Flour of good quality improves in flavor and character up to about six months and 
under proper conditions will retain its merit for a considerable time thereafter. 

The three chief varieties of wheat flour are the "Patent" or "Standard Patent" 
(white), "Graham'' and "Whole W T heat"— the last two containing part or all of the 
outer branny covering of the wheat. There are many grades on the market, but no one 
universally recognized standard. It is packed principally in sacks of paper, cotton or 
jute of various sizes, from 2 to 98 lbs. A barrel contains 196 lbs. 

Flour should be sifted that the particles may be thoroughly disintegrated before 
baking. If cold, it should be warmed before use. This treatment improves the color and 
baking properties of the dough. Bread sponge should be prepared for the oven as soon 
as the yeast has performed its mission, otherwise bacterial fermentation sets in and 
aridity results. Too cold a dough causes too slow fermentation. 

Average analyses of wheat flour show from 8 to 12% water; 8 to 15% protein, 1 to 
:: fat. and GO to S0% carbohydrates (See Food Values). White flour generally has 
a little more carbohydrates and a little less protein than Graham and Whole Wheat 

In some sections, retailers find also a good demand for rye flour and those doing a 
"fancy" trade include in their stock such special varieties as barley, chestnut, potato, 
rice. "Boston Brown Bread," etc. The first four are chiefly imported. 

See also Rye. Self-Raising Flour, Farina, etc. 

FLUKE: a northern sea fish resembling the Flounder (which see). 

FLUMMERY: a thick hasty-pudding made of oatmeal or rice, flavored with milk. 
bitter almonds or orange flowers, etc. It is known as Sowans in Scotland. 

FLY-PAPER: should not be kept in the cellar or any damp place. Warm upper floors 
.in- preferable. Three points should be remembered : keep it dry — keep it flat — keep it 
moderatelv warm. 



A fat goose liver 

FOIE GRAS: signifies literally and actually "fat liver' - — but it is applied particu- 
larly to the livers of fat geese. Those of fat ducks are similarly 
employed but the product is considered inferior and retails at 
lower prices. 

One of the most famous industries of Strasburg, Germany. 
and Toulouse, France, is the scientific fattening of geese for 
the enlargement of their livers. The birds are kept in special 
coops which prevent their taking exercise and are fed to the 
limit of their capacities. Their health is, however, carefully 
watched and the treatment is temporarily suspended in the 
case of any bird which shows even the slightest symptoms of 

Foie gras is imported in jars or tins in four forms — Foie 
Gras au Naturel, Pate tie Foie Gras, Puree de Foie Gras and 
Saucisson de Foie Gras. 

Foie Gras an Naturel consists of full livers, plain cooked, put up in tins of several 
sizes. It is intended for use in the preparation of aspics, etc. 

Pate de Foie Gras, the principal form, was invented at Strasburg toward the end 
of the eighteenth century by Clausse, then chef of the Governor of Alsace. The cooked 
livers, seasoned with wine, aromatics, etc., and with cut truffles added, are filled into 
earthenware "terrines" for Terrine de Foie Gras, or pastry shells or crusts for Pate de 
Foie Gras en croute, and surrounded and covered with a forcemeat made of liver trim- 
mings and pork. In the best grades the livers are whole; the lesser qualities are of cut 
pieces. The terrines are made in two styles — the "flat," called "casseroles," generally 
light yellow in color, and the "high," brownish-red in hue — both styles in various sizes 
holding one-eighth, one-quarter, one-half and one pound. The Pate is also sometimes 
] tacked in jars of elaborate richness of appearance. 

A good Pate when opened should have, covering the other contents, a quantity of 
white or yellowish fat, rendered from the liver itself during the cooking, and should 
give out an appetizing odor. If the liver appears dry and bare of grease and gives out 
an unpleasant odor, the jar should be returned to the seller to be exchanged for another. 
This condition may be found occasionally, no matter what care has been exercised in 
putting up the product. 

Only Piite de Foie Gras made in the country or district in which the geese are reared 
and fattened is really worthy of the name, as a first-class product can only be made 
from fresh livers. A Pate made from preserved livers is never as rich because 
the liver necessarily suffers by the second cooking. 

Pate de Foie Gras should always be served very cold — only in that condition is the 
full fine flavor obtainable. It is best to set it on ice for several hours before serving. 
If ice is not obtainable, the terrine should be submerged in the coldest water obtainable 
and kept there as long as possible. This precaution is naturally most important in 
summer and in warm countries. 

Puree dp Foie Gras is made of whole livers and liver trimmings with some pork 
added, well seasoned and cooked and then pressed through a fine sieve. Small pieces 
of truffle are added and the paste is then canned like other potted meats. 

Saucisson i sausage") de Foie Gras. put up in cans of cylindrical shape, consists 
of the liver cut in small pieces, pistachio nuts ami pieces of truffle, etc., added, the 
whole mixed witli liver trimmings and pork, then forced into casings ami cooked. 

546 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

FONDANT: soft while candy made by boiling sugar to the "ball" and working it 
till perfectly white. It is used for making bonbons, chocolate creams, etc., and, when 
softened by beat, for icing cakes, etc. 

FOOD VALUES — the Foods ire cut, their Characters, Comparative Values and 
Digestibility. There is much yet to be learned concerning the comparative effects of 
foods taken into the human system and the processes by which they are converted into 
flesh, blood, bone, nerves and brain, but the advance of knowledge in these matters 
has been very rapid during the last few decades and sufficient has been ascertained to 
give the average individual a very fair idea of the needs and the requirements of the 
"machinery" which enables him to live and of the composition of the machinery itself. 

.Many and complicated are the natural chemical processes by which food is trans- 
formed in the human stomach, intestines, veins, etc., but a general consideration of 
the subjeel is simplified by the fact that the beginning and the end — i. e., the food put 
into the stomach and the body built and sustained by the food — are composed chiefly 
of the same chemical compounds. In other words, the human body is composed of 
water, protein (a term which includes the principal nitrogenous compounds), fats, 
mineral matter (phosphate of lime — the mineral basis of bone — and numerous com- 
pounds of potassium, sodium, iron, magnesium, etc.), and carbohydrates (starches, 
sugars, etc.). And all these components are found in varying proportions in the foods 
we eat, though in the human body the carbohydrates become principally fats, only a 
very small percentage being reproduced as sugar, etc. 

Water constitutes about 60% of the entire weight of the average person, protein 
forms about 18%, fats about 15%, minerals about 6% and carbohydrates a little less 
than 1%. 

After the large amount of water and the small amount of minerals, both of which 
are absolutely essential to life, the proteins are the constituents of the first impor- 
tance for they are the chemicals which chiefly build the flesh, bone and muscle of the 
body. The principal protein compounds may be divided into albuminoids and gelati- 
noids (classed together as "proteids") and extractives. Of these, the albuminoids are 
the chief and the real body builders and the extractives are the least important except 
that they provide the flavor of meats, etc., and thus stimulate appetite and digestion. 

Protein is found in all human foods — but in greatly varying proportions. In this 
country, any lack in other foods is made up, and very often over-done in that respect, 
by the excess of protein in meats — lean meat consists almost entirely of protein and 
water — and by the consumption of eggs, fish, etc. In Asia, the insufficiency of protein 
in the rice diet is supplied in some parts by the use of beans and peas (dried beans 
being even richer in protein than meats, in addition to their great percentage of car- 
bohydrates) or by the consumption of fresh or salted fish; or by both beans and fish. 
And similarly, in one way or another, as the result either of instinct or experience, has 
the balance been maintained with at least some degree of accuracy in every part of the 

We have said that the protein practically builds the machinery of the human 
body — but a machine needs fuel to operate — and, similarly, the human body requires 
the necessary chemicals to produce heat and energy. These it obtains to some degree 
from the protein but principally from two other forms of food — fat and carbohy- 
drates. Fat is the most condensed form of fuel but the average digestion does not 
take kindly to it in over-large quantities so the cheater part of the supply is in carbo- 


hydrates— practically "sugar" for the starches are converted into a form of sugar iu 
the stomach and intestines, as a preliminary to their assimilation by the bod/ 

Be it understood that the term '-fuel" is not used as a mere figure of speech- 
it represents the actual uses of the food, for fats and sugars are consumed in the body 
by chemical processes which are allied in general character to the consumption of coal 
in the fire which drives an engine. The sums of heat and energy engendered iu tl 
digestion, etc., of different foods have been carefully ascertained and recorded and 
are credited as so many "calories" or fuel units to a pound of each kind of food. 
Butter, for example, being 85% fat, is a fine type of human fuel and is credited with 
3,410 calories per lb. Sugar, 100% carbohydrate, contains 1,750. Beef varies from 
only 500 to 1,400— the principal value of beef being as already noted for its protein, 
or as a flesh and muscle builder, instead of for "fuel" purposes. 

The principal forms of fat for food are those in meats of all kinds, butter, chees. . 
a few fruits (as olives) and several kinds of nuts. 

The principal sources of carbohydrates are cereals of all kinds (wheat and rye 
flour in the form of bread and otherwise, corn, rice, oatmeal, tapioca, etc.), dried 
beans and peas, a few kinds of nuts, several varieties of dried fruits, potatoes, etc., 
and in a lesser degree some fresh fruits, as apples and bananas. 

Sugar is 100% carbohydrati — but the 'system can only take it in moderate quanti- 
ties, not being fitted for the exclusive use of full carbohydrates any more than for the 
use of large quantities of fat — it prefers both mixed with other components as in 
sweet, starchy or fatty foods, or to produce them itself by conversion. 

The excess of fat and carbohydrates after supplying the immediate necessities of 
heat aud energy, is stored in the body iu the form of fat, which, except when excessive 
in amount, stands as a very real reserve store of energy when at any time the body 

requires more fuel than it can draw from the immediate supply of f 1. A person 

who for any reason does an unusually excessive amount of physical labor may lose 
several pounds in weight in a few hours — -the energy and heal developed and utilized 
are necessarily drawn from the reserve force of the body as the food supply for the 
same period could not furnish so large an amount under such conditions of activity. 

A well-regulated diet for an average person of normal digestion must, therefore, 
contain a variety of foods sufficient to supply the system with an abundance of water 
(as a beverage or in food), a sufficient amount of protein to repair the waste of tissue 
and "energy foods" (fats and carbohydrates) in accordance with his manner of life 
— the more the labor required from the body, the greater should be the supply. Still 
further, the greater the proportion of hard physical labor in outdoor occupations, the 
greater, generally, the proportion of the "condensed fuel" — fats and sugars — that 
may be advantageously used. 

A diet principally of lean meat would supply too great a proportion of protein 
— one of fruits and vegetables, except dried peas and beans, peanuts, etc., would 
supply too little. Bread and good rich milk would make quite a satisfactory all-round 
diet — giving water, protein, fat and carbohydrates in very fair proportions and in 
easily digestible form, but. fortunately, we need not confine ourselves to such a very 
monotonous bill of fare! We can reach just as satisfactory a percentage by a judi- 
cious mingling of a variety of other foods with all kinds of delightful properties. 

It will be understood that all statements concerning human diet necessarily 
deal in averages — every individual must regulate the details of his diet to agree with 
the results of his own experience. Furthermore, all percentages of food components 



utial or desirable are subject to variation in different climates and countries and 
none is absolutely binding in the operation of the human machine — which is wonder- 
fully adaptable in meeting exigencies. Lean meat, for example, contains very little 
fat and no carbohydrates, but the human body, when necessary, will obtain all its fats 
and carbohydrates by chemical transformation of the protein and a man might live for 
a long time on lean meat alone. But it would not be a safe or desirable diet! 

The tables following give the average percentages of a number of general food 
items, after discarding general waste, as skin, bone, etc. The body receives a large 
proportion of the values recorded in the cases of persons of good digestive organs, if 
the foods are properly prepared — which in most cases means properly cooked. 

The importance of good rooking cannot be over-estimated — incompetent prepara- 
i inn often means the loss of much of the value of the foods eaten. The valuable carbo- 
hydrates, for example, are chiefly very small starch grains enclosed in tiny cells with 
thick walls on which the digestive juices have little effect unless the walls have been 
broken by cooking — and this is only one of a great many examples that might be cited. 

The purposes of cooking are threefold — (1) to assist digestion by preparing the 
food for the action of the digestive juices; (2) to quicken the flow of the saliva and 
digestive juices by making food pleasing to the palate and other senses, and (3) to 
destrov bv heal any disease germs or parasites that it may contain. 




■ Starch. Sugar, 
Etc. ) 


(Mineral Salts 

BEEF (freth) 

Chuck (rib) 

Loin (medium I 


Round (medium 

Shoulder and clod. 

Liver I beef i 




Leg Cutlets 

Liver (calf) 



Loin (without kidney 





PORK, salted and • 



Salt Fat Fork 

PORK (frenh) 

Loin (chops) 

Hams (fresh) 


Fowl (medium 































l 1 . 

y or 


1 — 

iy 2 














1 + 



*FISH {fresh) 

Cod (dressed) 


*FISH ( preserved and canned) 

Canned Salmon 

Salt Cod 




EGGS ( uncooked) 


Whole Milk 

Skim Milk 



CHEESE (Cheddar type) 


Wheat Flour 

Rye Flour 

Rice (ordinary or *' pol- 
ished ") 

Oat Breakfast food 

Wheat Breakfast food. . . 



BREAD ( White Wheat) 


Beans, white (dried). . . . 

Beets (fresh) 




Sweet Potatoes 



Apples (fresh) 

Apples (evaporated' 


Dates (dried) 

Figs (dried) 









*See also article on Fish. 

t See also article on Shellfish. 


7 + 














7d >, 
94 }i 






S7 l 4 


(U 'o 







31 i 

li 1 , 





»i 2 


























1 , 



tSee ilso article 011 Froits < Food V u 1 1 - 
:t See also article on Ni 1 - 



-; TA „. Mineral Silts, 


3 1 , 




.'ii' _, 







1 ' 



66 14 
























- J " 

1 ; 


In order to avoid incorrect deductions from a study of tin- tables given, we may 
add that, though the chief purposes of food are to build the body and Supply it with 
the necessary warmth and energy, and that therefore the principal foods may be 


judged i'\ their percentage of protein, fat and carbohydrates, etc., the limitations of 
i In- human digestive organs must always be borne iu mind. Cheese, for example, is 
rich in both protein and fat, and the peanut in protein, fats and carbohydrates — 
either should apparently be most valuable as a leading article of diet, but the average 
digestion will accept and assimilate them only in small quantities. 

On the other hand, many vegetables which show but very small percentages of 
food value arc of vital importance because of the salts they contain and because their 
special composition assists in the digestion of the main foods. Many fruits have this 
useful quality in addition to high food value. 

The average American diet is not so far from being correct as many critics 
.,<•( hue and it could be made an excellent standard by decreasing the amount of meat 
generally consumed and increasing the proportion of green vegetables and fruits. An 
excessive consumption of meat means an over-supply of protein which doubles the 
work— and therefore the risks — of nature to dispose of it or to convert it into carbo- 
hydrates, in the latter case endangering the balance of health by giving the system too 
-rear a supply of fuel — for, as already noted, there is an ample supply of carbohydrates 
in all popular diets, the only lack in other than American being in the supply of 
diminutive size. 

The Flavors of Food. The distinctive flavors Qf different foods are attributable to 
a variety of causes. 

In fresh meats, they are due to the extractives which in varying proportions form 
parr of the protein. Some "game" birds are especially rich in that respect — hence the 
high esteem in which they are held by epicures. The flavors of fruits and vegetables 
are usually attributable to similar components. The extractives are generally 
enhanced by the process of cooking — and in meats, birds, etc., are also developed by 
"aging" in a greater or less degree. 

In many other foods, the distinctive flavor, instead of being an essential part of 
their natural development, hinges on the special methods of their commercial prepara- 
tion. In hams and other smoked meats, it is largely due to the acid in the wood 
smoke in which they are suspended. In black tea, cheese, butter and many other 
examples, it is the result of chemical changes brought about by the growth and respi- 
ration of microscopic plants during manufacture — for all plants, whether microscopic 
or visible, breathe as do human beings, producing the same chemical change of the 
oxygen of the air into carbon-dioxide. 

The difference between green and black tea is attributable chiefly to the fact that 
for the latter the tea leaves are allowed to ferment before they are "fired" or roasted. 
This, translated in the light of modern botanical knowledge, means that the micro- 
scopic plants in the moist leaves are permitted to respire for a time before they are 
killed by the heat applied in the firing machines. 

The difference between Camembert and Swiss cheese— -or any other varieties — is 
similarly the difference in the microscopic plants which respired, within them during 
the process of ripening— plants furthermore that can be transplanted in spite of their 

See articles on Bacteria, Mold and Ykast. 

Time Required for Digestion. The tabic following ; gives the average time employed 
in the digestion of the foods named. No absolute deductions can he made from the 

(1) Cod 

(2) Haddock 

(5) Halibut 



figures, but foods which take longer than four hours for the process are generally unde- 
sirable, except in very limited quantities. 

Hours. Min. 

Apples (raw) 1 25 

Apples (stewed) 1 35 

Beans (boiled) 2 30 

Beans (puree) 1 30 

*Beef (lean, rare, roasted) 3 00 

Beef (stewed) 2 45 

Beef, fresh salted (boiled) 2 45 

Beef, old salted (boiled) 6 00 

Beefsteak (grilled) 3 00 

Beets (boiled) 3 45 

Bread 3 30 

Butter (melted) 3 30 

Bread and butter with coffee 3 45 

Cabbage (boiled) 4 30 

Chicken (boiled) 2 00 

Chicken (fricasseed) 2 45 

Chicken (roasted) 4 00 

Cheese, old 3 30 

Duck (roasted) 4 00 

Eel (roasted) 6 00 

Eggs, fresh (raw) 2 00 

Eggs, fresh (whipped raw) 1 30 

Eggs, fresh (soft boiled) 3 00 

Eggs, fresh (hard boiled) 4 00 

Eggs, fresh (scrambled) 3 00 

Fish (other than fat varieties, boiled) ..1 30 

Fish (other than fat varieties, fried) 3 00 



Hours. Mill. 

Hashed Meat (warmed) 2 

Liver (calf's, fried or sauteed)!.. 2 

Liver (beef, fried or sauteed). 

Lamb (grilled) 

Lentils (boiled) ' ' 

Milk (raw) ' " 

Milk (boiled) \" ". 

Mutton (boiled or broiled) 3 

Mutton (lean, roasted) 3 

Nuts 5 

Oysters ( raw ) ' 2 

Oysters (stewed) 3 

Onions (stewed) ' 

Peas (boiled) 2 

Pig. suckling (roasted) 2 

Pork, fat (roasted) 5 

Pork, salt (boiled) \ 3 

Potatoes ( baked ) " 2 

Potatoes (boiled) 3 

Rice (boiled) ' 1 

Sausage, fresh (grilled) \ 3 

Sausage (smoked) 5 

Spinach (stewed) 1 

Salmon, fresh (boiled ) 1 

Turkey (roasted or boiled) 2 

Turnips (boiled) 3 

Veal (roasted) 1 

*Meat is generally more easily digested raw than cooked, but its consumption in that condition 
is attended with risk of intestinal disturbances from the parasite life it sometimes contains. 

Comparative Digestibility of Foods. The following list of foods considered from 
the standpoint of the ease or otherwise with which they can be digested by dyspeptics. 
is adapted from a folder entitled Diet and General Directions Suitable for Those Suf- 
fering from Indigestion, given by the authorities of Cambridge University, England, 
to each pupil on or shortly after his arrival : 

First Group. Articles easy of digestion and must suitable fur tin dyspeptic. 
Chicken, eggs (lightly cooked), sweetbread, squab, mutton, venison, rabbit. 
Flounder, chicken halibut, smelt, whiting. 
Stale bread, biscuits, arrowroot, cornstarch, rice, sago, tapioca. 
Asparagus, cauliflower, sea-kale, string beans. 
Baked apples, grapes, oranges. Beef-tea, milk, mutton broth. 
Toast-water, black tea, Bordeaux wines (Claret and Sauternes), Rhine wines, 
dry sherry. 

Second Group. Articles moderately easy of digestion, but only admissible in Un- 
less severe eases of indigestion. 

Soups in general. 

Beef, lamb, hare, turkey, duck, guinea fowl, wild waterfowl, woodcock, snipe. 

Bass, cod, haddock, oysters 1 raw), perch, pike, pollack, porgy, pompano, Kenne- 
bec salmon, shad, trout, turbot, weak fish, whitefish. 

Artichokes, cabbage, potatoes, salads of lettuce or cress, tomatoes, turnips. 

Apples, apricots, gooseberries, mulberries, peaches, pineapples. 

Cooked fruit in general, marmalade, jelly, richly made farinaceous puddings 

Cocoa, coffee, malt drinks, Madeira am] Burgundy. 


Third Groi p. Vrticles difficult of digestion. Few of the articles contained in 
this group should ever be taken by the dyspeptic, and those to which an asterisk is 
prefixed si, mild be regarded by him more in the light of poison than food. 

Hard-boiled eggs, *pork, *veal, *goose, the brains, *heart, *liver and *kidney of 
animals, *hashed or "stewed meats, salt meat, *sausage. 

Cockles, crab, crayfish, *eel, herring, lobster, "mackerel, *mussels, cooked oysters, 
prawns, salmon, scallops, shrimps, skate, sprats, sturgeon and salted fish in general. 

New bread, cheese, *muffins, "mushrooms, pancake, 'pastry in general, pickles, 
plum pudding, *suet pudding, buttered toast. 

•Nuts of all kinds. 

Cherries, pears, plums, dried fruits. 

Beans, beetroot, carrots, *raw cucumbers, endive, Jerusalem artichokes, onions, 
parsnips, peas. 

Chocolate, champagne, port, liqueurs. 

General Directions. Dyspeptics should observe great regularity in the hours of 
meals — any changes in the time of meals should be gradually made. Solid food should 
be thoroughly masticated before being swallowed. 

FOOTS: the settling in oil, sugar, honey or molasses casks. All scrapings of sugar 
hogsheads and other refuse of sugar warehouses, etc., come under this name. It is 
also applied to industrial Olive Oil (which see), etc. 

FORBIDDEN FRUIT: another name for the Shaddock (see Grape Fruit). 

FORCEMEAT: chopped meat mixed with herbs and condiments, used for stuffing 
fowls, for croquettes, etc. 

FOWL: a word which was originally used in the same general sense as "bird" but 
which is in modern language applied only to poultry, particularly the domestic cock or 
hen, and to-day generally signifies those too old for broiling. The word "chicken" is 
now almost universally used both in trade circles and in government reports to 
designate fowl of any size killed for eating. 

FRANKFURTERS. See sub-head in general article on Sausages. 

FREEZING. Fruits, vegetables, etc., and nearly all liquids are very liable to damage 
by frost, and care should be exercised when ordering them in cold weather, as such 

g Is are generally sent at the risk of the purchaser. In winter, the cellar is the best 

place for all goods in bottles, tin or wood, which are liable to freeze — a bottle of 
bluing or ink that freezes and cracks may ruin a whole shelfful of goods. 

FRENCH BEANS: the English name for String Beans (see Bean's). 

FRENCH BREAD: a popular title for long, very narrow loaves. See BREAD. 

FRENCH DRESSING: a term applied to several receipts for simple salad dressings. 
The correct formula consists of four parts of olive oil to one part of good vinegar, 
witli a small quantity of fine table salt and ground pepper — two saltspoonfuls of salt 



and one-half saltspoonful of pepper being in correct proportion when four tablespoon- 
fuls of olive oil are used. 

A little onion juice or chopped parsley, tarragon, chives or chervil may be added 
if desired. 

FRENCH ROLLS: a somewhat indefinite term popularly applied to almost any 
good-quality bread rolls, particularly those in special shapes. 

FRENCH WINES. Among the best known types of French wines are Champagne, 
red and white Bordeaux wines (see Claret and Bordeaux Wines. White), Bur- 
gundy, Saumur, Cette, Hermitage and Rivesaltes, all of which are listed elsewhere in 
their alphabetical positions. 

FRIED CAKES: a local name for Crullers and Doughnuts. 

FRIEDRICHSHALL. See article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

FRIJOLE BEANS. See sub-head in general article on Beans. 

FRITTERS: a species of fried batter-cake, generally enclosing fruit, sweetmeats. 
poultry, meat, fish, etc., as Banana Fritters, Clam Fritters, etc. 

FROGS' LEGS. The hind legs of the common green frog are enjoyed in both Europe 
and the United States as a delicate food much resembling chicken. There are two 
varieties on the market — the small marsh frog and the large bull frog. The latter is 

. Pennsylvania Frog "Farm" the masses floating on the surface of the pond are frogspawn nearll ready to hatch 

256 the grocer's encyclopedia 

the more convenient for use aud market purposes, but the .smaller kind is more delicate 
in flesh. They are in season all the year, but are considered best from June to October. 
Frog farming has become a recognized industry, the output of the ponds having, 
in the neighborhood of Large cities, a sure sale at fair juices. Among the devices for 
feeding them are boards smeared with honey or sugar, to attract insects which the frogs 
greedily devour. 

FROST-FISH or Tom-Cod: a small American fish varying in weight from five to 
;i pound to a pound each. It is most plentiful in winter. 

FROSTING: a domestic term for meringue or icing for cakes. See Icing. 

FRUITS Their Food Values, Etc. It is not so many years ago that the arrival 
of the ■•strawberry season" constituted as real and distinct a mark on the calendar 
as the commencement of school holidays. The season was short — and for that reason 
perhaps the berries seemed doubly delicious! Then, later on, the Raspberry reached 
the markets and the hucksters heralded its arrival through the streets. And so the 
spring and summer divided their honors among various fruits, sometimes singly aud 
again in groups. 

But now. all bars are down! We can enjoy must fruits the year round — the prices 
vary, but there is seldom any "closed season." And many fruits formerly rare are 
now plentiful. The best example of this is the banana— a few years ago a rarity to 
the inhabitants of inland towns, but to-day found in every hamlet throughout the 
country. In the winter, it and the orange, pineapple and other tropical and sub-trop- 
ical fruits from California, the south and elsewhere, are supplemented with fancy 
melons, peaches, plums, etc., from various parts of the world — including southern 
Europe and South Africa — and early in the spring, long before they are ripe in the 
North. Florida and other southern points are shipping carloads of strawberries and 
other berries up through the states. Modern methods of refrigeration and transpor- 
tation have revolutionized this branch of our food supply. 

The fruits of temperate climates can nearly all be divided into three classes— 
stone, such as i plums, peaches,. etc.; pome, apples, pears, etc., and berries. The prin- 
cipal exceptions are melons, rhubarb and kindred fruits more nearly allied to what are 
popularly known as vegetables! 

Tropical fruits are more diversified in characteristics, but one family, the citrus, 
includes a number of the best known— as oranges, grape fruit, lemons and limes. 

In addition to the delicious and pleasing variety they give — or should be allowed 
t oi ve ! — to the diet, fruits of all kinds, because of their composition and components, 1 
greatly assist in the functions of general digestion and thus increase the value obtain- 
able from what may be described as the "main" foods. The quantity that may be.eaten 
raw. depends upon individual circumstances. An excess of unripe fruit may cause 
stomach irritation as the result of an excess of acid generated — and over-ripe sweet 
fruits may set up abnormal fermentation — but a moderate amount of fruit in fairly 
ripe condition will nearly always be ^ found most advantageous. Cooked fruits can be 
used and enjoyed with equal benefit and still greater freedom. 

The composition of a majority of ripe, fresh fruits includes about 80$ water, a 
fair percentage of carbohydrates — principally sugar and crude fibre — and a small per- 
centage of protein compounds and mineral salts, ether extract, etc. The sugar per- 


centage, considered particularly as food or nutrient value, is lowest in berries, as black- 
berries and strawberries, and highest in bananas, loquats and American persimmons. 
Next in degree below the last-named are cherries, medlars, pears, Japanese persim- 
mons, pomegranates, sapodillas, scarlet haws and apples. 

It is, however, largely the combination of water, sugar and etude fibre and salts 
rather than their nutritive components which makes must fruits so desirable an addition 
to the diet and gives them their value as anti-scorbutics, laxatives, etc. — hence, as auxili- 
ary foods, some fruits of minor food percentages (lemons and oranges, for example I, 
are as desirable and useful as they are delicious. 

Lemons, limes and similar fruits popularly known as "acid" or "sour," hold most 
of their merit in their juices and consequently genuine lime or lemon juice is nearly as 
efficacious as the fresh fruit, but in a majority of other fruits it is tin- combination 
referred to which gives them their medicinal value. Remembrance of this fact will 
guard against many popular errors. It is a common supposition that it is the juice 
of the orange, for example, which contains the laxative value when the fruit is taken 
early in the morning, and hence many people express it into a glass to drink it — and 
are disappointed in its effects. Orange juice is a delightfully refreshing, cooling bever- 
age, but it is the whole flesh of the orange which should be eaten — to get the combina- 
tion of the sugar of the juice and the crude fibre, etc., of its containing matter. 

The flavor of fruits is due partly to the malic, citric and other acids which they 
contain, but chiefly to their ether extracts. The reason that some fruits, as very 
sweet apples and pears, seem sweeter to the palate than other fruits containing a 
larger percentage of sugar, is found in the fact that they may contain a larger avern-e 
proportion of Fruit Sugar as distinguished from Grape Sugar. Both are "sugars" 
but the former is much the sweeter to the palate. 

Nearly all fruits are best held at a temperature of about 40° Fahr. — the tempera- 
ture of the ordinary refrigerator. Anything below that, any approach to freezing, is 
dangerous to most varieties. 

Temperate-climate fruits, as apple, pears, etc., will under ordinarily good condi- 
tions keep fairly well in a temperature not exceeding 60° to 05° Fahr.. but when the 
thermometer goes above that point, all stock except that for immediate sale or con- 
sumption should be stored in the refrigerator. Citrus fruits — oranges, lemons, limes, 
grape fruit, etc. — are generally safe up to S0° or 85° Fahr.. but beyond that they are 
liable to shrivel and dry out. 

Fancy Fruits, such as hothouse grapes, fine peaches, green figs, etc., should 
always be kept at a temperature of about 40° Fahr., only the smallest necessary quan- 
tity being exposed for show, and must be carefully handled to avoid bruising. 

The exceptions to these rules are fruits which require ripening after receipt, as 
bananas (which see), some varieties of pears, etc. 

All fruits should be washed before eating. 

Dried fruits, such as prunes, figs, apples, etc. should be consumed more freely 
than at present, for they contain all the good qualities of the fresh fruit — the only 
loss having been of part of their water content. In some, prunes for example, the 
sugar value is increased by the process of drying. See article on FOOD VALUES and 
the matter concerning individual fruits under their respective headings. 

FRUIT BUTTERS: are preserves of fruits, made without retaining their form, less 
sweet than jam and of a consistence somewhat resembling butter. The trade usually 


buys them in large wooden pails and retails them by the pound. Many of the lesser 
grades are prepared from damaged fruits and the lowest quality of molasses. 

FRUIT CONCRETE: of lemons and oranges, is a term sometimes applied to ter- 
peneless essential oils. 

FRUIT EXTRACTS, Essences, Flavors. See article on Extracts. 

FRUIT JARS. See remarks under heading of Jars. 

FRUIT JUICES. High class fruit juices are simply the expressed juices of ripe 
fruits, sterilized before fermentation has commenced and carefully bottled. Among 
the most popular types are grape juice, lime juice and unfermented cider (apple 
juice), which are treated under their respective headings. If the fruits are sound and 
the process of manufacture carefully controlled, no preservatives of any kind are 

The addition of sugar is permissible and also carbon-dioxide for carbonated fruit 
beverages, but if alcohol, preservatives or coloring matter are added, the label should 
disclose the fact. 

FRUIT SYRUPS. As generally understood in the trade, Fruit Syrups are divided 
into two classes, those bottled to be retailed for home use in making summer drinks, 
and those put up in various kinds of receptacles for sale to soda fountains, etc. The 
best types are pure fruit juices concentrated and heavily sweetened. Lower grades 
are liable to be artificial both in flavor and color. 

The home use of good fruit syrups is worth encouraging. They form an agreeable 
variation to the time-honored lemonade made from the fruit, and similar beverages, 
and are much less trouble — you merely pour a little syrup in the tumbler and fill with 
cold water, either plain or carbonated. There is no fuss with squeezers, sugar bowl, 
etc., and the result is deliriously refreshing. 

The visitor to Paris always notes with interest the great variety of fruit Strops 
sold at all refreshment stands and at the syrup booths along the boulevards. Their 
popularity is due to the fact that, as a general thing, their purity and quality have 
been carefully guarded. They are drunk mixed either with plain or effervescent 
water. Some customers who wish the sweetness modified, procure a delightful drink 
by adding wine — or substituting it for the water. 

The Syrups most in favor are currant, raspberry, cherry, pomegranate (grenadin), 
and almond (orgeat). 

Skill is also displayed in the mingling of flavors. Sirop de groseilles, currant 
syrup, for example, generally consists of four parts of red currant and one part of 
bitter cherries. Sirop de groseilles framooisees, is four parts of currant syrup and one 
pari each of raspberries and bitter cherries. 

FRUMENTY: a gruel made by boiling wheat in water until quite soft, then drained. 
thinned with milk, moistened with sugar and flavored with nutmeg, etc. When cur- 
rants and eggs are added, the result is "Somersetshire Frumenty." 

FRYING. See subhead in general article on Cookery. 

the g i; ( • i i : i; ' s i: n C YCLOP e d i a 259 

FULLER'S EARTH: a non-plastic clay, used in "fulling"' (cleansing and shrink- 
ing) cloth, to remove grease and for numerous other purposes. It is sold both in lump 
and powder, the latter obtained by soaking it in water. 

FUNGI: a botanical term applied to all vegetation which is unable to draw its nour- 
ishment from the chemical components of the earth, as do all the "ordinary"' plants, 
and must live on "organic" substances — animal or vegetable matter, alive or decay- 
ing — resembling in that respect members of the animal kingdom. The order comprises 
a great number of species, differing widely in size, appearance and characteristics — 
some very valuable, others most pernicious. The higher Fungi include all mush- 
rooms, some of which rank as very nutritious human food, truffles and kindred plants. 
The smallest, known as micro-organisms, or microbes, include the yeast-cells employed 
in the making of wine, and in numerous other ways; the molds which produce nioldi- 
ness, mildew, etc., and bacteria of all kinds. 

See Bacteria, Micro-organisms. Molds. Mushrooms. Truffles and Yeast. 

GALACTOSE: a variety of milk-sugar or lactose formed by boiling it with dilute 
acid, which is frequently employed in the ripening of cheese. Old cheese is a predi- 
gested food, largely as the result of the action of galactose, which will continue work- 
ing at low temperatures in which bacteria are practically inert. 

GALANGALE: an aromatic root somewhat resembling ginger, imported from 
China. It is used, though less than formerly, as a condiment and medicinally. 

GALANTINE: a name applied to fowls, game, fish or other meat, boned, stuffed 
and roasted — or boiled or braised — then pressed and cut in slices or put in molds, cov- 
ered with aspic jelly and decorated with truffles. 

"Goose Liver Galantine" and "Sweetbread Galantine" are also set in liases of well 
seasoned, fine chopped pork mixture in place of aspic jelly. 

GALLON. See table of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

GAME: any wild bird or other animal used as food, such as grouse, rabbits, etc. The 
term is also applied in a limited sense to animals generally existing in a wild state even 
when partly or wholly domesticated. 

The State and Federal Game Laws in force are so numerous and so varying in 
character and detail, that any attempt to condense or quote from them would probably 
prove misleading — especially as they are liable to change at any time. A recent gov- 
ernment publication consumed fifty-four pages to cover the subject. Copies of the cur- 
rent issues of this, and many other instructive books and pamphlets, can be obtained by 
writing to the Division of Publications, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

GAMMON OF BACON: a local term for a leg of salt pork. 

GARBANZA or Chick Pea: a food widely used in Mediterranean countries and, 

probably, the "pulse" of the HebreAvs. It is much larger than the common pea, grows 
singly in round pods and presents a wrinkled appearance when dried. It forms the 
basis of the Olla Podrida of Spain. 


T III-: G R O C E R s 1: N C Y C L o r K D I A 

GARDEN BALM, Balm Mint, I. anon liahn: au aromatic herb of 
the mint family, with, generally, a marked lemon odor. It is used 
chiefly for household culinary purposes and iu the manufacture of 
liqueurs and perfumes. 

GARFISH: an elongated spear-mouthed fish, which looks like a cross 
between a mackerel and an eel. It is prepared and served in any 
manner suitable for eels. 

GARLIC: a vegetable similar to a small onion but with the bulb 
divided into ten or twelve sections known as "cloves." At certain sea- 
sons it abounds in many pastures and imparts a very strong rank flavor 
to the milk and butter of cows which feed on it. Its main use in cook- 
ery is to flavor soups ami sauces and in salads, pickles, etc. 

Gaelic— the roots tied 
to a bundle of straw 

GARNISH: a term employed in general culinary parlance to include almost any- 
thing dainty in appearance or composition served with meat and fish dishes, etc. It 
may be merely a simple border of parsley, sliced beets, etc., or any one of a hundred 
mixtures, including mushrooms, truffles, crayfish tails, shrimps, cockscombs, vegetables 
cut into shapes, etc., with or without sauce. 

GARNISHEE: one in whose hands the property of another has been attached in a 
suit againsi the latter by a third person. He is "garnished," or warned, not to pay out 
any money, or deliver any goods, belonging to the party named, but to appear in 
court as having possession of such property. 

GARUM: a heavily salted and highly seasoned sauce or relish made from fish — prin- 
cipally from thqse of the Scomber family, as the tunny, mackerel, etc., — in the state of 
fermentation, ilie Mesh itself or the blood and gills being variously employed. The 
Garum of the Romans was generally prepared from the Anchovy (which see). 

GAS. The revolutionizing of general illumination by the substitution of gas for can- 
dles and lamps, is credited to a Scotchman named William Murdock. He conceived 
the idea in 1792 and demonstrated its utility by illuminating his home at Redruth, 
Cornwall, with gas drawn through seventy feet of piping from the place of manufac- 
ture. He also advertised his invention by carrying portable gas-lamps through the 
streets, the burners supplied by bladders filled with gas. This first product was poor 
in illuminating power, smoky and unreliable, but Murdock made many improvements 
in it, including in his process its partial purification by passing it through water, 
which is still one of the essential features of modern manufacture. The first illumi- 
nation on a large scale was by a Murdock installation which lighted the Soho Engine 
Works at Birmingham, England, in 1708. The pioneer American gas plant was 
erected at Newport, K. I., in 1S12. by David Melville. The first gas company formed 
to lighi the streets of an American city was that in Baltimore in 1816. Boston fol- 
lowed in 1S22 and New York in 1823. 

The chief forms of commercial gas now utilized are coal gas. natural gas, water 
_ s, producer gas, petroleum or oil gas and acetylene gas. Except where natural gas 

(1) American Grouse (Prairie Chicken) (Z) American Partridge (Ruffed Grouse) 

(3) Woodcock 41 O ua " 



is obtainable, coal gas is the form chiefly employed for street and household illumina- 
tion, household cooking, etc. 

Coal Gas, also known as Illuminating Gas, is obtained by the Destructive Dis- 
tillation (see sub-head in general article on Distillation) of coal, principally bitu- 
minous (or "soft") coal. When used chiefly for illuminating purposes, it is frequently 
enriched by the addition of petroleum gas or benzol, a coal-tar product. The crude 
product is most offensive in smell, but its odor is greatly modified and reduced by pass- 
ing through a "scrubber" — falling water on a coke bed or perforated iron plates— by 
purification by oxide of lime or iron, etc. 

The storage tank or cylinder of the gas plant, familiar in general appearance to 
every consumer, is essentially a large "bell" set inside a circular steel framework. The 
bottom of the bell rests in a deep-water seal and is automatically raised as the gas 
is carried into it. When the tank is raised close to the top of the framework, it 
is full of gas; when it has shrunk low and the bare frame shows against the sky, the 
supply is very scant. 

Commercial coal gas varies greatly in components but an average analysis will 
show about 46% hydrogen, 40% marsh gas (the principal constituenl of natural gasi, 
5% defiant gas or ethylene, which is extremely luminous, and 5% carbon monoxide. 
It is the carbon monoxide which renders coal gas especially poisonous. 

Natural Gas, which flows freely from subterranean sources in various parts of this 
and other countries — generally from beds of coal or petroleum — varies considerably in 
composition, but marsh gas is its chief component. Pittsburg natural gas shows an 
average of 92% marsh gas and 3% olefiant. 

Petroleum or Oil Gas is obtained by passing oil through superheated pipes or re- 
torts. It can be made from any fats, oils or grease — even from some city garbage. 

Producer Gas, so-called because made in various types of "producer equipments" 
or machines, is made largely from low-grade coal, hard or soft. Instead of being 
secured, as coal gas, by dry distillation, it is obtained by the destruction of the coal 
by its own partial combustion in closed furnaces, steam being introduced during the 
process. It was formerly employed chiefly in the iron industry. It is not suitable for 
household purposes but in recent years has become increasinglv important as power 

Water Gas is manufactured from anthracite (or "hard") coal, or coke, and steam. 
The coal is placed in an air-tight cylinder, ignited and blasted to incandescent heat. 
The blast is then shut off and dry steam is blown through, the resultant gas 
being carried by pipes into the reservoir. As soon as the coal begins to cool, the steam 
is shut off and the blast again blows the coal to a white heat, the process being 
repeated every few minutes until the coal is exhausted. Water gas is excellent for 
heating purposes, but where it is desired for illumination it is necessary to enrich it by 
the addition of carbon or petroleum gas. 

Acetylene Gas is obtained by the action of water on calcium carbide. It gives a 
brilliant white light, but is too expensive for general use in competition with cither 
commercial gases. 

Store Illumination. The retailer who relies on gas for store illumination, should 
use the best burners and mantles obtainable and see that both are always in goodi 


264 THE gboceb's encyclopedia 

condition. With proper attention, a store lighted by gas can be made as brilliant as 
if wired for electricity. 

The efficiency and cost of illumination is also affected by the color and coverings 
of the walls and ceiling. If painted white or even tinted a faint grey-cream, and kept 
clean and fresh, fully double the illumination will be obtained from the same number 
of burners as in places where the walls and ceilings are badly soiled or are covered 
with paper or paint of blue, green, brown or red. Next best to the faint grey-cream 
mentioned, are very light-greenish, and light yellow. 

GASOLINE: a light inflammable oil obtained by the distillation of Naphtha. It has 
many uses, being employed in the household, etc., for illuminating and cooking, to 
generate power in automobiles, launches, etc., and for the cleaning of fabrics. When 
carried in stock, care should be taken to comply with all insurance requirements. 

GAUGE, GAUGE ROD. Gauging is the method of determining the quantity of 
liquid in vessels such as barrels, casks, etc. 

The exact capacity of any vessel or receptacle may be obtained by measuring the 
dimensions and then conducting the calculation upon geometrical principles. An 
approximate measurement can be obtained more easily by the average person by 
means of a gauge-rod suitably adjusted for the purpose. The instrument usually 
employed is a diagonal rod, the contents of the cask being inferred from the diagonal 
length, measured from the bung-hole to the extremity of the opposite stave at the head. 
On one face of a square rule is a scale of inches for taking the measure of the diag- 
onal, the scale on the opposite face expressing the contents in gallons. Only approxi- 
mate results are thus obtainable, yet with experience it is possible to measure the 
contents with sufficient accuracy to answer general requirements. 

GEDORT. See sub-head in general article on Cheese. 

GELATINE: is made from various animal substances, but chiefly from the bones and 
the softer parts of the hides, etc., of cattle, by boiling them and treating with steam. 

The best gelatines are generally secured from selected calf's stock — the cheek and 
neck pieces, membranes, skin, fibres, tissues, etc., and the organic parts of the bones. 
The crude gelatine thus obtained is placed in lime water for several weeks until it 
becomes free from all gross matter. It is next washed thoroughly in fresh water until 
it becomes delicate, white and translucent and, when put in the kettle, melts under the 
slightest heat. The liquor is finally drawn off slowly, clarified, filtered and run into 
pans to be cooled, after which it is sliced, dried and granulated. 

Tt is difficult to test gelatine. Some manufacturers suggest a test with boiling 
water poured over soaked gelatine, attaching the highest importance to the absence of 
odor and color, but this may prove deceptive, as the very poorest gelatine can be made 
both odorless and colorless by bleaching the collogen with sulphuric acid or peroxide 
of hydrogen and many states forbid such bleaching. 

Gelatine, although not a life sustaining food, is used in considerable quantities in 
hospitals and is recommended bv physicians as an article of diet, because of its qual- 
ity of making some other foods more palatable or more easily digestible. 

Its uses in the ordinary household are many and varied, ranging from adding 
hodv to soups, to making candies, ice creams and desserts. 

THE grocer's ENCYCLOPEDIA 265 

GENOA CAKE: a fruit cake with chopped almonds on top. "Seed Genoa" has 
caraway seeds instead of the almonds. 

GEODUCK: a huge clam found on the Pacific Coast. One often serves as a full meal 
for several persons. 

GERVAIS. See sub-head in general article on Cheese. 

GHEE: a sort of butter used by the natives of India, prepared generally from buffalo 
milk. The milk is boiled in large earthen pots for an hour or two, then allowed to 
cool, a little curdled milk called "dhye" being added in order to make the whole coagu- 
late. After a lapse of some hours, the top five or six inches of the contents of each 
pot is taken off and placed in a larger earthenware utensil, in which it is churned, by 
means of a piece of split bamboo, for about half an hour. Hot water is then poured 
in, and the churning is continued for half an hour longer, by which time the butter has 
formed. The butter is allowed to become rancid and is then melted in an earthen 
vessel and boiled until all the water has evaporated. A little salt or betel-leaf 
is added and it is finally poured off into suitable vessels in which it can be preserved 
from the air, bottles being commonly used for the purpose. 

GHERKINS. Several varieties of the common cucumber, gen- 
erally those with prickly skins, are specially cultivated for 
gathering while still small to pickle as "Gherkins." 

The original Gherkin, or Jamaica Cucumber, is a distinct 
variety native to Jamaica and locally used both fresh boiled 
and pickled. It is about half as thick as long, of light green 
color and prickly to a marked degree. 

GIBLETS : a term which formerly signified only the entrails 
of poultry, but is now applied to parts and trimmings such as 
the heart, liver, gizzard, neck, and ends of the wings and legs. 

GIN. There are on the market an unfortunately large number of "gins" which are 
badly adulterated imitations of the original Jenever of Holland, and they have tended 
to lower the spirit in general public opinion, but the finer varieties, both domestic 
and imported, deservedly hold among the initiated as high position as any other liquor. 

The best gin is made from barley malt and rye, with generally a small percentage 
of corn. Practically all the product owes its flavor, either wholly or in part, to the use 
of juniper berries— its distinctive title being indeed due to this characteristic. In 
Dutch, French and Italian, the same words {jenever, genidvre, ginepro) apply equally 
to the liquor and the juniper plant, and the English "gin" is merely an abbreviated 
corruption of the Dutch "Jenever." 

The name "Geneva," often used to designate Gin. is attributable to a popular 
confusion of ideas caused by the similarity of the Dutch and French names for the 
juniper berry with that of the noted Swiss city. The city of Geneva has never claimed 
prominence in, nor given its name to, the manufacture of gin. 

The numerous varieties may be grouped in two general classes, one commonly known 
as "Holland" Gin. and the other as "British." Each is again divided into Unsweetened 

266 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

or "Dry.'' and Sweetened, the latter type of British Gin being commonly known as 
••Tom Gin." 

There are four principal steps in the manufacture of Holland Gin. The product 
of the first distillation is called "Ruwnat," or "low wines." It is low in proof and 
raw in taste and is re-distilled to form "Enkelnat," which is higher in proof and shows 
some j, r in character. The Enkelnat is re-distilled into "Moutwyn," which is the foun- 
dation of all Holland Gin. From it, by a fourth distillation, each distiller makes a 
number of varieties — coriander seeds and various roots being added to the juniper 
berries used in flavoring. 

Holland Gin is generally made in several strengths, the milder to be bottled with- 
out blending, the stronger to be used for blending with neutral spirits, the former 
being decidedly superior. The most famous variety is "Schiedam Schnapps," named 
after the city of Schiedam, where more than 200 gin distilleries are in continuous 
operation. To the composition of Schiedam water is attributed much of the high repu- 
tation of its -jins. 

British <!in is made, both in Great Britain and this country, by first producing the 
highest grade of neutral spirits and re-distilling several times in a fractionating still, 
so as to eliminate practically all of the fusel oils, etc. When the spirit has reached 
the proper degree of purity it is drawn off into an old style "pot-still," and again dis- 
tilled in conjunction with Juniper berries, and certain other flavoring berries and 
herbs — the latter varying in nature, as each manufacturer aims to produce a liquor 
of distinctive flavor. 

Many of the lower class "gins" sold are merely alcohol flavored with essences. 

Gin should be kept in a moderate temperature and always well corked. 

Cordial Gin: is flavored with gpices and heavily sweetened. 

Orange Gin: is flavored with orange peel or its essential oil. 

Sloe Gin: is made by steeping sloes in strong gin for a number of weeks, then filter- 
ing the liquid and diluting to the desired degree by the addition of water. 

GINEP, or Spanish Lime: a fruit which resembles a plum in appearance, but 
of flavor suggesting the grape. Both the pulp and seeds are edible, the latter being 
sometimes roasted and eaten like chestnuts. 

GINGER: in its commercial form, is the root-stock of the ginger plant (see illus- 
tration in Color Page facing 580), a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, 
three to four feel high, which grows freely in moist places in all tropical climates. 
The root is gathered when the stalk withers and is immediately scalded, or washed 
and scraped, in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. The former method, applied 
generally to the older and poorer roots, produces Black Ginger; the latter, gives 
White Ginger. The natural color of the "white" scraped ginger is a pale buff — it is 
often whitened by bleaching or liming, but generally at the expense of some of its real 

White Ginger of the first grade should be large, light-buff throughout, soft and 
even in cutting and of strong characteristic flavor. The present supply comes chiefly 
from Jamaica, the Malabar Coast of India and the East Indies. "Cochin" and "Cali- 
cut" are titles borrowed from the two Indian cities of those names. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 267 

African ginger is dark, but has an excellent, strong flavor. "Borneo" ginger is 
merely a former trade term for some white ginger — none is exported from Borneo. 

Japan Ginger, usually blanched or limed before shipment, is of fine appearance, 
large and smooth, but is much inferior in strength to the other varieties mentioned. 

Preserved or Conserved or Canton Ginger consists of young green roots boiled and 
cured in syrup and put up in pots and jars. The principal consumption is of the 
imported Chinese product, but there is an increasing sale of West Indian. 

Crystallized Ginger is also made from the younger roots. The best grades, from 
roots selected for uniform size and appearance, are called "stem ginger." 

Other well known articles which have the root, or extracts from it, as a founda- 
tion are Ginger Ale, (linger Bar, Jamaica Ginger (an alcoholic extract of the root) 
and Ginger Tea. 

Medicinally, ginger — as Jamaica Ginger, etc. — is a grateful stimulant and carmi- 
native, being much used for dyspepsia, colic, etc. It is also frequently employed to 
disguise the taste of nauseous medicines. Ginger Tea is an old-fashioned remedy for 

"Switchel" is a summer drink, once very popular in the haying fields, made from 
ginger, molasses and water, with a little vinegar added to give it acidity. 

U. 8. Standard Ginger is ground or whole ginger containing not less than 42% of 
starch by the diastase method; not less than 46% of starch by direct inversion; not 
more than 6% of crude fibre; not more than 8% of total ash; not more than 1% of 
lime, and not more than 3% of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

U. 8. Standard Limed or Bleached Ginger is limed or bleached ginger containing 
not more than 10% of ash; not more than 4% of carbonate of lime; and conforming 
in other respects to Standard Ginger. 

GINGER ALE: if of good quality, consists of distilled water, ginger, lemon and 
other flavors (such as sarsaparilla), the product being finally carbonated to give 
the effervescence desired. Inferior products frequently contain red capsicum ("red 
pepper") partly or wholly in place of ginger. 

Ginger Ale is greatly improved by adding a sprig or two of bruised mint to the 
glass shortly before drinking. 

GINGKO NUT: the nut of the maiden-hair tree. It is eaten roasted, principally 
by tlie Chinese. See also Nuts {Food Values). 

GLACE FRUIT: another title for Crystallized Fruit (which see). 

GLIADIN. See matter following title of Gluten. 

GLOUCESTER CHEESE. See sub-head in general article on Cheese. 

GLUCIN: a very sweet coal-tar product resembling Saccharin (which see). 

GLUCOSE— Nat ural: is a technical name given to a group of sugars found in fruit, 
honey, etc. The most important examples are Dextrose and Levulose, frequently 
called "grape sugar" and "fruit sugar," respectively. Invert Sugar, formed by the 
action of acid, digestive juices, heat, etc., on Sucrose — the technical name for the 

268 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

ordinary "sugar" of general use, commercially extracted from sugar cane, sugar beets, 
etc. — is a mixture of equal parts of Dextrose and Levulose, the best natural example 
being found in honey, which consists of from 50% to 90% of Invert Sugar. 

The principal forms in which "Glucose Sugars" occur as the result of commer- 
cial manufacture are: Commercial Glucose, also known as Corn Syrup, Starch Syrup, 
Liquid Glucose, Confectioners' Glucose, etc., and Commercial Dextrose, or Starch 
Sugar, Corn Sugar, etc. 

Commercial Glucose: the form most widely used as a food product, is in this coun- 
try made from Corn Starch (see articles on Corn and Corn Syrup) ; in Europe, chiefly 
from potato starch, there being known also as Potato Syrup. It is a thick, syrupy, 
mildly sweet, nearly colorless product and, as employed, gives much the same effect 
as Invert Sugar formed from Sucrose. Its principal food uses are in the form of table 
syrup (see Syrup), in the manufacture of jams, etc., and in confectionery. It is especi- 
ally valuable in candy making. It is not nearly as sweet as Sucrose or ordinary 
sugar, but it has certain distinct and valuable qualities of its own — it does not readily 
crystallize, does not "grain" or disintegrate and possesses the property of imparting 
softness and elasticity to special varieties, such as caramels. 

The principal ingredients of Commercial Glucose are Dextrose, Maltose and Dex- 
trin. Dextrose has already been referred to. Maltose is one of the results of the 
action of acids or malt diastase on Starch — it is of special interest as being the form 
of sugar into which the starch of food is converted during the process of digestion. 
Dextrin, which resembles a gum more than a sugar (see Dextrin), is always found 
in connection with Maltose during the malting of grain, and in connection with Dex- 
trose and Maltose in the manufacture of Commercial Glucose. 

Commercial Dextrose is manufactured in a manner similar to Commercial Glucose, 
except that the product is evaporated to solidity (see Corn Sugar). U. S. Standard 
Starch Sugar or Brewer's Sugar contains not less than 70% of Dextrose ; Climax or 
80% Starch Sugar, not less than 80% ; and Anhydrous Starch Sugar, not less than 95%. 

GLUE: is obtained from the hides and hoofs of oxen and a great variety of other 
animal refuse. 

The raw material is first steeped for fourteen or fifteen days in milk of lime, then 
drained and dried by exposure to the air. This constitutes what is called the "cleans- 
ing" or "preparation" ; and, after being so treated, the "glue stock," as it is called, may 
be kept for a long time and transported to any distance without suffering decomposi- 
tion. Before conversion into glue, the "stock" is generally again steeped in weak 
milk of lime, and then well washed and exposed to the air for twenty-four to thirty 
hours. It goes next to copper boilers, two-thirds full of water and fitted with per- 
forated false bottoms to prevent burning, each boiler being filled and piled up with 
it. Heat is then applied and the whole is gently boiled or simmered until the liquor on 
cooling shows firm, gelatinous consistence. The clear portion is next run off, a very 
small quantity of dissolved alum being added, into another vessel, where it is kept 
hot by a water bath, and allowed to remain for some hours to deposit its impurities, 
then being passed into the "congealing boxes" and allowed to cool. 

The next morning, the cold gelatinous masses are turned out upon wet boards 
and cut horizontally into thin cakes with a stretched piece of brass wire, and then into 



smaller cakes with a moistened flat knife. These small cakes are placed on nettings 
to dry and are later dipped one by one into hot water and slightly rubbed with a 
brush wetted with boiling water, to give them a gloss. Finally comes a stove-drying 
process and the glue is ready for market. 

As soon as the liquor of the first boiling has drained off, the undissolved portion 
of the skins, etc., left in the copper is treated with fresh water, and the whole opera- 
tion is repeated again and again as long as any gelatinous matter can be extracted — 
the product grading as second and lower qualities. 

Fish glue is made from fish-sounds and other parts of fish membrane. 

Liquid glue is made by dissolving dry glue and adding nitric acid in the proportion 
of one ounce to a pound, or by adding to it three times its weight of strong vinegar. 

Light, clear glues are considered the best and are always preferred, irrespective of 
strength, for special purposes such as joining light woods, etc., where transparency is 
of paramount importance, but the only certain means of ascertaining the comparative 
strength of glue of any color is by a practical test. 

GLUTEN: the principal protein component of wheat and other grains, is composed 
of vegetable fibrin and a small quantity of gliadin. It is greyish in color and exten- 
sible, while fresh and moist, like caoutchouc. It may be separated from wheat or rye 
flour, etc., by making a paste and washing in successive waters until all starchy mat- 
ter is removed. It is the large proportion of gliadin in the gluten of wheat flour that 
is responsible for its special tenacity and, consequently, peculiar excellence for bread 
making among people who prefer light bread and for macaroni, etc. 

GOOBER, or Guber: the popular Southern name for the Peanut (which see). 

GOOD-WILL. In purchasing or selling a store, a good rule for estimating the value 
of the "fixtures" and "good-will" is to allow one-half to two-thirds of their original 
cost for fixtures, and to take the net profits of the previous year or six months as the 
value of the good-will. There should be a written agreement that the seller shall not 
enter into the same business within a certain limit of distance, or for a certain period. 
It has been held that, by common law, when the territory so proscribed is reason- 
ably limited in extent, its prohibition may be for life; when the time is limited to, say, 
five or ten years, the prohibition may be absolute for that period. Protection for five 
years in the city of location should be sufficient for an exclusively retail business. 

GOOSE. Geese have been raised as pets or 
for the table as far back as history reaches and 
they are known and enjoyed to-day in every part 
of the world. They are, perhaps, the most popu- 
lar in Germany, where they are eaten in a great 
many different forms — fresh cooked, smoked, 
salted, etc. Especially famous items are Smoked 
Pomeranian Goose Breast and Pokelgans — the 
latter being goose flesh, salted, stewed and pre- 
served in fat. 

Goose fat is also highly regarded by many 
races. It is largely eaten in Germany in place 

African and Toulouse Geese 


of butter— particularly by Hebrews, as its »se on bread, for example, is permissible 
with meat, whereas it is a violation of the Talmudian law to eat butter and meat 
together. It is also valued there, and elsewhere, for many culinary operations. 

In this country the most popular varieties of domestic geese are the Grey African 
and the Grey Wild Goose, which is "wild" only in name! 

The Grey ifrican is a large bird, the market weight of the adult gander often 
reaching fifteeD pounds. It is distinguished by a large head with ;i black knob in 
front and a heavy dewlap under the throat. The knob is seen only in this and the 
Chinese varieties. Its Legs are set so far back that it carries itself almosl erect. The 
neck, breast and under-parts are of varying shades of light grey, and the back, wings 
and tail are dark grey. The Grey African is especially valuable for market purposes 
because of its rapid growth, making eight to ten pounds in about ten weeks. 

The Grey Wild is a lighter bird. The head is black. 
with white on the sides, the bill and neck black, the 
neck shading to grey, the wings and hack dark grey, the 
breast light grey, the under parts white and the tail 
feathers, shanks and toes black. 

Two other noteworthy varieties of large size are the 
Grey Toulouse and the White Embden. 

The Grey Toulouse, of light grey plumage shading 
to white, and of compact shape, matures later than the 
others and is often called the "•Christmas Goose" be- 
cause it is ready for the markets at about the time the 
holidays begin. It is of convenient and compact shape, 
but the flesh is coarser and less palatable than that of 
the two preceding types. It is named after the city of 
Toulouse, France, where it is bred in large numbers. 

The White Embden, with white plumage, blue eyes 
and orange-color bill, shanks and toes, offers a large 
square deep body with a round full breast. 

Two of the host known of the smaller varieties are the Brown and White Chinese 
Geese. They are not favored by large growers, but are an excellent type for the 
farmer who devotes only a portion of his time to his poultry yard, as they are hardy, 
easily fatteued and good layers. The plumage of the White Chinese is pure white on 
all parts, with knob and bill of orange-color and shank, toes and web of orange-yellow. 

The Colored Egyptian or Nile Geese are the most beautiful of their race, but they 
are bred solely for ornament and therefore are entitled to no consideration among 
their more useful cousins which offer up their succulent goodness to the appetites sur- 
rounding the dinner table. Mixed grey and black predominate in their upper plumage, 
the in-east shading to chestnut, the wings relieved by white epaulettes, and the tail 
feathers of glossy black. The under-bodies are light buff or yellow with black pencilings. 

Geese under favorable conditions will live to a great age, but for table purposes 
one year is quite old enough! The age can be tested by the upper bill — if it will bend 
or curve in the middle, the bird is young. The firmer it is, the older the bird. 

Young geese — variously known as "green geese" and "goslings" — are in season 
from July to November. 

See also Foie GRAS, made from goose livers. 

White Chinese Goose and Gander 






Wild Geese. The best known varieties of wild geese are the Canada and Brant. 

The Canada is so much the most abundant variety that it quite generally carries 
the title of "Wild Goose" without respect to the other varieties which belong equally 
within the classification. It is also the largest, weighing from eight pounds upwards. 
The head and neck are black with a white band underneath, the back is of grey- 
brown, and the under parts vary from grey to white. 

The Brant is a much smaller bird. The head, neck, upper breast and shoulders 
are blackish streaked with white, the back is of brownish-grey shading to white at 
the tail, and the under parts are ashy grey to white. 

GOOSEBERRY i See Color Page of Berkies and also accompanying half-tone illus- 
tration) : a fruit of the same general family as the currant but much larger — attain- 
ing in general cultivation here to a diameter of three-fourths of an inch. The skin 
of the wild berry is hairy or prickly, but this characteristic has been reduced by cul- 
tivation to almost perfect smoothness or, at most, a few soft hairs. In this country, 
very little of the ripe fruit is consumed, but the green berries are popular in pies, etc. 
They also make good sauce because of their peculiar tartness. 

Green gooseberries are very easily preserved. The best method is to cook them 
until the skins burst and then put them up in fruit jars, no sugar being used until 
shortly before serving. They can also be preserved for a considerable length of time 
without cooking — carefully sort out those bruised or otherwise damaged, then place 
the sound fruit in bottles until the latter are nearly full, fill with water so that all the 
berries are covered, cork well and store in a cool cellar. 

English gooseberries show a greater variety of color — white, green, red, yellow, 
etc. — and average larger than the American, often reaching a full inch in diameter and 




an inch and a half in length, but the American are generally firmer and therefore 
better for preserving. 

GORGONZOL A : a cheese of Roquefort style. See general article on Cheese. 

GOULASH or Klulash: a kind of meat stew which originated in Hungary and is 
now popular here, both as a restaurant item and in canned form for home use. It 
consists generally of beef garnished with potatoes, onions, paprika sauce, etc. 

GOURD: a genus of plants which includes pumpkins, squashes, cucumbers, etc. In 
popular usage, the term is applied principally to the calabash from which water dip- 
pers are made, and the many non-edible but ornamental gourds of fancy gardening. 


See sub-head in general article on Bread. 

GRAHAM FLOUR: "unbolted" flour, containing part or all of the branny covering 
of the wheat. It takes its name from a Sylvester Graham, who first claimed for it 
great nutritive value. 

GRAIN. ( 1 ) Any small, hard seed, such as a grain of corn or wheat, and hence taken 
to express the whole class of edible seeds. (2) Any small particle, as a grain of sand 
or a grain of sugar. (3) A measure of weight, the smallest used — 1 lb. avoirdupois 
equals 7000 grains. 

GRAM. See Metric System in Tables of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

GRANADILLA: the fruit of several varieties of the passion vine. The largest type, 
a native of tropical America, is an oval fruit, sometimes reaching a size of six inches 
in diameter, with a soft sweet-acid pulp. 

GRAPES: the fruit of vines of many species, both American and European. They 
are largely consumed as a fresh fruit, expressed for grape juice, dried as "raisins" 
and made into wines, brandy, vinegar, etc. The fermented juice also gives Cream of 
Tartar (which see). 

The vines live to a great age under favorable circumstances, attaining, if per- 
mitted, enormous size — a single vine often giving an annual crop of several tons. The 
general rule is, though, to confine them to close and moderate growth of "bush" size. 

The juice and flesh of the fruit con- 
tain from 12y 2 % to 25% grape sugar, 
1% to 3% of nitrogenous substances, some 
potassium and other salts and some tar- 
taric, malic and citric acids; the seeds 
contain tannin, starchy matters, fat and 
oil; and the skins, tannin, cream of tar- 
tar and coloring matter. It is the com- 
bination in fermentation of the volatile 

Substances in the grape Which produces A hu S e California grape vine, supported by sixty posts and covering 
.* ■* , - . * a third of an acre. It frequently produces 5,000 hunches a 

ine OOliquet Of WineS. sear, the bunches often weighing 6 to 8 lbs. each 

and measuring 12 to 14 inches in length. 






The quantity of grapes now consumed annually for food is enormous, yet one need 
not be very old to remember when a bunch of grapes was a rarity in the city save 
upon the tables of the rich. How much has been done for American health, and thus 
indirectly for American civilization, by the cheapening and popularizing of the small 
fruits during the past thirty years, can hardly be estimated. Best of them all is the 
grape. It appeals to the aesthetic taste as well as to the palate; it is grateful to the 
eye as well as the stomach, and at four or five cents a pound is within the reach of 
the leanest purse. 

In California alone more than 250,000 acres are under grape cultivation. About 
125,000 acres are devoted exclusively to wine making. The product of another 100,000 
acres is dried as raisins or made into brandy. The remaining 25,000 are devoted to 
table grapes, shipped principally to Eastern markets. The total investment in the 
industry in California is estimated at considerably more than f 100,000,000. 

Thousands of acres are also under grape cultivation in many other states, 
especially New Jersey, Western New York, Ohio, Missouri, Michigan and Wisconsin. 

Grapes are the only fruit which is plentiful and cheap during times of extraordi- 
nary drouth. A wet season is what the grower fears. In dry weather, the vines bear 
abundantly and the fruit is large and 
well-flavored. In this country it reaches 
its highest perfection in parts of Califor- 
nia, where not a cloud is seen in the sky 
from May till October, and many kinds 
unknown to Eastern vineyards are culti- 
vated there from stocks brought from 

Grape-Growing under Glass— The vine in the lower picture held eleven clusters with a total weight of 60 lbs. 

The two clusters shown weighed ~14 lbs. each. 



There is not much variety in the East. The growers believe it most profitable 
to make no experiments, and confine their efforts to the standard types with which 
the public is familiar. 

The four besl known Eastern varieties are the Concord (black), Niagara (green), 

Delaware i reddish) ami Catawba ( reddish), illustrated in the Color Pages facing 270 
and 274. of these, the Concord is the most important from the standpoint of quantity 
consumed — its various types and offshoots constitute 7(1% or more of all the table 
grapes consumed in the East and are found to a greater or less extent in every part 
of the country. They are largely employed also in the manufacture of grape juice 
and wine of claret style. 

The popularity of the Concord is due to its long season and all-round reliability. 
It is i he first to appear on the fruit stands and it stays the longest. It seldom fails 
to give a good crop and the fruit is nearly always of good size and color and attrac- 
tive bloom. The low price made possible by its abundance compensates in the general 
market for any inferiority in flavor and composition to choicer varieties. It should 
though be "turned over" as quickly as possible, as it does not keep well after ripening. 

The Niagara is the best known American green grape. It is a showy berry of fair 
quality and low juice, ripening soon after, or together with, the Concord. 

The Delaware, reddish in color and the smallest of the four varieties, is a grape of 
especially tine quality — both for table purposes and high class wines. It comes into 
t lie market a little later than the first Concords. Its fine sweet aromatic flavor makes 
it a prime favorite in spite of its small size, but it is not a prolifc bearer and its 
market price is generally double that of the Concord. 

The t 'iitiiirbii, the latest in the market, is particularly interesting as a native Ameri- 
can grape and equally esteemed for table purposes and wine making — especially of the 
finer types, as domestic "champagnes," etc. It takes its name from the Catawba 
River, X. ('., its original home. The berry is medium in size, oval to roundish in 

The stunted trunks of grape vines resulting from constant pruning to increase the crop 



shape, of a dull purplish red with lilac bloom aud of excellent flavor. It is, however, 
often picked when immature, before its best qualities have developed, aud other grapes 
of similar appearance are too frequently si>ld under its name. 

The Catawba is an especially good keeping variety, with care often being held for 
sale until March or even later. 

The best known of the California products for table purposes are the Muscat or 
Muscatel, a large, sweet and tine flavored green or "white" grape, and several choice 
"black" grapes — among them, the Hamburg, Ghros Colman, Black Morocco, Tokay and 
Empress — the berries generally large, varying in color from red to almost black and 
very "fancy" in appearance, the bunches occasionally weighing up to twelve pounds 

The Seedless, or Thompson Seedless, a small slender green grape, is the variety 
sold dried as California Sultanas (see Raisins). 

The most important of Southern grapes is the Scuppernong i which see i. 

The imports of fresh grapes consist chiefly of the large meaty Spanish "white" 
berries commonly known as "Malagas," from Malaga, the principal port of shipment, 
and "Almerias," the latter being generally the larger and of finer flavor. They reach 
our markets during the Fall and Winter months, packed usually in cork dust in kegs 
weighing about forty pounds. Because of their firmness and excellent keeping quali- 
ties, they occupy an unique position in the trade. When unpacked, they should be 
carefully brushed with a soft brush to remove the cork dust. 

The title '"Malaga"' is frequently but incorrectly applied to any large oval white 

There is also a smaller but regular importation of fine hothouse grapes from Eng- 
land and Belgium, principally of the Muscat of Alexandria, Hamburg and Grros Colman 
types. They are generally packed in boxes containing six to seven pounds each, the 
boxes strapped together in pairs — two boxes being known in commercial parlance as 
a "strap." 

Fancy grapes can be kept in good condition for several weeks by wrapping each 
bunch in oil or tissue paper, encasing with cotton wool and tying each end, and keep- 
ing in a cool place. For shipment, the bunches are further packed in w 1-wool in cases. 

More common varieties may be liehFwithout injury for from six to eight weeks by 
packing in dry sawdust in boxes and storing in a temperature averaging 38° to 40° 

See also American Wines and general article on Wines. 

GRAPE FRUIT, or Pomelo . {Color Page opp. 282). 
The Spaniards introduced the Pomelo into Florida, but 
recognition of its value was deferred for a long time, 
partly because its peculiarity of flavor was not at first 
acceptable to the American palate, and partly because 
of lack of care in its culture and poor judgment in 
marketing. Now, however, it has conquered the market 
completely, both North and South, and is to-day the 
prime favorite, though the highest-priced, of breakfast 

The species of the citrus family to which the Grape 
Fruit or "Pomelo" belongs, includes also the Shaddock, 

A bunch of Grape Kruit 



which it supplanted in the general markets. The Pomelo obtained its present name of 
"Grape Fruit" because of the clustering, grape-like groups in which most varieties 


Going further back, the name Pomelo comes from the Dutch Pompelmoes, and 
Sbaddock° from Captain Shaddock, who first carried it into the West Indies. To the 
Shaddock belongs the variety known in Europe as the "Forbidden Fruit." 

Grape Fruit is often misjudged because of a mistaken but rather widespread 
habit of eating it before it is ripe — it should be allowed to mature just as fully as 
any other fruit. Most varieties do not attain their full richness until December— 
and from then on, through April and even into May, they are generally found at their 


The Grape Fruit does not contain as much citric acid as the lemon, but it is 
decidedly antiscorbutic, and possesses some of the bitter tonic quality of cinchona. To 
obtain its full medicinal value, it should be eaten without wine or sugar, but the addi- 
tion of either, or both, makes it very delicious. 

The present supply comes principally from Florida, California and the West 
Indies. Increasing quantities are imported each season from Porto Rico. 

GRAPE JUICE. Pure grape juice is simply the expressed juice of the fruit, carefully 
filtered and promptly sterilized to prevent fermentation. Its principal components 
are grape sugar and small quantities of albuminoids, potassium tartrate and tartaric 
and other acids. 

Grape juice can be easily made at 
home. Press the grapes, heat the juice 
to not under 170° Fahr. nor over 190° 
Fahr. in any form of a double boiler, 
settle for twenty-four hours, bottle care- 
fully, and then heat the filled bottles by 
immersing them to their necks in hot 
water and gradually increasing the heat 
until they are nearly at the boiling point. 
Then cork and seal or paraffin the tops. 

Careful filtration will improve the 
appearance of the product. 

The color of the grape juice thus 
secured will nearly always be white or 
yellowish instead of the purplish red of 
the greater part of the commercial prod- 
uct, as there are only a few grapes which have pink or red juice. The red color can 
be obtained by pouring the hot juice, before the final immersion, into a receptable 
containing the skins of red grapes — almost any shade of red may be thus secured, 
arrording to the variety of grape used and the length of time the juice is allowed to 
remain on the skins. This process also adds other substances, chiefly tannin, to the 
product, the advantage or disadvantage of which depends upon individual tastes — 
the result more closely resembles ordinary sweet red wine, though it is still non- 

As many people find grape juice too sweet, it is often better enjoyed when served 
diluted with water — either plain or carbonated. 

A Grape Fruit Tree 


GRAPE SEED OIL: closely resembles olive oil. It is used in Europe both for 
culinary and illuminating purposes. 

GRAPE SYRUP: formerly a popular item, is grape juice evaporated to syrup con- 

GRAPE SUGAR. See matter under general title of Glucose. 

GRAPPA: an Italian brandy. 

GRAVES WINE. See Bordeaux Wines {White). 

GRAYLING: a Southern fresh-water fish of fine flavor, generally weighing from 
one to five pounds. It is in season from September 1 to January 30. 

GRECQUE: a sieve or apparatus placed in coffee pots for holding the grounds. 
The term is also applied to a coffee-pot furnished with a Grecque. 

GREEK WINES. Centuries ago, Greek wines were considered the finest in the 
world and they still hold a prominent place in the favor of European connoisseurs, 
but they are little known in this country. They are generally much stronger and 
heavier than French wines and some are treated with resin and flavored with spices. 

Among the best known varieties are St. Elie (Santorin), of sherry style; Mavro- 
daphne, also light and delicate ; "Morea" and Camerite, dry and red ; Nectar, dark red, 
sweet and light; and a number of richer sweet types as Halvasia or Malvasier (Malm- 
sey), red and gold; Red Santorin, one of the world's finest sweet red wines ; Hymettus, 
white and ruby, resembling the Gironde wines; Achaier, in sherry and sweet-white- 
port types, and Santo, a syrupy spirituous "Muscat," white and purple. 

On the Morean peninsula — especially the vicinity of Corinth, Nauplia and 
Patras — large quantities of red and white wines are made from the small seedless 
Corinth grapes when the weather conditions are unfavorable for drying the crop for 
export as "currants." 

The term Patras, from the gulf of that name, is frequently employed as a general 
title for several varieties — among them a red wine resembling spirituous natural Port ; 
a white wine, both still and sparkling, of Rhine Wine style; and several Muscats 
and Corinth Wines. 

GREEN KERN : is dried green wheat. It is used chiefly for soups and in stews. 

GREENGAGE: a famous variety of sweet plum (see Plums). It originated in 
France, where it is known as Reine Claude, from Claudia, Queen to Francis I. Its 
English title is after a clergyman named Gage who introduced it into England. 

GREEN GOODS. A term sometimes employed to cover all fresh fruits and vege- 
tables. See article on Vegetables. 

GREENS: a general term for any leaves, either cultivated or wild, served as a 
cooked vegetable, as Spinach, Dandelion, etc. 


GREEN SLOKE: a greet) spored seaweed of tlie same type as Laver (which see). 

GREEN TURTLE: the mosl highly considered species of large Turtle (which see). 

GRENADIN SYRUP: the general title of Pomegranate Syrup. See Fruit Syrups. 

GRISKIN, of Pork: the loin, the choicest lean part of the hog. 

GRISSINI: an Italian-style stick bread. See Finger Rolls. 

GRITS: a name applied to any of several varieties of coarsely ground grain, such 
as Hominy Grits, Wheaten Grits, Oaten Grits, etc. They are generally consumed as 
a breakfasl dish, but during the winter some families serve them for supper. 

GROATS: the hulled grain, whole or broken, of wheat, oats, barley, etc. In the 
household, it is used for preparing gruel for invalids and sometimes for thickening 
broths and soups. 

GROCER. Since the Grocer as we know him in America is directly descended from 
his English compeer, the early history of the latter may properly be considered as also 
belonging to the Western branch of this ancient trade. 

Prior to the opening of the twelfth century, established shops for the sale and 
barter of commodities were little known in England. Pedlars, or chapmen, traveled 
from hamlet to hamlet with packs of fine cloth, jewels, wine, salt, spices, tallow and 
wax, but, as may be judged from their stock, the traffic of these meu was confined 
almost entirely to the nobles of the castle and the priests of the monastery. Such 
necessary articles as salt and tallow were sold to the common people, but these pedlars 
found most of their profits in the sale of luxuries to the wealthy. 

Later, as pedlars became more numerous, the .Market was developed in town, 
while the Fair supplied the country districts with a means to sell and exchange goods. 
This latter institution served the double purpose of providing a place where goods 
that could not be obtained in the town markets were procurable and also a wider 
opportunity to dispose of ordinary commodities. 

The shops of that fore-runner of the Grocer, the "Pepperer," or "Spicer," were 
undoubtedly established in London many years previous to 1180, as a mention of a 
Pepperers' (iuild of London is found as early as that year. These tradesmen dealt 
in pepper, cloves, nutmegs, mace, ginger, frankincense and other spices then brought 
across Europe from remote India. Spiced drinks and richly spiced foods were greatly 
in vogue among people of wealth, as food at that early period was coarse and not 
always wholesome. This guild of Pepperers ceased to exist shortly after 1338, in which 
year a heavy loan was extorted from it by Edward II. 

The earliest use of the word "Grocer," or "Groser," occurs in 1310 in the city 
record report of London. The term Grocer probably originated through certain 
mediaeval traders who "engrossed'' large quantities of merchandise. It has also been 
attributed to the leading merchants of that time who bought only "in gross" (en 
gros), or in large rpiantities. 

The fifteenth century in England finds nearly all of the various trades formed 
into guilds, and these guilds were in many cases provided with full authority to rule 


THE grocer's encyclopedia 285 

the affairs of their occupation. This power was received either directly from the 
King through a special charter, or, if in London, by a delegation from the Lord 
Mayor. Each trade was supposed to be responsible for, and preserve, its "good name 
and fame." 

That greatest of all guilds, the Grocers' Company of London, was founded in 
1345, and the history of this organization is to a large extent the history of the grocery 
trade in England for over four hundred years. In 1427 this guild was given the exclu- 
sive privilege of superintending the public weighing and such management of the 
King's Beam remained long with them. As far back as 1394 the Grocers were 
empowered to "garble" (inspect and cleanse) all groceries in the city of London. They 
were given the right to enter any store and inspect the merchant's stock and when 
these official garblers found goods that were impure or spoiled they had full authority 
to arrest, try and punish the offender. And punishment of offenders under the Pure 
Food Laws of that period, and later, did not always stop at a fine ; it was often found 
more effective to place the guilty one in stocks and then burn his corrupt wares in 
such propinquity to his nose that the full offensiveness of his misdemeanor was made 
powerfully evident to him. The Grocers' Guild retained this office of garbling up to 
the end of the eighteenth century. 

In 1562, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a statute was passed which pro- 
hibited any person from engaging in any craft or occupation unless he had served a 
seven year apprenticeship in the particular trade which he intended to enter. This 
law retained its power until about the middle of the eighteenth century. 

From the early days of the guild down to the opening of the past century the 
Grocers appear to be the most prominent and influential of all trades-bodies in Eng- 
land. The great Levant trading company was an off-spring of the Grocer's Company, 
and in 1600 a number of the leading grocers of London formed the famed East Indian 
Company and were thus responsible to a large extent for the building of the Anglo- 
Indian empire. 

From 1231 to 1898 no less than eighty grocers held the office of Lord Mayor of 
London and all but about fifteen of these eminent men were knighted, some of them 
on the field of battle. The annals of the English grocery trade are replete with names 
of notable Lord Mayors, magistrates, clergymen and soldiers. England has had a 
grocer Lord Chancellor and at least one of her national poets, Abraham Cowley, was 
a son of this ancient trade. And as evidence that great grocers are still being produced 
it is only necessary to skip to the twentieth century, and Sir Thomas Lipton. It was 
in the latter part of the sixteenth century that the now famous school of Rugby was 
founded by Lawrence Sheriff, the favored grocer of "Good Queen Bess." Many 
other prominent grocers of this period interested themselves in education with the 
result that numerous schools for both the poor and the prosperous were established. 
In the fifteenth century the grocery trade is described as the "trade of gentility," as 
the city companies drew many .-ipprentices from the younger sons of the country gentry. 

The famed pageantry of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was largely the 
work of the Grocers' guild. These pageants were often very costly and elaborate. 
Gorgeous floats were built, the best actors employed and on many occasions poets of 
national reputation were engaged to write the verse. Figs, dates, raisins and many 
other luxuries were thrown to the people by negro boys on the backs of "stage" camels 
Such celebrations were usually given on the occasion of a grocer's election to the 
exalted office of Lord Mayor of London. 


286 THE gkocek's encyclopedia 

Until 1017 the grocery trade maintained full supervision over all drugs and other 
goods sold by apothecaries— in fact, the apothecaries were part of the Grocers' guild. 
The separation of these two trades in that year was the result of a long period of agita- 
tion on the part of the physicians and many dissatisfied members of the drug trade. The 
division was finally brought about by King James who was inimical to the Grocers' 
Company and a friend of the apothecaries. 

The introduction into England, about 1050 , of tea, coffee and chocolate resulted 
in a great impetus to the grocery trade. The demand for tea, and later for coffee, 
increased with remarkable rapidity and in a very few years these beverages — in spite 
of the denunciation with which they were first greeted by both the doctors and the 
clergy — became, with sugar and spices, the chief staples of the trade. 

Owing to the failure of the National government to provide the kingdom with an 
adequate supply of small coinage, the grocers of England, from 1648 to 1679, and again 
for fifty years beginning in 1767, coined their own money, or tokens. This coinage 
was mostly in small denominations, though many of the larger companies made gold 
pieces. These pieces were given in change for the King's money, and as most of the 
grocers struck off their own coins one can readily imagine the merchant of those 
times preparing for a day's business by having his apprentices stamp out a quantity 
of small change. Many of these coins were highly artistic indicating that much pride 
was felt in their appearance by the issuing grocer, who in many instances had his 
likeness, a reproduction of his store front, or his own, or the Guild's, coat of arms 
stamped on the face. 

It was in the latter part of the eighteenth century that the Grocer first began to 
advertise. The newspaper was quite extensively used by many merchants, while "trade 
cards" were popular with all grocers of the time. Besides the name, address and 
announcement that the issuer was a "tea dealer, grocer and cheesemonger," these cards 
usually bore illustrations of Chinese tea drinkers, and various other subjects of direct 
bearing upon the grocer and his stock. It is in the early years of this century that 
record is found of the practice of selling sugar at cost, and also at an actual loss, a 
fact that may be of interest to the modern grocer! 

With the nineteenth century came many trade innovations that directly affected 
the Grocer. One of the first department stores was established in London in 1849 by 
Henry Harrod, a grocer. The multiple shop or chain of stores idea dates from 1885 
and when first carried out brought much hardship to the small dealer, as even at the 
very beginning these large companies sold most staples at a loss. The first journal 
of the trade. "The Grocer," was established in London in 1862 and was immediately 
recognized as supplying a long felt want. 

A recent estimate places the number of grocery stores in the United States at 
141,600. And thus the Grocer, who was anciently a purveyor to the rich alone, has as 
the conturios passed, developed and expanded into the broader dignity of dispenser 
to all classes of the necessities as well as the luxuries of life. 

GROUND CHERRY, also known as Alkekengi, Husk Tomato, Strawberry Cherry, 
Strawberry Tomato, and Winter Cherry: the fruit of a very productive plant which 
grows wild in many parts of the world — in this country, most freely in the cornfields 
of the lower Mississippi Valley — and has recently been added to the list of cultivated 
crops. It is about the size of a cherry, generally orange-yellow or red, but also some- 
times green and purple in color, and juicy and slightly acid in flavor. It matures 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 287 

inside a bladder-shaped calyx and, if left in the husk, can be kept through the winter. 
It is equally good raw and in the form of preserves. 

GROUND NUT: another name for the Peanut (which see). 

GROUPER: a Southern fish found in three chief varieties — Black, Red and White. 
In weight it ranges from five to ten pounds, and even as high as twenty pounds, and 
in shape is a cross between a carp and a bass. The flesh is firm but coarse, and of 
only second quality. It is in season from November to March. 

GROUSE. The title "Grouse" is applied to a large family of American game birds, 
the most important of which are the Ruffed Grouse, Prairie Chicken, Sharp-Tailed 
Grouse, Dusky Grouse, Black Heath Cock, Sage Grouse, Capercailze and Ptarmigan. 
In the East, custom generally reserves the title "grouse" for the Prairie Chicken and 
applies the name "(American) partridge" to the Ruffed Grouse. Both of these birds 
are shown on the Color Page facing page 260. 

The market "Grouse," or Prairie Chicken, the latter name due to its resemblance 
to the domestic hen, averages about 3y 2 lbs. a pair. Its upper plumage is brown with 
blackish and white markings, and the breast and under parts are whitish with brown 
and black marks. 

The market "Partridge," or Ruffed Grouse, also called "pheasant" in some parts 
of the country, takes its true name from the "ruffs" of feathers at each side of its head. 
It is the most prized member of the grouse family because, generally, the most deli- 
cate in meat and corresponds closely to the Gelinotte of Russia. It is larger than the 
English or Scotch Grouse. The plumage on the upper part of the bird is of chestnut 
varied with yellowish-brown, white, black and grey; the breast is buff-colored, the 
under parts whitish with brown marking, and the tail, long and of grey-brown or yel- 
lowish color. It feeds principally on fruits, herbs and seeds — to which diet is attri- 
buted the excellent flavor of its flesh. The average market weight is 2^/ 2 l° s - a pair. 

The Canadian Ruffed Grouse is similar in general appearance except that grey 
instead of chestnut is the predominating color of the plumage. 

The Sharp-Tailed Grouse, also called "Prairie Hen" in some parts of the country, 
is a little larger than the Prairie Chicken, of lighter color and with longer, more 
pointed tail. 

The Dusky Grouse, also called "Blue Grouse," "Grey Grouse," "Wood Grouse," 
etc., has the upper plumage blackish-brown mixed with lighter brown and grey, and 
the under parts bluish-grey and white. It is also distinguished by its rounded tail of 
broad dark brown feathers. The adult attains a weight of two and a half to three 
and a half pounds. The flesh is exceptionally delicate and as white as that of a domes- 
tic hen. 

The Black Heath Cock, or "Spruce Grouse" or "Canada Grouse," is a rather smaller 
bird than the Ruffed. The name "Spruce Grouse" refers to its favorite winter diet 
of spruce tree shoots. Its upper plumage is greyish, with shining rich bluish-black 
markings and its under side black and white. The tail is black, tipped with a reddish- 
yellow brown. The under part of the female is reddish-brown with black markings. 
The flesh is rather darker than that of the other varieties named. 

The Sage Grouse is the largest American Game fowl, excepting the wild turkey, 
attaining occasionally a weight of eight pounds. It is distinguished by its grey bark. 


with darker markings, black breast and long tail. Its favorite diet is composed of the 
ieaves and shoots of the sage brush, and when this is adhered to exclusively the result 
is an over-strong sage flavor in the flesh. Its food is, however, generally varied and its 
flesh consequently as pleasing and delicate as that of the more highly rated prairie 

The Capercailze is a bird of large size and glossy black plumage. The hen is 
smaller than the cock and mottled in color. 

The Ptarmigan is the extreme northern variety of the grouse family, making its 
habitat in Alaska and other parts of the Arctic regions. During the summer its 
plumage is generally grey and brown with black feathers in the tail, but the costume 
is changed for white with the approach of the winter snows. 

The best known, largest and most abundant type is the White Ptarmigan, also 
called Willow Ptarmigan and Willow Grouse. The flesh of the young bird is white 
and delicate, but that of older specimens is generally rather dry and sometimes bitter 
when willow buds have formed too large a share of its diet. 

The Rock Ptarmigan is a smaller variety. It has the same general appearance, 
but is distinguished by a black line from its bill to the eye. 

The White Tailed Ptarmigan is an exceptionally handsome bird formerly 
slaughtered in great quantities to obtain its feathers for millinery purposes. 

GRUEL: coarse meal or groats boiled with water to a proper consistence and 
strained. It is variously flavored to suit the palate, but the addition of a little white 
sugar and finely powdered Jamaica Ginger, with or without a glass of sherry, is the 
least likely to offend the stomach. Nutmegs, cinnamon, etc., frequently disagree 
with invalids. Milk or butter is also sometimes added. 

GUANABANA: the West Indian name of the Sour Sop (which see). 

GRUYERE: the French form of "Swiss Cheese." See general article on Cheese. 

GUARANA, or Brazilian Cocoa: is prepared from the seeds of a climbing plant. 
When roasted and ground, the resultant flour is made into small rolls which resemble 
chocolate. The infused result is closely allied to Tea, as the seeds are rich in theine. 

GUAVA (see Tropical Fruits facing page 588) : the fruit of the guava tree, of which 
there are about one hundred species, growing abundantly in tropical America, 
Mexico and the West Indies. That of the cultivated varieties average about the size 
of a hen's egg or larger and is of many colors and shapes. It is almost equally deli- 
cious raw, cooked and canned; as jam, jelly, "cheese" and syrup. 

The raw fruit is eaten with sugar and cream, the yellow-fleshed White Guava 
being generally preferred for dessert purposes. It is, though, very seldom for sale 
fresh except in the South as it is extremely perishable — when mature, it will not 
remain in good condition for more than three or four days, and it is not practicable to 
gather it green and ripen it afterwards as in the case of some other fruits. 

The most common varieties for preserving are the red apple-shaped and the yel- 
low pear-shaped. The former is usually rather small, but is of exceedingly fine flavor. 
Both are heavy bearers — under favorable conditions a single tree will produce annually 
several bushels of fruit. 

THE grocer's ENCYCLOPEDIA 289 

Guava jelly is usually marketed in screw-capped glasses or in neatly wrapped white 
wooden boxes. The product generally rated the highest is that made in Florida from 
Brazilian fruit — it is firm, of choice flavor and brilliant color. 

Guava cheese is the fruit reduced by boiling, the minor grades consisting principally 
of the pulp residue left after the extraction of the jelly. It is yellowish or reddish 
in color and of a glutinous texture. It should be solid enough to slice well and is 
most appropriately served with the cheese course. The best qualities are very fra- 
grant and delicious. 

Guava syrup is generally dark in color, thick in consistence and very rich. 

Guava wine may be best described as a "lady's wine'' — delicate in flavor, mildly 
sweet and generally of a golden amber hue. 

Guava vinegar is sometimes prescribed for digestions that do not readily accept 
other vinegars. 

GUILDS. The guilds so prominent in the early history of Europe, were societies 
organized for mutual aid in sickness, social amusement, religious purposes, trade 
regulation and protection, etc. They played a noteworthy part in ancient Greece 
and Rome but they attained their fullest development in Teutonic countries — espe- 
cially in England — during the Middle Ages. The most influential of all were the 
Trade Guilds, which may be divided into the Guilds Merchant and the Craft Guilds. 
The former included merchauts and land owners generally. The latter were con- 
fined to special trades or crafts and were most prominent in the larger cities, as 
in London. They exercised a general supervision over their respective trades and 
many of their rules and decisions have been perpetuated in modern statutes. The 
authority vested in the London Grocers' Guild, the "Grocers' Company of London," 
is described in the article on the Grocer (which see). Reference is there also made 
to the Levant Trading and East Indian Companies, to whose enterprise was largely 
due the great expansion of England's commerce and the foundation of her Eastern 
empire. Similar in aims and scope were the great Dutch Trading Guilds which car- 
ried their commercial ventures over the entire globe and still exist in China, Japan 
and the Pacific. 

GUINEA FOWL. The guinea fowl, a native of Africa but now found in nearly 
every part of the world, is, compared with the "chicken," a new arrival in the poul- 
try yard. It belongs to the same natural order, Gallinae, as the common domestic 
fowl. It was raised as a table bird by the ancient Romans, but later was apparently 
entirely overlooked, not coming into vogue again for centuries. It is not as 
thoroughly domesticated as some other kinds of poultry, but both supply and demand, 
particularly for high class trade, have been steadily increasing of late years. Its 
popularity is due both to the excellent quality of its flesh, especially in young and 
caponized birds, and to its slightly "gamey" taste, resembling somewhat thai of the 
partridge. It serves as an acceptable substitute for game when that is unobtainable 
or out of season. 

The "Pearl" guinea fowl, the most common poultry type, lias purplish-grey 
plumage evenly dotted with white, the ears and sides of the head white, the helmet 
horn-colored, sometimes replaced by a crest of feathers, the face and neck bare, the 

290 r H 10 grocer's encyclopedia 

wattles bright red and the legs reddish-yellow. The "White" guinea fowl is another 
highly prized bird and some judges claim superiority for crosses between the "Pearl" 
and "White" varieties. 

In general appearance the guinea fowl retains nearly all the characteristics of 
the wild bird, the only marked difference being the change of the legs from dull-grey 
or brown to reddish-yellow. 

The birds are of marketable size commencing with the early autumn, the usual 
age being from five to eight months. A "Squab Guinea" should weigh from three- 
quarters of a pound up to one and a quarter pounds; a "Guinea Chick" from one 
and a half to two and a quarter pounds. 

They are generally sold, like game birds, unplucked or with only the breast 
leathers removed, their handsome plumage making them conspicuously attractive. 
As their feather coats are very thick, this method also makes them appear larger than 
they really are. 

The tests for age given in the article on Poultry apply to the guinea fowl, 
except that a purplish breast is to be expected. The breast meat is lighter in color 
than that of other parts of the body, but the flesh throughout is darker than that of 
chicken. Good market birds should have full breasts and fleshy limbs. 

The birds juay be cooked and served in almost any way employed for poultry 
or game birds of similar age and size. The food value is about the same as that of 
chicken. Boiled cereals, such as "hominy," are an acceptable accompaniment in place 
of potatoes. 

Many connoisseurs allow the guinea fowl to hang for some days until just before 
the moment of "turning" in order to accentuate the gamey flavor. 

Guinea fowl eggs — rounder than hen's eggs and about half the size — are not gen- 
erally appreciated by the American consumer, but they are highly esteemed in 
Europe, where they are classed as little inferior to the very delicate eggs of the plover. 

GUINEA PEPPER: a name sometimes applied to Cayenne Pepper (see Pepper). 

GUINEA PIG: a small animal native to South America, best known in this conn 
try and Europe as a domesticated cage pet. The wild animal is generally orange and 
black on the upper parts, shading to yellowish underneath. Domesticated speci- 
mens are usually orange, black and white in marking. Those who have experimented 
with it as a table delicacy pronounce it "good eating," the flavor resembling 'possum. 

GULL: a name popularly applied to a genus of natatorial or swimming birds which 
includes a great many varieties, the plumage of most of them white, with a slaty or 
greyish upper mantle. The most common American types are the Great Black Head 
Gull and the Ilerring Gull. Their fish diet renders their meat too rank and coarse 
to be generally popular, but their eggs are in some sections an important item of 
local consumption. 

GUM: viscid matter exuded from various trees and plants, extensively used in the 
arts, medicines and manufactures — in the making of "gum" or mucilage, confection- 
ery, etc. Among the principal varieties are Gum Arabic from the stems of the Acacia 
tree, Gum Teagacanth (which see) and Chicle (see Chewing Gum). 

Dextrin (which see) is used as a substitute in various lines of manufacture. 


GUM SYRUP, or Plain Syrup: retailed in bottles for sweetening fruit and alco- 
holic beverages, is made by dissolving sugar in boiling water. 

GUMBO. See Okra. The title "Gumbo" is in the South also applied to a rich 
Creole soup of mixed vegetables, meats, herbs, poultry, shellfish, etc., which generally 
contains Okra as one of its ingredients, the compound title of each style bearing the 
name of the chief character ingredient, as Chicken Gumbo, Shrimp Gumbo, Okra 
Gumbo, etc. 

GUMBO FILE: is any Gumbo Soup to which "File," the dried powdered young 
leaves and leaf buds of sassafras, is added just before taking the soup from the fire. 

GUNNY BAGS. Gunny is coarse jute or hemp sacking, used for wrapping cotton 
bales, etc. The bags are employed for shipping raw sugar and similar commodities. 

GUNPOWDER: is an explosive formed by a mechanical mixture of Saltpetre 
{Nitrate of Potassium), Charcoal and Sulphur or Brimstone, the proportion of these 
ingredients varying slightly with different manufacturers. With minor modifications, 
the best grades of modern make consist of 75% Saltpetre, 15% Charcoal and 10 '., 
Sulphur. It seems extraordinary but it is a fact that the earliest known formulas 
correspond closely to those of the standard powders of to-day. 

It has been found difficult to obtain accurate information as to when Gunpowder 
was invented, or by whom. The combination of saltpetre with other substances for 
making fire-darts, Greek-fire, and other explosives resembling gunpowder, is said to 
have been known in the earliest ages, principally among the Far Eastern nations. 
The "Gentoo" laws supposed to have been formulated about the time of Moses, 1500 
years before the Christian Era, refer to cannon and guns, in the use of which gun- 
powder or some explosive substance must have been used. History also relates that 
during the Macedonian conquest about 400 years B. C, King Philip used "field artil- 
lery." Some authorities credit the Chinese with being acquainted at a very early 
period with substances resembling gunpowder. It is doubtful though if gunpowder was 
used to any great extent before the introduction of firearms about 1320 A. D. 

"Black" gunpowder has recently been superseded by smokeless powder to a great 
extent, but, because of its comparatively low cost, it is still largely used for shotgun 
ammunition and in rifles and pistols. 

The three standard grain sizes are Fg. FFg and FFFg, from coarse to fine. For 
shotgun ammunition, FFg and FFFg are recommended, the finer size giving the 
greater velocity to the shot. Fg is suitable for rifle cartridges containing 40 grains 
or more to a charge; FFg for the smaller sizes of rifles. FFFg is the quickest, and is 
especially adapted for revolver and pistol cartridges, where all the power must be 
developed in a short barrel or cylinder. 

Gunpowder is ordinarily packed in metal kegs, half-kegs and quarter-kegs, con- 
taining respectively 25, 12y 2 anf l 6 a /4 pounds avoirdupois, and in tin canisters contain- 
ing one pound, one-half pound and one-quarter pound. Some manufacturers are also 
using a paper "Keg" holding one pound of powder — this style of packing making an 
attractive and handy container. 

The oldest gunpowder manufacturer in the United States is the Du Pont Com- 
pany of Wilmington, Delaware, which was established in 1802. Its mills have 


continuously supplied the United States Government with explosives since that date, 
besides furnishing sportsmen with a standard article for their enjoyment. 

Only limited quantities of gunpowder packed in kegs or canisters may be stored 
on the premises. Insurance companies generally allow 25 pounds to be stored with- 
out additional premium. In some states a special license is required before it can 
be handled. The restrictions on the carrying, selling and shipping of the commodity, 
have caused the majority of dealers to meet the demands of their customers with 
loaded shot shells and metallic ammunition for rifles and pistols. Ammunition of 
this character may be carried in stock in any quantity without affecting insurance and 
without special license. 

Smokeless Gunpowder, is manufactured in two principal classes, "bulk" and 
"dense." Bulk powder gives equal strength to an equal bulk of Black or common 
gunpowder, the weight though being only about one-half. Dense is so manufactured 
that it occupies only about one-third the space of its equivalent in black gunpowder. 
The respective merits of these two types is a matter of individual opinion, each having 
its adherents. The up-to-date manufacturer produces both varieties and the shooter 
takes his choice. 

Smokeless gunpowders of both types are manufactured for use in shotguns, rifles 
and pistols. It must be borne in mind, however, that those designated for shotguns 
must not be used in rifles, and vice versa. 

In composition, the various smokeless powders differ but slightly, the bulk type 
being chiefly made from a mixture of nitro-cellulose and metallic salts with a moderat- 
ing agent, while the dense powders are generally composed of nitro-glycerin and nitro- 

Like black powders, smokeless gunpowder is packed in kegs, fractions of kegs, and 

As in other lines of merchandise, unscrupulous powder manufacturers are con- 
stantly offering inferior products to the unsuspecting public. It is wiser to stock only 
regular and reliable brands than to risk life and property by purchasing unknown and 
unstable powders. 

H ACKBERRY or Sugarberry : the fruit of the Nettle Tree. It is of pleasing sweet- 
ness and aromatic flavor, and, like the American persimmon, is at its best after it has 
been touched by frost. 

HADDOCK (See Color Page facing 250) : a silvery-grey sea fish, varying from one 
and a half to seven pounds in weight, of the same genus as the cod and very plentiful 
in the North Atlantic, off both the American and European coasts. It is in season 
all the year. "Deep sea" catches are generally considered the best. Large quanti- 
ties are cured by drying, smoking and salting. Smoked Haddock is best known as 
"Finnan haddie" (which see). 

HAGGIS: a national Scotch dish which consists of a well cleaned sheep stomach 
filled with the minced, blanched and cooked sheep's heart, liver, lungs, etc., mixed with 
oatmeal, onions, beef 'suet, herbs, etc., cooked from two to three hours before serving. 
Haggis is now sold in can form, for this purpose being cooked first in well but- 
tered molds instead of in the stomach. 

(I) Virginia Ham 
(3) Boned Shoulder 

(2) Bacon 

(4) Westphalia Ham 


HAKE (see Color Page facing 250) : a fish of the cocl tribe, plentiful along the coasts 
of Europe and eastern North America, large specimens attaining a length of four 
feet. The meat is coarse, flaky and white. It is consumed both fresh and salted in 
the same way as cod, but is considered less choice. 

HALIBUT {see Color Page facing 250) : a large flat-fish, longer than the flounder, 
covered with scales and showing brown above and white on its under side. It is very 
abundant on most northern coasts from Norway to the United States, and is often of 
great size — some specimens have weighed five hundred pounds. It is in season all the 
year and is largely eaten both fresh — generally broiled in the form of steak — and 
cured by salting and smoking. In England it is known as the "workhouse turbot" 
because of its cheapness. 

"Chicken Halibut,'' much the best eating, is the young fish, averaging two to ten 
pounds in weight. 

Halibut is often substituted for turbot. It can, however, be readily distinguished 
in the whole fish as the turbot has spots on the back and the halibut has not. The 
turbot is also much wider for its length than the halibut. 

HAMS (see Smoked Meats facing page 292) : are the hind legs of the pig, above the 
hock joint. They are generally sold salted and smoked, but also salted only, being 
then used generally for boiling, and fresh-boiled, in the last-named condition chiefly 
for retailing in slices or by the pound as "Pork Steak," "fresh pork," etc. 

The curing process in the best qualities consists substantially of trimming, 
chilling, immersing for from forty to sixty days in a brine composed of table salt, 
granulated sugar and a trace of saltpetre (the last-named to fix the color), washing, 
drying by hanging in steam-heated apartments and smoking, the hams remaining in the 
smoke-house at a moderate temperature for about three days. Hickory wood or 
mahogany sawdust are considered the best for smoking, but other woods are occa- 
sionally employed, as for example, Juniper Brush in Germany for Westphalia Ham, 
to impart a distinctive flavor. The final step is wrapping the hams and sewing into 
canvas or burlap bags. 

In the manufacture of the cheaper qualities, the salting is more speedily per- 
formed by "pumping" the brine into the ham. The time allowed for smoking is also 
considerably reduced, a higher degree of heat being maintained in the smoke-house. 

A Skinned Earn is a large ham with the skin and fat cut off down to the shank. 
It is purchased principally by retailers who wish to sell it in small quantities. 

A Boneless Ham is a cured ham, soaked, boned, the fat trimmed off and tied in 
a cloth and boiled for several hours. 

An American Short Cut Ham is one cut short so as to expose the marrow, and 
well rounded on the butt, most of the fat being taken off the face down to the shank. 

A Long Ham is cut from the side by separating the hip bone from the rump, the 
foot unjointed at the joint of the knee. 

A Manchester Ham is the same as a Long Cut Ham, except that it is cut shorter 
on the butt. 

A Stafford Ham is the same as a Manchester, except that the hip bone is taken 
out at the socket, thus exposing the knuckle. 

What was formerly known as a "Picnic" or "California" ham is the shoulder with 
from five to eight pounds of the butt trimmed off. 

296 THE guocee's encyclopedia 

As hain, like all other cured pork, loses considerably in weight by the natural 
evaporation of moisture aud grease, it is advisable for the retailer to purchase only 
in small quantities so as to make as quick a turnover as possible. Some hams, as 
Virginia, are sold by their first weight as stamped on the canvas, irrespective of loss 
in weight while being held. They should always be kept in a cool dry place — never 
exposed to the sun in window displays, etc. 

Among the best known of imported hams are: Westmoreland and York (English) ; 
Westphalia (Germany) ; Bayonne (France) ; Sprague (Hungary) and Spanish. 

In purchasing a ham, it is best to choose one that is moderately fat and that 
weighs from twelve to sixteen pounds. 

Fat is essential to a good ham — if it is lean, it is nearly always lacking in flavor 
and tenderness. The famous Virginia hams from lean Virginia hogs are exceptions to 
this rule, but their delicacy is attributed to the animals' forest diet of roots and acorns 
and other nuts. 

A ham much under the weight mentioned is generally lacking in flavor, as the 
meat is ordinarily too immature. It can be used for boiling, but it is not even for that 
as desirable as a part or whole of a larger ham. On the other hand, if the ham is 
very large, the muscle is liable to be a little tough. 

For the average small household, the best way of using a ham is to reserve the 
center for broiling and frying in slices, and to boil the remainder. 

Sliced ham should never be cut more than one-quarter of an inch thick — one- 
sixth of an inch is still better. It is not necessary to saw through the bone — with a 
sharp knife, cut clean to the bone and divide the slices in the center. The broiling 
or frying should be done over a hot fire, but it should not be sufficiently fierce to scorch 
the meat. It should always be eaten fresh cooked, as broiled or fried ham will speed- 
ily toughen. 

To properly boil ham, first brush it off thoroughly to remove every particle of 
mold, soak for an hour in cold water and then wash thoroughly. Next, with a very 
sharp knife, shave off the hardened surface from both the face and butt. Place over 
the fire in cold water, let it come to a moderate boil and keep it steadily at that point, 
allowing it to cook twenty minutes for each pound of meat, replenishing the supply 
of water as fast as it boils away. When cooked, remove the skin — it will easily peel 
off if it has been properly boiled — and dish with the fat side up. The service is 
improved by dredging black pepper in spots on the upside, sticking in a few whole 
cloves and garnishing with parsley. 

A roasted ham is merely a boiled ham nicely browned in a hot oven. It can be 
rendered more appetizing in appearance by spreading egg-moistened bread crumbs or 
cracker dust over the fat side before putting in the oven. The ham should rest in a 
pan with a wire bottom, or, if that is not possible, should be so blocked that the flesh 
docs not rest on the pan. 

HARD TACK, Ship Biscuit, Pilot Bread: large hard biscuits of plain dough, kiln- 
dried. They are prepared principally for army and navy commissaries, but in some 
places there is a steady private demand for them, the broken biscuit being relished 
when added to soups and stews. 

HARE: a class name for a large family of small game animals, including all of 
the Leporidae except the rabbit. There are from thirty to forty different varieties. 


including the "Common Hare," Polar Hare, Marsh Hare, Mountain Hare, etc., a num- 
ber of them native to North America. 

The hare is generally bigger than the rabbit, with longer ears and feet and wider 
muzzle. The common European type averages larger than the American and has still 
longer ears, feet and hind legs. Some varieties of the hare and rabbit are very similar 
in appearance, but the division is a natural one and the two types can always be dis- 
tinguished by their young — those of the hare are born highly developed with full coats 
of fur and their eyes open ; those of the rabbit are born blind, naked and helpless. 

The most common type of American hare is known in many sections as the "Jack- 
rabbit." It has always been a more or less popular article of game food, eaten fresh, 
but it is not as a rule sufficiently plentiful to encourage commercial packing. 

The Belgian Hare is a large variety of Rabbit (which see). 

The points given for the selection of rabbits apply equally to hares. 


HARICOTS VERTS : young string beans bottled or canned, imported from France. 

HASLETS: the liver, lungs, heart, etc., of food animals, especially of swine and sheep. 

HAWS: the fruit of the Hawthorn, known under various names and found in 
numerous varieties all over the world — the English "May," the Summer Haw or Yellow 
Thorn, etc. The berries — yellow, orange, purple or red in color — are more useful thau 
is generally known. They vary in size and flavor, but there are a number which make 
a pleasing breakfast or dessert fruit, and as such are popular in the south of Europe. 
They are also used in the manufacture of Hawthorn Liquor, an intoxicant, and 
cooked for various pastry and dessert items. 

In some parts of the United States the term "haw" is applied to the Sloe. 

HAZEL NUTS. See matter under title of Filberts. 

HEAD. The most generally desirable head for home cooking is that of the calf, but 
lamb's and pig's are also popular. With the exception of those from black sheep, thej 
should be thick and white. 

HEAD CHEESE, or Brawn : pickled meat trimmings, principally of pig meat, 
variously spiced and flavored, retailed in bulk, canned (then generally encased in 
jelly) and in large sausage casings (see Sausages). 

HEART. Beef heart is an economical and pleasing dish if properly prepared. In 
purchasing, see that the fat around the top is clear and lively in appearance. Calf's 
heart is smaller but more tender and delicate in flavor. Lamb's heart is generally 
sold with the lights. 

HEMP: the inner fibre of several plants, the various grades being used in the manu- 
facture of cordage, sheeting, etc. The most widely cultivated are the numerous 
varieties of the Cannabis Sativa, an annual of the nettle family which attains an aver- 
age height of from four to eight feet, grown chiefly in India. Russia, Argentine, and 

CHE grocer's encyclopedia 

the United States. Manila Hemp is the fibre of a plant of the banana family, grown 
almosi exclusively in the Philippine Islands. The finest grades are made into shawls 
and the coarser into ropes, etc. 

Hemp Seed: as it concerns the retailer, is best known as a food for canaries 
and other cage birds. 

Hemp Seed Oil: is a green oil extensively employed in Holland in the manufac- 
ture of suit soap. In Kussia, it is used for food purposes by all classes. 

HERBS. A great variety of plants belong under this heading and their uses are 
very numerous — (1) as vegetables, (2) for flavoring soaps, sauces and pickles, (3) 
to make herb or medicinal teas, etc. Those used principally as vegetables are fre- 
quently termed Pot Herbs, or are designated by the still wider title of "greens." 
Those employed chiefly for flavoring purposes — the varieties particularly considered 
in this article — are generally known as Sweet Herbs. Among the most popular types 
are Basil, Bay-leaf, Chervil, Dill, Marjoram, Mint, Parsley, Sage, Savory, Tarragon 
and Thyme. All of these, and a number of others of less common use, are described 
in their alphabetical positions. A "bouquet" or "faggot" of herbs is a bunch tied 
together for ready sale. 

Dried Sweet and Medicinal Herbs, both whole and ground, are largely prepared 
by such farming communities as the Shakers. They are sold chiefly in cans or pack- 
ages, in the latter case being first pressed into cakes of various sizes, principally 
1-oz. and %-lb. and then securely wrapped. They should be kept in a dry place as 
they readily absorb moisture and become moldy. 

HERMETICAL SEALING: the closing and sealing of a can or other vessel so as to 
render impossible the admission of air. 

HERMITAGE: the wine produced in the hilly Hermitage district bordering on the 
river Ivhone, north of Valence, France. Tlie name is taken from a hermit's cell or 
hermitage built on the summit of a hill near Tain in 1225 by Gaspard de Sterimberg, 
until then a chevalier of the French court. The section is divided into twelve districts 
known as Mas, the most noted of which is the Mas de Greffieux, at the foot of the 
hills. Next in order are the Mas de Meal, Mas de Bessar, and Mas de Baumes. The 
wines are generally known by the names of the districts — Mas Meal, etc. — but the true 
Hermitage wine which first made its reputation is a blending of the grapes or wine of 
the first three — Greffieux, Meal and Bessar. 

The product of the other eight districts — Cocoules, Murets, Dionnieres, l'Ermite, 
Peleat, la Pierrelle, du Colombier and Va^ognes — is generally considered of com- 
paratively inferior quality. 

The best known Hermitage is the "red" which is a rich deep purple, soft and deli- 
cate in flavor and of fine bouquet, suggesting the raspberry. The white wine of the 
best grades is also very choice — full bodied, smooth and aromatic. 

HERRING. There are several species of this favorite and much used fish, the chief 
being the ('In pen Hurengus of Northern Europe and America and the Clupea Mira- 
bilis of the Pacific Coast of the United States. The principal American fisheries are 



located along the New England coasts and in British-American waters. In Europe, 
the main herring grounds are those of Great Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, the 
Netherlands and the North of France. The domestic catch is supplemented by the 
annual importation of from fifty to seventy million pounds of pickled or salted 
herring, chiefly from Holland, Great Britain, Norway and Canada. 

The fish are usually caught in gill nets or scoop nets, the yearly harvest amount- 
ing to many hundreds of millions. The average size is from eleven to fourteen inches. 
The principal season in the eastern market is from October 1 to April 30. On the 
North American coast in the winter, the catch is frozen solid and thus easily shipped 
fresh to the markets for packing. 

When recently caught and cooked by boiling or broiling, herring are both whole- 
some and agreeable for consumption fresh, but the principal demand here is for the 
smoked or pickled fish, as the fresh herring if fried, or if kept long, becomes strong 
and oily and is apt to offend the stomach. The best grades of the cured fish are on the 
other hand highly esteemed as a relish, and salted herring is credited with diuretic 
properties by many physicians — perhaps because of the free quaffing of water or other 
liquids which generally follows its consumption. 

Bismarck herring is the whole fish put up in a pickle flavored with spices, pieces 
of red pepper, onions, etc. 

Bloaters (which see) are half-cured whole herrings. 

Boneless herring, other than that in cans or jars, is the dry cured fish ready pre- 
pared for the broiler. It comes packed in boxes with glass tops and is a quick-sell- 
ing article in a grocer's stock. 

Kippered herring is the fish split, salted and mild-smoked. 

Milchner herring is the pickled soft-roe fish, the roe being converted into a sauce 
by rubbing through a sieve. ; 

Red herring is English herring salted and smoked. The title is of English origin, 
distinguishing the smoked fish from the "white" herring, preserved by salting only. 

Soused herring is another title for Pickled herring. 

More fancy types include "Delicatess" or Filet (filleted) Herring in Wine Sauce 
or in Oil; Roll Mopse (pickled rolled fillets) ; small fish in Tomato Sauce, etc. 

As an article of food, herrings are of vast importance to a large proportion of 
the population of Europe and the preparation of the cured fish furnishes employment 
for thousands. 

The Dutch herring fishery is conducted by steam and sailing vessels, which use 
tanned cotton gill nets, 360 meshes deep and 720 meshes long, the mesh being two- 
inches stretch. They are set about six feet below the surface, being held in position 
by leads and corks. From 80 to 150 nets are carried on each vessel. A thousand bar- 
rels are often taken at one haul of the seine. 

Ad instantaneous photograph of a few members of a " school " of herrings 



The fish are dressed and salted immediately after the nets are hauled on to the 
sel — this point is considered of great importance. 

The Dutch fisherman, when dressing herring, is equipped with a short knife, 
attached to the fourth and fifth fingers of his right hand by a string tied to the 
handle. He takes the fish in the left hand, with the belly up and the head forward, 
and thrusts the knife crosswise directly through the gill cavities, entering the left side 
and emerging from the right. The knife, with edge turned upward or outward, is 
then pulled directly through the tissues, cutting and tearing away the gills. There 
is little apparent effort made to remove anything except the gills and pectorals as the 
other organs come away incidentally. The men become very expert in cutting — some 
of them can handle an average of twelve hundred fish an hour. 

The removal of the gills and heart results in opening the large blood vessels 
and free bleeding ensues, leaving the flesh pale or "white." 

The fish are next rolled in salt and then carefully packed in barrels in straight 
rows, backs down, each layer at right angles to those above and below and with salt 
between layers, a barrel of salt being required for each four barrels of fish. The 
barrels are finally headed up and stored in the hold until the end of the fishing trip. 
On reaching port, the catch is unloaded and sold at auction. 

The shore buyer generally repacks the fish in order to sort them by size and grades 
of quality, no sorting being attempted on the vessels. Some purchasers or agents 

compear, mn«roo» a i 

Dtswoon, ■. ». 

Thousands of kegs of Scotch herring, ready to ship, Aberdeen, Scotland 

THE grocer's ENCYCLOPEDIA 301 

prefer the sea-packed, unsorted fish, but as a rule dealers or jobbers wish to know 
how many fish are in a barrel and what their quality is. 

For repacking, the herring are first emptied into large vats or tanks, the original 
brine, called "blood brine" or "blood pickle," being carefully saved and poured back 
after re-barreling. Fresh salt is added in the proportion of one barrel to eight. 

Dutch herring barrels, in which the bulk of the catch is marketed, contain about 
one hundred and twenty-five kilograms (about 275 pounds) of fish. Smaller recep- 
tacles — one-half, one-quarter, one-third, one-sixteenth and one-thirty-second barrels — 
are also used, but are in less demand than formerly. 

In Holland there is no official regulation for packing or branding, but the 
packers have a standard which is generally observed, as it is to their interest to have 
the fish properly packed and labeled. 

Both Dutch and Scotch herring are graded according to the spawning condition 
of the fish. Ripe or full herring are branded "Full" or Vol; those in which the roe 
is undeveloped, as "Matties" or Maatjis, and the spent herring as "Shotten" or Ijlen. 
(or I) or Ijle). There are several qualities of each of these classes, designated No. 
1. No. 2, etc., and also numerous other grades, as "Mixed" or unassorted, etc. 

HICKORY NUT (see Color Page opposite 414). There is an almost innumerable 
variety of hickory nuts, but all the types of noteworthy food value can be classified 
under the name of Pecans, Thick Shell Shagbarks, or "Western Hickory," and Thin 
Shell Shagbarks. Pecans are treated under a separate heading. Of the other two 
classes, the Thin-shell are considered the more desirable, the meat being whiter as 
well as more easily obtainable. The Thick-shell or Western Hickory often though bears 
very large nuts — frequently to a length of two inches. 

The hickory- tree is a species of the walnut family and is found only in the United 

HOARHOUND, or Horehound: a bushy plant of the mint 
family native to the south of Europe and Eastern countries, 
growing about a foot high, and with round, wrinkled, almost 
hairy ("hoary") leaves, which contain a bitter principle and 
volatile oil of aromatic but not very agreeable smell. It is used 
as a flavor for candy and also in medicinal syrups for its cura- 
tive properties for coughs and other affections. 

HOCK. See Rhine and Moselle Wines. 

I [oarhound 

HOE CAKE: originally a plain cornmeal cake, so named because the old- 
time plantation "mammy" often cooked it on a hoe on hot embers in front of the wood 
fire. The term is now applied also to a richer "biscuit bread" of cornmeal, baked 
either on a griddle or in an oven. 

HOG AND HOMINY: a recent addition to the list of canned goods. The title 
given was formerly employed in slang phraseology to describe the diet of some country 
sections of the United States. 

HOGSHEAD. See table of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 



HOKEY-POKEY, the Italian Occhi-Pocchi : (1) a term applied to mixed colors 
and flavors of ice cream, in cake forms, (2) an inferior grade of ice cream sold by 

HOLLANDS. A term applied to Holland Gin (see article on Gin). 

HOMINY or Granulated Hominy or Grits : is, essentially, white Indian Corn kernels 
with the rough fibrous part removed, broken into particles of uniform size. It is simi- 
lar to Granulated Cornmeal, but considerably coarser. 

A grade of Grits, somewhat lower than that handled by the grocery trade for 
table purposes, is used in large quantities by brewers. 

Pearl Hominy is a larger size Hominy. It is also known as Samp, Coarse 
Hominy and Coarse Grits. 

Hominy is prepared for use by boiling with water or milk. The larger sizes are 
eaten as a dinner vegetable, the finer product as a breakfast dish. When boiling for 
frying, always add some flour just before finishing as that will prevent it from 
breaking and splitting when fried. 

HONEY: is the sucrose secreted by the glands of 
flowers, extracted by the proboscides of the working bees 
and inverted in their crops or honey bags into Invert 
Sugar or Dextrose and Levulose sugars (see article on 
Glucose). At the hive, the bee disgorges his burden 
into the cells of the comb as a reserve supply of food 
for the colony. As thus at first deposited the honey is 
a thin liquid — it attains its later syrupy consistence 
by evaporation. 

A hive of fifty to seventy-five thousand bees will 
yield an average of about one pound of honey daily dur- 
ing the season, the quantity rising to two to three pounds 
a day at the height of the season. If left to their own 
devices, the bees begin their annual work by building 
the combs, the process taking about half their time. 
After many failures, bee-keepers have found that they 
can supply thin transparent layers of pure wax stamped 
into foundations for the cells in such a way as to be 
acceptable to the bees, who complete the cell portion 
much more quickly and proceed sooner to actual honey 
gathering. Man can make more foundation in a minute 
than the bees in a dozen hives could draw out all sum- 

Comb Honey is that straight from the hives. The 
little square or oblong frames familiar to the consumer 
are fitted with the comb foundation referred to, and then placed in the hives for the 
bees to work in. The bees not only make the honey we eat, but also put it up in pack- 
ages for us! 

I vrgin Honei/ is that which flows spontaneously from the combs. The term was 
formerly applied to that made by the younger bees before swarming. 

Taking a swarm of bees from a tree 



tit rained Honey is that extracted from the combs, generally by centrifugal pro< - 
— the rapid revolving of the combs inside mesh-cylinders causing the honey to 
exude. If the honey has been allowed to ripen sufficiently in the hives, or is properly 
evaporated after extraction, "strained honey" compares favorably in tlavor and quality 
with Comb Honey. 

Candied Honey, as marketed, is strained honey evaporated to solidity. It i£ 
confection classed with Maple Sugar, etc. 

Ninety per cent, of the honey consumed is sent to market extracted or 
-strained." It is shipped in cans which hold five gallons, or sixty pounds, two cans 
making a case. 

Comb Honey and the better grades of Strained Honey, are sold for table use, 
while dark and coarse honey is used by bakers, confectioners, cracker makers and 
druggists. Hundreds of tous are annually consumed in the manufacture of sweet 
biscuits, as it has the peculiar quality of keeping them fresh and moist. The 
famous "Honey Bread'' of Germany and Fiance, lebkuchen, pain d'epice, will keep a 
year or eighteen months without drying out. 

Honey has been employed as food from the remotest times. In moderation it is 
nutritious and laxative, though some dyspeptic persons find that it aggravates their 
symptoms. Its composition varies according to the food of the bees, their age. tin- 
season, etc. The invert sugar (dextrose and levulose) ranges from 60% to 90% ; sucrose 
(corresponding to "ordinary" sugar) from nothing to lo'r. It was formerly adul- 
terated to a considerable extent by the addition of commercial invert sugar and com- 
mercial glucose, but the presence of either of these adulterants is easily ascertained 
on analysis, and the enforcement of Federal and State Food Laws has practically 
eliminated the fraud. 

The flavors of honey before blending vary as much as, or more than, those of 
fruits. Mountain Sage is very mild ; Buckwheat is so strong as to be almost biting 
to the palate; Basswood has a pronounced mint taste: White Clover is milder than 
Basswood and stronger than Mountain Sage; Alfalfa resembles White Clover, with 
usually a slight mint taste. The wild honey of Cuba, Mexico, etc., is generally highly 

The comparative merits of honey flavors is largely a matter of individual taste. 
In the East, to describe any honey as "equal to White Clover" is to style it as equal 
to the very finest, yet many judges and all Western consumers consider Alfalfa 
superior to White Clover. 

Other points for judgment are color and density. In this country, light colored 
or "white" honey is generally considered the best, but the rule does not hold good 
everywhere as the famous Scotch "Heather Honey" is as dart in color as our Buck- 
wheat — which is in most sections rated as a decidedly inferior product. 

The greater part of our present supply consists of Alfalfa Honey, from the alfalfa 
regions of the Western States, where bee-keeping is conducted on a large scale, the 
product amounting to an annual value of several million dollars. 

Southern California honey comes chiefly from Sage and Sumach blossoms, except- 
ing in the San Joaquin Valley, where the bee-keepers depend principally upon tin- 
Alfalfa flower. Texas furnishes large quantities of Mesquite, Guajilla (pronounced 
wah-he-lia), Catclaw and Horsemint honey; the Eastern States, north of the Ohio 

River and east of the Mississippi, principally Clover and Bassw 1. and the Sta - 

south of the Ohio, Tupelo. Mangrove and a good deal of Clover: 




In all of the honey States, white honey is produced in greater or less quantities, 
but it is usually mixed with other honeys, so the flavor cannot be distinguished. In 
Utah, Colorado and parts of Nevada and Idaho we get a pure White Clover without 
any other flavor being added, but only a few carloads are produced. 

England and Northern Europe generally, produce a honey similar to the Scotch 
Heather, but of lesser quality. Narbonne Honey, from the vicinity of Narbonne, 
France, is similar to our White Clover. Rosemary Honey is also very popular in 
Southern Europe, and the famed honey of Mt. Hymettus, Greece, is from Wild Thyme. 
- Poisonous Honey" is found near Trebizond, in Asia, its toxic effects being due to 
the bees having collected it from a poisonous plant. 

Honey should always be stored where it is dry and warm — almost hot. It will 
nol lie too warm with the temperature at 100° Fahr. If one is fortunate enough to 
have a dry warm garret next to the roof, no better place for storing it can be found. 
Where salt will keep dry, honey is safe. 

A cellar is one of the very worst places that can be found for storing honey. 
There are few cellars in which the air is not somewhat damp, and honey attracts mois- 
ture very readily. Strained Honey will become thin and will often ferment. Comb 
Honey will lose all of its attractiveness — the beautiful white surface becomes watery 
ami darkened and drops of water gather on the cappings and run over the surface. 

If honey, particularly Strained Honey, is kept for a great length of time, especially 
during cold weather, it is apt to change from its original liquid or semi-liquid con- 
sist nice to a semi-granular condition. It is then called "granulated'' or "candied" 
honey, and the flavor is somewhat changed. Some people prefer it in this condition. 
Inn it is not, as a rule, so readily salable. The tendency to "candy" is, however, fairly 
g 1 proof of purity. 

Honey Bread. See general article on Bread. 

Honey Cakes. See Lebktjchex. 

Honey Mead. See Mead. 

HOPS. The hop plant is a climber found wild 
in America, Europe and Asia. It has been cul- 
tivated in Germany since the ninth century and 
is in iw also an important crop in the United 
States, the chief producing sections being New 
York and the Pacific Coast states. It is famous 
for the property of its blossoms in preserving 
beer from bacterial action, while also imparting 
to it an agreeably bitter taste, and it is medic- 
inally valuable as a sedative and narcotic, 
whether taken internally or applied externally 
in the form of pillows, fomentations, etc. The ancients ate the young hop shoots as 
we do asparagus, and this custom is still prevalent in parts of England and Germany. 
The roots of the vine are perennial, the top only dying in the winter. The vines, 
which twine with the sun. from right to left, are noAV generally trained on drop-wires 
or strings or on wire trellis work, the old-style poles being employed in comparatively 
few sections. The blossoms are harvested in the latter part of August and the 

A pole of choice Hops, Oregon 



beginning of September. They are cured and 
kiln dried and then baled. 

In the choice of hops, care should be taken 
to select those which are full of lupulin (the es- 
sential principle), free from mold, and bright 
and silky in appearance — that are the most 
powerfully odorous, and the most free from 
leaves, stems, scaly fragments and sticks, and 
which, when rubbed between the hands, impart, 
in the greatest degree, a yellowish tint and glu- 
tinous feeling to the skin. It is best also to 
select those which are tightly packed, as, unless 
they are very firmly pressed together and quite 
solid, they soon spoil in keeping. 

HOREHOUND. See Hoarhouxd. 

«r« nnr 00. 

Weiirhinir H'»ps 

HORSE RADISH: a plant allied to the nasturtium or cress family, naturalized 
in many temperate countries. It is grown for its white, fleshy, very pungent roots, 

which are generally grated and mixed with vinegar for use as 
a condiment with oysters, meat, etc 

Grated Horse Eadish is best when freshest — if exposed to 
heat and air, it rapidly loses its pungent characteristics. Jars 
and bottles in which it is put up should be hermetically sealed. 
When used without vinegar, it is best grated just before serving. 
Horse Radish Sauce is made by placing the sliced rout in 
a bottle or similar receptacle and covering with alcohol. The 
sauce can be used without any other addition than a little fresh 
mustard and a little red pepper, or may be added drop by drop 
to any white sauce until the desired flavor is obtained. 

Hors, Radish Vinegar is the grated root, together with a 
small quantity of shallots, onions or garlic, red pepper, etc.. 
steeped for a week or so in vinegar, and then strained and 

Horse Radish Powder is prepared by -rinding the grated 
root, and drying by gentle heat orvexposure to a current of 
dry air. When grinding the root, it is advisable to use a meal 
chopper in order to save the eves! 

Prepared Horse Radish of any kind should always be kepi 
in a dark, cool place. 
Horse Radish The roots may be left in the ground over winter and dug 

as needed. If dug, they may be kept fresh for some time by burying in cool sand. 

An excellent winter salad may he obtained by sprouting the roots. If they are dug 
in the late autumn, the crowns being left intact, and then buried upright in moist, but 
not wet, earth in a dark, warm cellar, the leaves will grow white and lender and of a 
sweet pungencv. They should be cut when about three or four inches long and may 
be used singly 'or mixed with other plant salads. Darkness during growth is essen- 
tial, as if exposed to the light the leaves grow green and tough and too strong in flavor. 


HUCKLEBERRIES. The huckleberry, blueberry, bilberry and cranberry constitute 
the principal members of ;i large family of edible berries, botanically classed together. 
( Jranbebries i w b.ich see i are easily and naturally distinguished by their red color, bnt 
i in- lilies of Euckleberry, Blueberry and Bilberry are variously and contradictorily 
employed in different localities. By New England custom, those of bluish color are 
popularly, known as Blueberries; those black or nearly so, as Huckleberries. West 
and South of New England, the general tendency is to group all varieties under the 
common name of Huckleberry, in spite of (he fact that the market supply is chiefly 
ill blueberries. Botanically, blueberries and bilberries are now ascribed to the \dcci- 
,ini,, i genus and huckleberries to Gaylussacia. Physically, blueberries and bilberries 
are generally sweeter, milder and larger than huckleberries, and the seeds, though 
more numerous, are so much smaller as to be scarcely noticeable in eating. They 
are also generally bluer than the Common Huckleberry {G. Resinosa), but the color 
distinction is not absolute because of the bluish tint of the Blue Huckleberry or 
Dangleberry (G. Frondosa) and the nearly black hue of a few kinds of Blueberries. 
The name "Whortleberry" is in the United States applied to the Huckleberry, and in 
Europe to the Bilberry. 

The numerous varieties of huckleberries, blueberries and bilberries range in size 
from that of a currant to a small grape, and in color from light blue to black, and 
ripen from the first of -Tune to the last of August, remaining in the market until 
about the middle of September. They are picked in enormous quantities for use 
fiesh as an edible fruit and (both fresh and canned) for pies and puddings. In 
Southeasl Maim-, vast areas are covered with the bushes. Cultivation is at present 
resorted to in only a few parts, as the wild bushes generally supply enough to meet 
the demand, but it is probable that the future will see greater attention directed to 
the improvement of these berries and their more extensive production. As marketed, 
two or more varieties are often mixed together. 

The first to ripen is the Dwarf Blueberry, borne by a small shrub from six to 
fifteen inches in height, which grows and bears abundantly on the sand barrens and 
hills of Penn- 
sylvania. The 
fruit is also 
k n o w n a s 
Sugar Berry, 
Sugar Huckle- 
berry, Blue 
Early Sweet, 

B 1 U e Sweet. 
LOW Sweet, 

Early B 1 u e 

and Early 
11 nckleberry. 

It has a bluish 
coat, \\ h i c h 
looks as 

though dusted 

with (lour. 




Next come the Low Blueberry, also 
known as the "Blue Huckleberry," the 
Canada Blueberry and the Dwarf Bilberry. 

The Low Blueberry grows on dry 
sandy ground West of the Alleghanies. The 
bush resembles that of the Dwarf Blueberry 
except that the plant is more erect. The 
fruit is large, blue and covered with bloom. 

The Canada Blueberry, found in the 
Pennsylvania mountains and regions fur- 
ther north, is a shrub from one to two feet 
in height, bearing round or oblate blue ber- 
ries, covered with bloom and pleasing in 
flavor, but not as sweet as the fruit of the 
Dwarf Blueberry. The bush is also known 
locally as the "velvet leaf." 

The Dwarf Bilberry, found in northern 
Maine and Canada, is a small shrub from 
two to twelve inches in height, with large 
I ilue berries covered with bloom. 

The latest in the market are the fruits 
of the High Bush Blueberry of the north- 
east states and the High Bush Huckleberry, 
both of them widely known as "Swamp 
Huckleberry," from their preference for The Hi ^ Bush Huckleberry 

moist woodlands and swampy ground. The bushes are tall — from four to twelve feet 
in height — and ragged or straggling in growth. The fruit of the High Bush Blue- 
berry is a dark purplish ; that of the High Bush Huckleberry is nearly black. 

The crop is gathered mainly with steel rakes, similar to those frequently used 
in cranberry picking, a skillful "hand" sometimes collecting more than fifteen bushels 
in a day. Both men and women are employed for the work. The berries are after- 
wards winnowed in a machine which blows out the sticks, leaves and defective fruits. 

The poorer grades are iu some sections popularly called "crackers," because 
their tough skins crack when eaten. The term is also applied to the true huckleberry, 

because the bony covering of the seed 

'crackles" between the teeth. 

HUMBUGS. The trade is perpetually annoyed by humbugs. We warn grocers 
against all preparations for preserving perishable articles, all schemes tor mix- 
ing goods so as to cheat the buyer, and especially against goods which pretend to 
grade with the best and are offered at the lowest figures. 

HUMIDOR: a term somewhat generally applied to any device for keeping cigars 
moist. A stricter trade acceptance confines it to boxes or chests especially con- 
structed for keeping cigars in good condition — accomplished by insulation from con- 
tact with the outside air and the inclusion of a slab or table! <>!' porcelain, clay or 
other porous material which is moistened from time to time 

Devices, whether of clay or metal, in perforated tubes and other forms, which are 
set in cigar cases to keep the air moist, are best known as "cigar moisteners." 



HUNGARIAN and AUSTRIAN WINES. Hungarian wines hold high reputa- 
tion for their tonic qualities, as they contain an unusually large proportion of iron. 
The most famous of all is Tokay (which see). 

8zamorodni is a noteworthy soft, full, white wine made from the same grapes as 
Tokay, but without the selection, or addition, of vine-ripened berries. 

Among other good varieties are Ruszti or Ruster, also of Tokay type ; the red and 
while types of Meneser, Villanyi and Ofen, or Ofner, Adelsberger; the red Budai, Egri 
and Szegszarder; the white Magyarater, Nesmelyer, Badacsonyer , Pesti and Somlauer; 
Karlouritzer, of Port style; several Muscats; Hungarian Vermouth and a number of 
( 'nui I tan wines. 

Austrian wines resemble Hungarian in general character. The best known are 
divers Muscats; Gumpold&kvrchner, of Sauternes style; Lutteriberger, rich and syrupy; 
Vosla tier, red and white, and several varieties from Dalmatia — among them the sweet 
Maraschino (made from the grape of that name and having no connection with Maras- 
chino, the liqueur i and aromatic Muscats. 

HUNYADI JANOS. See article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

HYSSOP: a small bushy herb with leaves of aromatic and stimulant properties 
which grows wild in the south of Europe. The tops and flowers are used in making 
"Hyssop Tea." 

rious methods of freezing water have 
been in use to a small extent for some 
hundreds of years, but the modern indus- 
i ry of ice manufacture and refrigeration, 
now of considerable magnitude and great 
importance, dates from about the year 
1 870. At that time there were four plants 
in operation in the United States as 
against nearly 2000 now engaged in the 
production of ice for general sale, in addi- 
tion to the very large number of ice and 
refrigerating plants used in the meat, cold 
storage, brewery and other lines. Artifi- 
cial ice was formerly soft and consequent- 
ly of poor keeping qualities, but the present standard product is both hard and lasting. 
The great reduction in the cost of manufacture is attributable to the high efficiency of 
improved machinery. 

The principal methods of modern use are the Compressor, Absorption, Vacuum 
ami Cold Air. Nearly all American plants are operated either by the compressor or 
absorption system, the former being the more popular, and anhydrous ammonia is the 
gas most generally employed. 

In the Compressor system, the gas is condensed by pressure and then reduced to 
a liquid by chilling in cooled "coils" or pipes. This liquid is released into another 
coil, known as the "expansion pipe," where it again becomes gas and in so doing absorbs 
heal from its surroundings — converting water into ice, or reducing the atmosphere in 

■""j 1 


i jflfli 


Marking ice for cutting 



cooling rooms, refrigerator cars, etc. The expanded gas goes back to the compressor 
to be used over and over again in the same way. 

By the Absorption method, liquid ammonia is employed as the fundamental 
agent, the gas being released by heating to about 200° to 210° Falir. The course of 
the gas produced is similar to that in the Compressor method, being chilled into a 
gaseous liquid in a condensing coil and going then to the Expansion Pipes, where its 
action is identical. It is later sucked back into the mother-water tank and the pro- 

cess repeated. In commercial operation, 

the process is practically continuous. 

The action of the Expansion Pipes 
may be either Direct or Indirect. By the 
former, they come in close or complete 
contact with the water or atmosphere to 
be frozen or chilled. By the latter, their 
direct action is on strong brine or on air- 
coils, which are employed as the imme- 
diate agents. The brine may he made 
with common salt, but preferably with 
calcium chloride. 

The principal forms of manufactured 
ice are Can, Plate and Block. 

Can Ice is obtained by setting cans 

Sawing ice 

of water, previously distilled and filtered 
to remove both impurities and air bub- 
bles, in brine freezing tanks. It is gen- 
erally good in quality but has a tendency 
to be soft in the center. 

Plate Ice is made in oblong tanks in 
which the water is agitated by air-jets to 
remove the air particles and assist the 
freezing action to drive the impurities to 
the center, which remains uncongealed 
and is later run off. The sides of the 
tanks consist of iron plates in contact 
with Expansion Coils. The ice forms on 
these plates — hence its name. As re- 
moved from the tanks, it is obtained in 
blocks, generally about sixteen feet long, 
three tons and upwards. 

Block Ice is made in the same way as Plate Ice, except that it is form 
or plate-tanks which are frozen solid, or direct on the Expansion Pipes. 

Impure and Poor Ice. It is incumbent upon municipalities and individuals to pro- 
tect themselves against the sale of ice. whether natural or artificial, produced from 
contaminated water, as under certain conditions it may prove most unwholesome. 
The increase in population and the growth of manufacturing industries has - 
extended the pollution of lakes, rivers, etc., that in the larger towns and cities the 

tlit* cut ice 


eight feet Avide and one foot thick, w 

ed in cells 



consumption of local natural ice is often fraught with considerable danger. The use 
oJ artificial ice from water which has undergone thorough preliminary purification is 
then the only safe recourse, unless natural ice from unpolluted sources can be profit- 
ably imported. 

Ice should always be thoroughly washed before placing in the refrigerator, both 
for hygienic reasons and to avoid clogging the pipes. 

Cheap ice, like most "bargains," is very wasteful. Clear, hard, non-porous ice 
lasts longer and is cheaper in the end. 
For iis economical use, good insulation 
in the construction of refrigerators and 
cooling rooms is essential (see Refrig- 
erators). The color of pure ice is deep 
blue, but this is only discernible when 
ii is seem in large quantities, as in gla- 

See also article on Cold Storage. 

ICE CREAM: originally signified a 
frozen mixture of sweetened milk or 
cream, but the term has for many genera- 
tions been applied to a wide range of 
frozen delicacies of widely differing com- 
position — varying from the original plain 

milk or cream basis to the most fancy Filling the local ice-house 

Clench and Italian mixtures, and including alike within its popular significance those 
enriched with eggs and mixed with fresh and preserved fruits, nuts, etc., and the types 
cheapened or modified by a liberal use of cornstarch, etc., for the tastes and demands 
of the public vary widely. In its various forms it is consumed more generally in the 
United States than anywhere else on the globe. In commercial manufacture, a small 
quantity of gelatine or vegetable gum is generally included to add "smoothness" and 
prevent crystallization or graining. 

The manufacture of ice cream has become an important industry. The former 
type of machine freezer, similar to the household freezer, has to a very large extent 
been superseded by self-charging and self-emptying freezing apparatus in which 
mechanically refrigerated brine in sealed coils or chambers takes the place of the open 
tub of ice and salt. In all of the larger factories, and in many of the smaller, mechani- 
cal mixers have also taken the place of the open vats and kettles, and mechanically 
refrigerated <\vy cold-storage rooms have succeeded the old ice and salt pack for hard- 
ening the iee cream after it leaves the freezer. The output for 1910 of factories sell- 
ing at wholesale alone reached nearly 125,000,000 gallons. 

In all of the bigger cities, the large companies not only deliver ice cream to 
grocers, but also furnish the cooling cabinets in which to keep it. 

Cor household purposes, junket prepared from pure milk, mixed with whatever 
cream can he spared, is an excellent material for the making of ice cream, giving a 
smooth, delicate article at minimum expense. The junket process renders the prod- 
ncl more easily digestible while at the same time thickening and improving its body. 

ICE FISH: a delicate fish of the Great Lakes. See Smelt. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 313 

ICELAND MOSS: a nutritious lichen gathered chiefly in Norway and Iceland, but 
common also in more southern countries. 

In Iceland, the "moss" is often dried, ground into flour and made into bread, but 
elsewhere it is generally made into a decoction or jelly and as such is considered a 
valuable article of diet for invalids and children, and a useful and popular demulcent 
and emollient in throat and pulmonary affections. The bitter taste noticeable in 
some kinds is removed by a preliminary cooking in hot water or by steeping it in 
several waters before cooking. It contains about 80% of Lichen Starch. Alcohol is 
locally distilled from fermented lichen starch. 

ICING: for the ornamentation and "filling" of cakes, consists of very fine sugar 
worked into a soft paste with egg-white or corn syrup, and variously colored and 
flavored — as chocolate, lemon, maple, orange, pistachio, strawberry or vanilla. It is 
generally retailed in glasses or jars. 

ICING SUGAR: very fine pulverized or "Confectioners" sugar. 

INDIAN CRESS. Bee article under the popular title of Nasturtium. 

INDIAN MEAL: ground Indian Corn or Maize. See Cornmeal. 

INDIGO: a vegetable dyestuff of much value, obtained from several plants native 
to India and America. The fresh plant juice is colorless, but 
when the plant is steeped in water and fermentation sets in, the 
coloring matter dissolves in the water, forming a yellow solu- 
tion, which is drawn off from the rest of the vegetable matter 

precipitate, which is cut while soft 
by artificial heat. To hasten the 

and agitated and beaten to bring it freely into contact with the 

air for about two hours. This treatment causes the indigo to 

form and settle down as a blue 

into cubical cakes and dried 

formation of the indigo, a little lime water is sometimes added 

to the yellow solution. 

Indigo is used in the manufacture of inks and for laundry 
purposes. The best quality has the deepest purple color, will float indigo 

upon water, is glossy, and when rubbed by the nail produces a bright coppery or 
purple-red streak. When the streak is dull and wrinkles, the quality is poor. Com- 
mercial indigo of good quality contains about 50% of pure indigo. The common 
varieties are very numerous, some merchants recognizing sixteen distinct grades. 

Brown and red indigo are also manufactured. 

Artificial indigo is now produced in enormous quantities from Coal Tar. 

See also Brxixr;. 

INK. The composition of the ink used by the ancients is not well understood, but 
their products excelled ours in blackness and durability. The necessary components 
of ordinary black Writing Ink are gall, sulphate of iron, known generally as green 
vitriol or green copperas, and gum. The gum is added to retain the coloring matter 
and to give the mixture the necessary consistence. Copying Ink is more concentrated 
and contains more sugar, which keeps it moist longer. The Marking Ink used in 


marking boxes for shipment, etc., is a thin paint, made of lamp-black and spirits of tur- 

INSECTS: of various kinds trouble the grocer, and great care should be taken to 
keep stores free from them, as they destroy stock and drive away customers. Various 
remedies are given under the headings of Ants and Cockroaches (which see), but 
without scrupulous cleanliness no permanent relief can be expected. 

INSURANCE. No dealer deserves credit who does not keep his goods insured. 
Every merchant should be as certain to keep up his insurance as he is to lock up his 
store, and should avoid keeping oils, alcohol, gunpowder, benzine, gasoline, etc., on 
the premises in larger quantities than are permitted by his policy without making 
special provisions, and paying the extra premium. 

INVERT SUGAR: the uncrystallizable sugar of honey, treacle, etc.- — a form of 
Glucose (which see). 

IRISH MOSS: a popular title for the seaweed better known as Carragheen 
( which see). 

ISINGLASS: is, properly, gelatine prepared from the air or swim bladder of the 
sturgeon, cod and similar fish, Russia, Brazil and the United States furnishing the 
bulk of the world's supply. It is employed in fining liquors and the manufacture of 
fish glue, etc., and in the household in the preparation of jellies, blanc-mange and 
similar desserts. Gelatine from animal tissue has, however, largely supplanted it in 
cookery on account of its lower price (see Gelatine). 

Japanese Isinglass or Gelatine is prepared from a seaweed (see Kanten). 

ITALIAN PASTE: another name for macaroni, spaghetti, etc. See Macaroni. 

ITALIAN WINES. Italy ranks second in the production of wine, its estimated yield 
being nearly a billion gallons a year. The greater part of this is retained for domes- 
tic consumption, and of the export the United States receives only a comparatively 
small percentage, the bulk going to South American countries, but the demand here 
is increasing — especially for Chianti as a general table beverage of low price, and for 
some of the finer varieties, particularly of the Sparkling Wines. 

Chianti is a light wine, ruby-red in color, agreeably sub-acid, and, in the best 
varieties, of a very delicate bouquet. It is distinguished by being bottled in attrac- 
tive straw-dressed, belly-shaped flasks. It is in its prime during its fifth or sixth year, 
but is palatable at half that age. 

There is also a steady sale of Italian Vermouth (which see), and a limited 
market for Marsala, a wine resembling Madeira, but lighter both in body and color, 
which originated in Sicily. It was at one time very popular, especially as a "ladies' 
wine." Sicily also produces a noted Malmsey. 

Other well known Italian Wines are Lacryma Christi, from Southern Italy, the 
choicest being produced on the slopes of Mt. Vesuvius — both "white" and red in the 
■still" types, and the white also in "Spumante" or sparkling (champagne) style; Capri, 
still— red and "white"— from the Island of Capri at the entrance of the Bay of 


Naples; Asti, red, dry, both sparkling and still, from Tuscany; Falerno, still— red and 
"white"; Barolo, still, resembling Burgundy, but somewhat dryer; Barbera, resemb- 
ling Barolo; Malvasia (Malmsey) and Malvasia Spumante; the red Nebbiolo and Xeb- 
biolo Spumante from the Nebbiolo grape, and several white Moscato (Muscat) Mines, 
including Siracusa, or "Moscato di Siracusa," Moscato di Stramboli, and Moscato Spu- 
mante, resembling Sparkling Moselle. 

Vino Santo is a very sweet wine made from dried grapes of varieties especially 
heavy in sugar. The bunches are hung on strings until" shortly before Easter, being 
then pressed for use as an altar wine at that season. It is also popularly consumed 
as a liqueur wine. 

JAGGERY: a coarse brown sugar made from the juices exuded by various palms in 
India which are tapped as our sugar maples are, the sap being collected in vessels 
attached to the trees and crystallized into sugar by boiling. Jaggery when fermented 
becomes Palm Wine, and this distilled furnishes the East India Rum known as 
Arrack (which see). 

JAM. The title "Jam" is generally applied to that class of preserve in which the whole 
fruit pulp is cooked together with water and sugar without regard to the preservation 
of the shape of the fruit — differing from "preserved fruits" or "preserves," which retain 
in some measure the original forms, and from "jellies," which are distinguished by 
the removal of the pulp tissues and are also generally more "solid" in body. 

The highest class jam contains no other ingredients than the particular fruit of 
its title, cane sugar and water. Those of popular use and moderate price contain large 
proportions of apple juice or pulp and commercial glucose, in addition to the "charac- 
ter" fruit. When manufactured under proper supervision to insure the use of good 
stock and pure glucose, correctly labelled so as to avoid misrepresentation and sold 
at a commensurate price, such jam compounds are just as wholesome and to the aver- 
age palate nearly as pleasing in taste as "pure" jam. They are a distinctly desirable 
addition to the food supply, as they offer to people of moderate incomes a plentiful 
supply of sweet "spreads" at, in many cases, less than half the cost of manufacturing 
"pure" jams. To some people, furthermore, the apple-glucose product is more accept- 
able as being less eloyingly sweet than many varieties of pure jams. 

Though the use of fresh apple stock and pure glucose in the manufacture 
of "strawberry" and "raspberry" jams, etc, is entirely permissible under proper condi- 
tions, supervision by competent authorities is necessary to avoid the use of apple or 
other stock of poor quality, as it is easy to disguise such use by the addition of sac- 
charin, artificial colors, etc. 

The presence of a considerable amount of the pulp of the fruit after which the 
jam is named, does not always warrant the assumption that it is a high class product 
— for large quantities of more or less exhausted fruit pulp of all kinds are commer- 
cially obtainable as the result of the manufacture of extracts, high class jellies, etc. 

The fruits chiefly used for jam and jelly making are Apples. Apricots. Cranber- 
ries, Currants, Oranges, Pears, Plums, Quinces. Raspberries and Strawberries. 

JAMAICA GINGER. See article on Ginger. 

JAMAICA PEPPER: a name frequently applied to Allspice (which see). 



JAPANESE ARTICHOKE, or Chinese Artichoke, or 
Crown <>/ Japan : a root of the Jerusalem artichoke order, 
native to Western Asia, now cultivated in Europe and also 
lately to a limited extent in this country. Its manner of 
growth is shown in the accompanying illustration. The 
divided tubers are small, inclined to shell shape, with a thin 
skin ol' whitish-brown or ivory-white. The flesh, under 
proper cultivation, is white and tender. It is in season 
generally commencing with October, and is cooked in any 
way thai is suitable lor the Jerusalem artichoke. It is used 
as a vegetable, in salad compositions or as a garnish, prin- 
cipally in the last-named manner. 

Japanese Artichoke 

JAPANESE GELATINE or Isinglass. See article under the title of Kanten. 

JAPANESE PERSIMMON. See article on, and Color Page of, Persimmons. 

JARS: glass or earthenware receptacles for liquids, preserves, etc. The ordinary 
-lass preserving jars should be stocked by the grocer about the middle of May, before 
the early berries arrive. They continue in demand until all the fresh fruits are out 
of the market. 

JELLY: the juice of fruits or meats, evaporated or thickened to a semi-solid con- 
sistence. High class meat jellies thicken principally from the gelatine extracted from 
the bone in cooking; high class fruit jellies from the "pectin" in the fruit juices. 

The best fruit jellies are made by cooking the fruit in a small amount of water, 
then pressing the juice from the pulp, adding sugar to the juice, evaporating it to the 
proper consistence, pouring it hot into the glasses and sealing. In many cases the 
juice is clarified during the evaporating process. For some kinds, as the finest apple 
jelly, no sugar is added. 

Cheaper jellies are made principally from minor grades of apple juice — from 
cores and parings of canning establishments, etc. — commercial glucose and a varying 
quantity of the juice of the "character'' fruit, together with coloring matter, citric 
acid, or similar articles, to help give the jelly consistence, and frequently saccharin. 
He. for increased sweetness. 

In addition to the many brands put up in glass, etc., by well known manufactur- 
ers, very fair qualities of some types are in certain sections sold to the trade in five 
and ten pound pails to be retailed by the pound. Care should be taken to keep such 
goods closely covered, for if one fly can spoil the ointment of the apothecary, it can 
also ruin a grocer's good name! A wooden spoon should be used for dishing out, 
as metals are apt to turn the bright color of the jelly to a dull, undesirable hue. 

JELLY POWDERS: consist generally of powdered gelatine, sweetened and artifici- 
ally flavored and colored. The most popular flavors are chocolate, lemon, orange, 
raspberry, strawberry and vanilla. 

JERKED BEEF: beef dried in the air after a brine immersion. The industry origi- 
nated in Uruguay, where the beef so preserved is known as "Tasajo." 



JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE: the tuber of a species of 
sunflower, somewhat resembling the potato in general char- 
acteristics, but sweetish in flavor and more Watery and less 
nutritive in composition. There are two principal types — 
one long and with red skin, the other round, knobby and 
white. They are generally boiled and pickled or eaten with 
vinegar, but some people enjoy them raw, eating them with 
salt, like radishes. They make excellent soup. The name 
''Jerusalem" is a queer twist from the Italian word Girasole, 
meaning ''Sunflower." / 

Jerusalem Artichoke 

JEWELERS' RED or ROUGE: a fine powder of metallic oxide, used for polishing 
gold and silver. It is obtained chiefly by calcining either yellow oxalite of iron or sul- 
phate of iron. The coarser, darker residue of the calcination of sulphate of iron, used 
for the same purpose, is known as Eed Crocus. 

JOHNNY CAKE: a popular term for any kind of plain corn bread. It originally 
signified a cake of cornineal, salt and water, baked in the ashes or on a board before 
an open fire. 

JUJUBE: the fruit of a spiny shrub of the buckthorn family, 
in some parts eaten uncooked, but more often dried and sold as 
a sweetmeat. It looks somewhat like a date and is generally red, 
though sometimes yellow in color. It contains a large percentage 
of nutrients and is highly rated medicinally for its demulcent 

The jujube has given its name to the famous confection 
"Jujubes,'' or "Jujube Paste," but the latter is generally made of 
gum-arabic and sugar. 



JULEP: is a word which came into our language from the Persian, its Eastern proto- 
type signifying "sweet drink." As "Jalap" it was formerly used in medicine to describe 
a mixture compounded to make some drug more palatable or convenient. In this coun- 
try it now means a beverage in which either whisky or brandy are mixed with sugar. 
cracked ice and some flavor, generally mint. 

JULIENNE: a term applied (1) to shredded potatoes, (2) to a garnish of vegetables 
such as carrots, turnips, cabbage, celery, etc., cut in thin strips, and (3) to clear soup 
or consomme containing shredded vegetables. Dried "Julienne" for soups is retailed in 
packages. The name is from a famous chef, Jean Julienne. 

JUNE BERRY, or Service Berry: the edible purple fruit of the Shad Bush, a 
small tree found in several varieties in many parts of North America. The "Service 
Berry" is of peculiar interest in the West, for it often formed the sole food of the 
Mormons and other pioneers in their days of hardships and privations. It is also 
known as the "Bilberry" in some sections. 

The name Service Berry is occasionally applied also to the edible fniii of several 
shrubs and trees of the Mountain Ash family, the berries resembling tiny apples. 



JUNIPER BERRIES: the dark blue, pungent, aromatic berries of the evergreen 
Juniper shrub, commercially important because of their use for flavoring gin. A nice 
flavor is given to corned beef by adding a muslin bagful of crushed juniper berries to 
the brine. 

JUNKET: is made of sweet, luke-warni milk quickly turned by the addition of a little 
rennet ( dissolved junket tablets). Sweetened and flavored with vanilla, or dusted 
with cinnamon or nutmeg, or eaten with berries, fresh or preserved, it is a pleasing 
dessert. The addition of a very small amount of sherry improves its flavor. 

JUTE: the hbre of a tall, slender herb of the linden family, native to Asia but 
naturalized in many countries. It is used in the manufacture of carpets, bags, etc. 
The greater part of the sugar, raisins, spices, etc., from the Indies, both East and 
West, come to us in Jute "gunny-bags." 

KAI APPLE: a large South African fruit 
which makes a very good preserve. 

KALE or Borecole : a variety of cabbage dif- 
fering from the common cabbage chiefly in the 
open heads of leaves, used in the household as 
"greens." The different types show a great 
diversity in leaf form — some are plain, others 
are waved or curved, many of them being beauti- 
fully patterned. The coloring varies from green 
to r-ed-brown or purple. 

KALSOMINE. See Calcimine. 

Emerald Isle Kale 

KANGAROO TAILS. The flesh of the various members of the Kangaroo family — 
the big grey Kangaroo, the Wallaby, etc. — is an important food item among the natives 
of Australia, and hunting the larger animals is a favorite sport of white residents. 
Kangaroo meat proper seldom reaches the United States, but there is a limited impor- 

The exquisite leaves of four varieties of striped and variegated Kale 



tation of canned Kangaroo Tails. When preparing for the table, first warm the can, 
then draw off the jelly and gravy and make it into a hot sauce with port wine and 
seasoning, strain, add the pieces of tail and serve with croutons of fried bread around. 

KANTEN, Japanese Gelatine, Vegetable Isinglass, Agar Agar: prepared in °reat 
quantities in Japan from the Gelidium family of seaweed. It is pearly white, semi- 
transparent, tasteless and odorless and is marketed in stick and block form "Slender 

Kanten" and "Square Kan- 
ten." On analysis, it shows 
about 60% carbohydrates 
and 7% protein (see Food 

Kanten is used by the 
Japanese in the prepara- 
tion of jellies, soups, etc., 
and for clarifying Saki or 
11 ice Spirit. The two to 
three million pounds which 
are annually exported to 
this country and Europe 
are employed in the manu- 
facture of food products — 
to thicken jams, jellies, ice 
cream, etc. — in gin distil- 
leries, and in the textile, 
silk and other industries. 
Under the name of Agar Agar it is used in making culture media in bacteriological 

Bengal Isinglass, Ceylon Moss and Chinese Moss are similar, related products. 
Gelidium seaweed grows abundantly on the Pacific Coast of the United States and 
at some points along the 
Atlantic, and apparently 
offers a good opportunity 
for the manufacture of 
domestic vegetable isin- 

KEG: a small barrel or 
cask, made in various sizes. 

AS manufacturers' CUStOlllS A Imndle «.f "Slender Kanten 

differ, kegs should not be accepted as five, ten or twenty gallons, etc., without gaug- 
ing them. 

KELP or Bladder Weed: an edible seaweed distinguished by its streamer-like leaves, 
found on both Northern coasts. The largest variety, known as the Giant Bladder 
Weed, has leaves which average from thirty to forty feet in length. 

Kelp is in this country used almost exclusively as a fertilizer, but following 
Japanese methods of preparation — drying, shredding, etc. — it would undoubtedly meet 

Bar or "Square" Kanten 

320 i ii !■"• GBOCEr's encyclopedia 

with favor as a food product — -for use in soup, or boiled as a vegetable for service 
with meats, etc., or moistened with milk as a breakfast food. In Japan, the various 
preparations of Kelp are known as "Kombu" and are largely consumed. 

KEROSENE or Coal Oil: a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons distilled principally 
from Petroleum (which see). If of good quality, it is nearly colorless. It is 
closely related to the British Paraffin Oil and in England is sold as "American 
Paraffin Oil." 

As kerosene is of a highly inflammable nature, laws have been passed in different 
siaics which restrict its sale for illuminating purposes to certain degrees of "flash" or 
lire-test. It is safe at 130° flash, and is said to lose some of its qualities when further 
refined. Its boiling point should be above 170 c Pahr. It should always be kept in a 
cool dry place and, so far as possible, closed against contact with the atmosphere. 

To Test Kerosene Oil, put a small quantity of the oil in a cup, set in a tin of water 
and slowly warm the water, noticing the degree of heat in the oil by keeping a ther- 
mometer immersed in it. When the temperature rises, put a lighted match, or better 
still, an electric spark, quickly over its surface at intervals. As soon as the gas or 
vapor given off by the heated oil "flashes'' or burns, its test is determined — that is, 
if it ignites when the mercury stands at 120° Fahr., it is oil of 120° flash test. 

KETCHUP: one of several styles of spelling Catsup (which see). 
KHULASH: a Hungarian beef stew. See under title of Goulash. 

KIDNEYS: Beef , Veal, Lamb. A good kidney is light in color and firm to the touch. 
If dark red, it is less choice. If dark and soft, it is probably from an old or poorly 
fed animal. Veal kidney is the most delicate. 

KILKIES. See matter under title of Sprats. 

KINGFISH (See Color Page opposite 240) : one of the finest of American fishes, found 
along the Atlantic coast, both north and south, and in season from May to October. 
It averages one to two pounds in weight, larger specimens attaining a length of fifteen 
inches. The variety caught off the Northern States is distinguished by darker, more 
pronouneed stripes than those of its Southern relations. The head of both types 
resembles that of the mullet. 

KING, or King of Siam, ORANGE: a large rough-skinned tangerine type (see 

KIN-KAN: another name for the Kumquat i which see). 

KIPPERED: applied to herring or salmon, means that they are split, salted and 
smoked. The word "kipper" is a Scotch term to describe a salmon after its spawning 
period, at which time, not being valuable as fresh fish, it is generally smoked or pickled. 

KIRSCH or Kirschwasser: a liqueur distilled from fermented sweet black cherries 
the finest from the sweet aromatic small black wild cherry. The pulp of the 



THE grocer's encyclopedia 323 

fruit is first crushed and allowed to ferment, then a certain quantity of the cherry 
kernels is added and allowed to steep, the juice being finally expressed for distillation. 

KIRSCHMUSS: a thick unsweetened jelly made from the juice of sweet black 
cherries, in common use in Switzerland. It is eaten with sweet butter and bread. 

KISSES: a popular name for meringue, and some other, candies. 

KISSINGEN. See article on Mineral Waters. 

KIT: a term chiefly applied to a wooden vessel containing one- 
tenth of a barrel, used in the packing of salt mackerel, but also, 
in some sections, to containers for other fish, salted butter, etc. 

KOHLRABI : a variety of cabbage with a turnip-like thickened 
stem, or "root," growing just above the ground. The leaves, when 
young and tender, are eaten as greens, but the "root" is the better 
part. The plant is also called the "cabbage turnip." 


KOLA NUT: a brownish bitter seed or nut, about the size of a chestnut when fully 
matured, growing in pods, bean style, on a small West African tree. It is credited by 
the natives with the property of allaying thirst and promoting energy. It is also said 
to be efficacious in purifying water and in counteracting the effects of over-indulgence 
in intoxicating liquors. Analysis shows that the Kola Nut contains from two to three 
times as much caffeine as the coffee bean and it is for this stimulating property that it 
is principally used commercially in extracts, tonic beverages, etc. 

KOLCANNON. See Calecannon. 

KOONTI or Indian Bread Root: a Florida plant whose roots give a meal or flour 
resembling arrowroot. 

KOSHER, or Kasher, MEAT: is primarily meat from an animal or bird that has 
been killed by a Shohet, an expert meat inspector, under the laws of the Jewish 

A strictly Kosher butcher must buy all his stock alive, the animals being generally 
killed in the slaughtering house by a Shohet. Great care is taken to avoid ex< :iting 
the animal to be killed, for its death must be as calm, speedy and sudden as possible. 
Bullocks, calves, sheep, etc., are killed by cutting their throats with a special knife, 
the blade of which is about twenty inches long and two inches wide and is kept as 
sharp and highly polished as a razor. The cut almost severs the head from tin- body 
and the carcass is allowed to bleed as freely and as ion- as it will— the object being 
to clear the flesh of blood as completely as possible, the consumption of blood being 
forbidden by the Jewish law. Chickens, geese, etc.. are decapitated with a similar 
knife and are allowed to bleed in the same manner. 

When the bleeding has ceased, the carcass is opened and a most minute examina- 
tion of the lungs, entrails, etc. is made. The slightesl defed will result in the shohet 
condemning the entire animal as Tref {Terefah, Tn ife i— unfit for food. 


Till guocbe's encyclopedia 

[f iiir animal is pronounced Kosher, the meal undergoes the next operation of 
Forging -the removal of all bloody veins and gristle. Because this operation involves 
;l greal deal of labor if applied to (be hindquarters of bullocks and sheep, that part 
of the animal is in ibis country generally classed as Tref, even when tbe carcass in 
general is Kosher, and is sold to Gentile butchers. The hindquarters of calves and 
lambs are retained and treated like the remainder of the carcass. The Porging is 
properly billowed by applying salt to complete the extraction of the blood. 

It is because of these special precautions that Kosher Meat ordinarily commands 
prices higher than the average of the retail markets. 

Kosher Coined Beef is Kosher Beef prepared by, first, a thorough soaking in fresh 
water, next bedding for some time in dry salt and then a second washing before immer- 
sion in the brine, where it must remain for twenty-four hours. 

All fresh fish of the scaly varieties may be eaten without the intervention of the 
Shohet, bin the ordinary salt and dried fish of commerce come under the ban. 
because of the possibility that some matter not Kosher may have been employed in 
preparing i hem. 

Swine, bare, frogs, snails, fish without scales or fins, as eels, etc., are among mod- 
ern foods which come under the classification of Tref. 

The refusal of all meat that is not Kosher is a matter of religious principle with 
the orthodox Hebrew, but the practical advantage is that the careful personal inspec- 
tion by the Shohet guarantees him flesh in absolutely healthy condition, his religious 
law thus protecting him against the many diseases liable to result from the consump- 
tion of the flesh of unhealthy animals. 

As applied to other foods, as "Kosher Bread."' "Kosher Butter," etc., the term 
signifies special care and cleanliness in preparation and manufacture. The vessel- 
and utensils used in handling them must never be allowed to serve for any other pur- 
pose and should be cleansed and inspected with great exactness. 

Kosher Sausage is sausage in which the meat used comes within the definition of 
Kosht r. 

KUMISS, Kumyss, or Koumiss: was originally fermented mare's milk prepared by 
the Kalmucs, but for European and American purposes it is made from cow's milk. 
Yeasr cultures and a little sugar-syrup are added to the milk — the sugar because 
cow's milk docs not contain as much lactose as mare's — and it is allowed to ferment 
for about twenty-four hours. The result is a slightly sour milk, effervescent from the 
carbon-dioxide and very slightly alcoholic. Its use, both as a beverage and in the sick 
room, is largely increasing, as it is refreshing and nourishing. When drawn from the 
bottle and poured a few times from ulass to glass, it becomes thick like whipped cream 
ami is then most palatable. 

Matzoon, or ZoOLAK i which see), is a similar preparation of cooked whole milk. 

KUMMEL: a noted liqueur, the most esteemed varieties being those of Russian and 
German manufacture — among them Allasch, Eckau, Getreide and Gilka. The essen- 
tial ingredient is caraway seed extract, but the finest types also include bitter almonds, 
orris-root, angelica, anise, etc. See general article on, and Color Page of, Liqueurs. 

KUMQUAT, or Gumquat: a very small orange, native to China and Japan, now 
under general cultivation. The fruit is generally oval in shape and the size of a small 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 325 

plum (see Color Patje of Kumquats, opposite 320). The rind is sweet and aromatic, 
and the pulp acid— the entire fruit, rind and all, is eaten by many people. It also 
serves, quartered or sliced, as an excellent and very ornamental addition to fruit and 
nut salads, and is very good candied or otherwise preserved whole, and as jelly, mar- 
malade, etc. 

The Kumquat tree grows naturally to a height of six feet, but is usually dwarfed 
to two or three. At state dinners in China, and occasionally at fashionable banquets 
here and in Europe, the little trees are placed before the guests that they may pluck 
the fruit direct from the branches. 

LABELS. Every year improves the grade of the labels on all kinds of food and other 
grocery items, and by judicious purchases of suitable packages and good arrangement 
on the shelves, the appearance of a store can be very much improved. Some standard 
goods are put up under very plain labels, generally the original designs under which 
they were first sold, but poor labels, and especially those of slovenly appearance, gen- 
erally indicate equal neglect in preparing the contents. 

A dealer who desires to build up a lasting trade should never allow a misleading 
label to bear the name of his establishment — if it is not "Pure Maple Syrup," be wise 
and honest at the same time and label it "Prime Syrup — Maple Flavor." Loud colors 
and flashy designs offend the best buyers, and with the present facilities for color- 
printing and good artistic designs there is no excuse for a label less creditable than 
the article which it covers. The American Grocer say> : "Some manufacturers have 
taken a very brave and commendable stand in this matter by so denning their prod- 
ucts that the exact character is indicated on the label. When, for instance, honey- 
comb has been put up in jars with corn syrup, the fact of its presence and the reason 
therefor has been stated on the package. Where a preservative has been used, this 
has been indicated. Such a course clears the atmosphere and begets confidence all 

Experience teaches that consumers are quick to decide whether an article is 
wholesome or not. and if the exact nature of a food product is defined, a conclusion 
is much sooner reached than if its true character is concealed. A manufacturer 
should in it be required to disclose formulas, and it is a question whether he should hi' 
obliged to make known the character of special products, if they are not prejudicial 
In health; but so long as there are questions in dispute, the easiest way and best way 
is to be frank with the public and to win confidence by plainly stating on the label 
the true character of the product. 

LACTOMETER: an instrument employed to test the specific gravity of milk. By 

"specific gravity" is meant its weight in comparison with that of water, which 
is taken as a standard for all solid and liquid substances. Unadulterated milk i- 
heavier than water — a can full of milk, for example, may weigh three pounds heavier 
than if full of water. The use of the lactometer or other test rests on the fart that a 
body will sink deeper into a light than into a heavy liquid. When a standard at 
which milk may be considered unadulterated is adopted, milk into which the lactom- 
eter will sink deeper is said to be of low specific gravity — which may mean that 
water has been added to it. 

LACTOSE: the chemist's title for MlLK SuGAB (which seel. 

326 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

LAFAYETTE: a small light-colored panfish, weighing up to half a pound, found 
along the Atlantic coast. It is in season from the middle of August to November. 

LAGER BEER. See general article under heading of Beer. 

LAKE TROUT: a large American fresh-water fish. See article on Trout. 

LAMB: is generally understood to be the meat of sheep under twelve months old. 
It is much more difficult to keep it in good condition than mutton and it also varies 
greatly in quality — lambs being very tender animals, their flesh is easily injured by 
rough treatment, by storms, or by poor food. The color and quality of the fat on the 
back and around the kidneys affords the best test of quality — it should be white, even- 
colored and hard. The cuts are known by the same titles as mutton cuts. See dia- 
gram in article on Mutton and also Color Page opposite. 

Ordinary spring lamb comes into season during March, but is best from May to 
July. "Hot House" Lamb is very early spring lamb obtained generally by stimula- 
ting breeding by transferring the sheep from cool to warmer climates. 

LAMB'S FRIES: lamb's testicles. They should be parboiled, cut in halves and 
skinned, before seasoning and cooking. 

LAMB'S LETTUCE, LAMB'S QUARTER: local names for the salad plant 
described under the title of Corn Salad. 

LAMPBLACK: soot that is produced by burning rosin, turpentine, pitch, oil or 
other substances in ways that produce the maximum volume of smoke. It is used 
principally in the manufacture of paints, blacking and marking inks. Its quality 
depends upon its lightness of weight and intensity of color. 

LAMPREY: an eel with some of the characteristics of the finned fishes, which 
reaches a length of one and a half to two and a half feet. It is in season during 
April and May, leaving the sea at that time to ascend the rivers to spawn. Its flesh is 
soft, glutinous and delicate, but most people find it very difficult to digest — hence the 
popular credence in the legend of the death of King Henry I from eating too many 
lampreys. In England, it is popular in the form of Lamprey Pie and Potted Lamprey. 

LANDRAIL: a kind of Snipe (which see). 

LARD: is hog's fat separated from the tissue by boiling or rendering. The residue 
is known as lard stearin. 

Lard is put up in kegs, barrels, tierces and small cans. Its quality varies very 
much wiili different houses. If pure, it should be white, of the consistence of oint- 
ment and free from any disagreeable taste or smell. 

Leaf Lard is thai made from the leaf fat which lies around the kidneys. The 
next best in quality is that from the back, and the poorest that from the small intes- 
tines. The greater part of that marketed is obtained by the melting together of the 
whole fat, except the leaf fat. 

Compound Lard is generally a mixture of lard stearin and cottonseed oil. 

(1) Short Saddle 
(3) Rib Chcp 

_» Loin Chop 
; I orequarter 

i \\m 


The most common fraud in the sale of lard is the substitution of "compound" 
for pure lard. 

Xew tierces will soak from two to three pounds when filled with hot lard, but if 
they weigh over that amount claim should be made on them. The most honest of 
packers are liable to have trouble with tares. 

Lard should be stored in a dry, cool, dark place — moisture, light and high tem- 
perature affect its quality. 

LARD-OIL: a valuable lubricant for machinery. If of good quality, it is pale-yel- 
lowish or nearly colorless, of slightly fatty odor and bland taste. It becomes opaque 
at or below 32° Fahr. Admixture of cotton-seed oil is not readily detected, if 

only refined and very pale grades are employed, but any deep-colored lard oil, or ■ 

having a pronounced yellow tiut, is open to suspicion. 

LARK. The common lark is seldom eaten in this country, but in Europe it is looked 
upon as a wholesome and delicate game bird. In France it is most popular in the 
lark-pie which has helped to make the reputation of the city of Pithiviers. 

LASAGNE: a kind of Macaroni (which see) in the form of ribbons. 

LAVENDER: a perennial plant now grown principally for its flowers, which are 
used in making perfumes or for sale dried for sachet bags, etc. It was formerly -very 
popular as a pot-herb and for flavoring jellies. 

LAVER: an edible seaweed found on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. It is a 
food item of importance in Asia and in some parts of Europe. In Scotland and Ire- 
land, under the name of "Sloak" or "Slook," it is boiled and served with butter, pep- 
per, vinegar, etc., or fried in bacon fat after boiling. It is especially good as an accom- 
paniment for cold meats. It is best to cook it in a porcelain saucepan, as it is liable 
to act on metals. 

Laver is rich in protein, averaging from 30% to 35% (see FOOD Values). 

LEAKAGE: the waste of any substance as a result of an opening or defect in a 
containing vessel of any kind. Allowance is made for leakage only when it can be 
proved that the goods were not shipped in proper condition. 

LEAVEN: dough which has become sour. It was formerly employed in breadmak- 
ing, a small quantity being added to new dough to excite fermentation and cause it to 
"rise." Its use is, though, liable to produce a disagreeable taste and odor in the bread, 
and it has been almost entirely superseded by yeast. See Bread. 

LEAVENED BREAD: any kind of "raised" bread (see Bread). 

LEBEN: a form of fermented milk, the raw milk being raised to blood-heat before 
adding the ferment. 

LEBKUCHEN or "Sweet Cakes" or "Honey Cakes": a famous variety of German 
cake, composed of a great diversity of ingredients, the rnosl important being flour, 



honey, sugar, spices, alcohol, almonds, citron, orange peel, etc. A characteristic fea- 
ture of its manufacture is that the dough is allowed to "rest" for a considerable time 
before baking, so as to permit a better amalgamation of the flavors and other properties 
of its components— many makers hold it in cool, dry places for several months before 
sending it to the ovens. The best known varieties are White Lebkuchen, Brown Leb- 
kuchen, Bremen Pepper Cake. Thorner Lebkuchen, Baseler Lebkuchen and Nurem- 
burg Lebkuchen. Both imported and domestic lebkuchen are sold here, the principal 
demand being .luring the winter holidays. Good lebkuchen will remain fresh for a 
year or eighteen months, the honey used in its manufacture keeping it moist. 

LEEK: a form of onion cultivated for the blanched lower parts of the 
leaves, commonly called the "stems," and the bulbous roots, both of which 
are used in cookery, chiefly in soups and stews. In flavor they resemble a 
\eiy mild ordinary onion. 

LEGUME: a word applied botanically to the one-celled, two-valved seed- 
pod of plants of the Leguminosae order, to which belong the many varieties 
of beans, peas and lentils. In popular usage the title has been extended 
to the fruits of the plants. Legumes, also sometimes classed as "Pulse." 
are among the most valuable of vegetable foods. 


See general article on Sauces. 


LEMON {Color Page opp. 332). The lemon is a member of the citrus family, which 
includes oranges, grape fruit, etc., and is probably native to the north of India. The 
fruit is usually oval, wrinkled or furrowed, of various shades of yellow and, gen- 
erally, with concave oil-cysts in the rind. Its chief merits are the abundance of citric 
acid contained in the pulp and the quantity of oil yielded by the rind. California 
produces an ever increasing quantity, but not yet enough to supply the demand, from 
135 to 180 million pounds being imported from Italy every year. 

The fruit is gathered, while still green, as soon as it has reached a marketable 
size, irrespective of the stage of maturity — if allowed to ripen on the tree, it becomes 
coarse and of poor quality. A flourishing grove is ordinarily picked once every 
month. The picker is frequently provided with a steel measure or gauge attached to 
his thumb, all fruit as large as, or over, the size of the gauge being clipped from 
the tree and placed in a bag suspended by shoulder straps (.see opposite page). 

After picking, the lemons are washed and then sorted according to their color — - 
dark green (unripe); silver green (partly ripe) and yellow (ripe). The unripe and 
partly ripe are placed in storage, separately, to "cure," ?'. e., to color and mature. The 

^c; ... 







A California lemon orchard, showing irrigation ditches 



tree-ripened fruit are usually shipped at once, because 
of their poor keeping qualities. The curing of the un- 
ripe fruit covers from two to four months, their keep- 
ing quality depending largely on the care exercised in 
the control of temperature and humidity during the 

For market purposes, California lemons are gen- 
erally sorted into two or three, and sometimes four, 
grades, based on the general texture of the skin — on 
appearance, whether scarred or not, color, form and 
general "style." Size is not considered in this grading. 
The best or Fancy fruit must have good color, fine tex- 
ture, normal form and no scars, and be heavy and juicy. 
Thin-skinned lemons are generally considered the best. 
The next lower grade is called Choice. The third, 
standard, includes fruit which may be irregular in 
shape and badly scarred and discolored but is still of 
fair fruit value. The fourth or lowest quality is known 
as Culls. 

After grading, the lemons are sized by hand, rang- 
ing from 180 to 540 to the box, running generally from 
240 to 490. The most desirable sizes are those ranging 
from 300 to 360 to the box. 

The life of the lemons after leaving the packer depends also upon the care 
exercised in handling — they readily deteriorate if damaged by bruising or other abra- 
sions of the skin. The only practicable method for holding them in large quantities 
for any considerable length of time is by cold storage. At a temperature of 40° Fahr., 
they will remain unimpaired in quality for eight to twelve weeks. For household pur- 
poses, if refrigerator space is not available, they keep much better when immersed 
in fresh cold water than if left to dry out on a shelf. 

The photograph on page 332 is of some of the huge, rough-skinned lemons fre- 
quently seen in Italy. They sometimes reach eight and nine inches in length, 
with weight and width in full proportion. 

Picking le u> clipper in his right hand and 

steel measure attached to his left thumb 

LEMON BALM (herb). 

See matter following title of Garden Balm. 

LEMON EXTRACT. First class lemon extract consists of lemon oil (which see > dis- 
tilled in strong alcohol, or lemon oil and lemon peel macerated in alcohol, filtered and 
bottled. In the former case, the extract is generally colored by the addition of a 
small amount of yellow coloring removed from the lemon peel used. 

Terpeneless lemon extract is made from terpenelcss lemon oil, ('. < .. lemon oil from 
which the terpene or hydro-carbon components have been extracted The claim is 
made that the terpene, which constitutes the major portion of lemon oil, is of little 
importance as regards flavor and odor and is in many respects, undesirable, as 
extracts prepared from oil containing it are liable to acquire an unpleasant odor with 
nge and exposure to the air because of its oxidation products. Terpeneless lias 
the additional advantage that it is to a greater extenl miscible with water solu- 
tions than the unmodified oil. 


The characteristic odor and flavor of 
lemon oil, both unmodified, and terpene- 
less— and hence also of lemon extract — 
are due chiefly to the citral contained, to- 
gether with some citronella and a small 
quantity of other related bodies. 

Many of the cheaper ''lemon ex- 
tracts" are merely weak washes made by 
shaking unmodified lemon oil in diluted 
alcohol, about 25% to 30% pure, and then 
removing the oil which separates. Such 
extract may smell fairly good in the bot- 
tle, but it is of little value in flavoring 
articles to be cooked, for when alcohol 
falls below 40% in volume it will take up 
only a very small percentage of the un- 
modified lemon oil. 

Imitation lemon extract is largely 
made from oil of lemon grass, a grass-like 
plant, widely cultivated, especially in In- 
dia and Ceylon, which has an agreeable 
smell and a warm, bitter, pleasing flavor. 

LEMON JUICE. In addition to its 

wide use in making lemonade and for 

general flavoring purposes, lemon juice is 

a valuable article medicinally, particularly for use as an anti-scorbutic, and it is so 

recognized by the U. S. Pharmacopeia and 
all other medical publications. Its chief 
component is citric acid, in an average 
proportion of about 7%. 

Bottled Lemon Juice, if of good qual- 
ity, is the pure clarified juice of fresh, 
sound lemons, and retains all the prop- 
erties of the juice freshly expressed. It 
should always be kept in a cool place and 
the contents of the bottle should be con- 
sumed as soon as possible after opening. 

LEMON OIL. Almost the entire supply 
of the oil of the lemon rind is pro- 
duced in Sicily and is still obtained by 
hand processes — the small factory output, 
which is darker in appearance, being prin- 
cipally employed to heighten the color of 
the hand-made oil. The two most widely 
used methods are known as the "two-piece 
sponge*' and the ''three-piece sponge." the 

I'icking Lemons near Palermo. Sicily 

XSKBWMm & usr.tawooD, ». 

Large rough-skinned lemons of Southern France 
and many parts of It.ih 



distinction referring to the number of pieces into which the rind is cut. The former 
generally produces oil with the smallest percentage of water to be afterwards sepa- 
rated, but that from the latter is said to filter more rapidly and keep clean longer. 

For the three-piece method, the lemous are cut lengthwise into three slices. 
The pulp is first removed — the juice to be expressed and sold to the manufacturers of 
citric acid, and the residue to be used for animal food — and then the peel is put into 
large baskets and stored in a cool place for some hours until it is considered in the 
proper condition for pressing. 

Each workman engaged in extracting the oil has in front of him a tin-lined copper 
bowl and holds in his left hand a medium-sized sponge of superfine quality, which has 
previously been very carefully washed. He also holds other small sponges between 
the fingers of the same hand to prevent the loss of any of the oil, which is very vola- 
tile. With the right hand he takes a piece of peel from the basket and squeezes it 
against the sponge, thus forcing the oil through the pores of the rind into the sponge. 
When the sponge is full of essence it is squeezed into the bowl. In order to make sure 
that the peel has yielded all the essence that can be pressed out by hand, the overseer 
from time to time tests the rejected peel by squeezing it close to a flame. If there is 
any essence left, it is forced through the flame and produces a flash of light. (Chil- 
dren try the same experiment with orange peels.) The used peel is put into brine 
and sold to manufacturers of "candied lemon peel." 

When the bowls are full, they are set aside for a short time to permit the impuri- 
ties to settle and then the contents are carefully decanted, the clear essence going into 
large tin-lined copper vessels. Before shipment, the product is passed through filter 
paper to purify it and give it limpidity, and is finally transferred to copper bottles 
of various standard sizes. 

The quantity and quality of essence yielded varies according to the season. Dur- 
ing November, December and January, when the greater part of the supply is manu- 
factured, one thousand lemons will give about one and a half pounds of essence. 
Lemons not fully ripe are preferred, as they yield a larger quantity and more fragrant 
quality than those fully matured. A small amount of essence is made during the 
spring and summer, but the product lacks the delicate fragrance of that made in the 

LEMON PEEL: is commercially most important for its use in the manufacture of 
lemon oil, lemon extract, liqueurs, etc., but considerable quantities are also retailed 
plain-dried for culinary purposes and preserved in sugar as "candied lemon peel," the 
best grades of the latter being prepared in much the same way as citron peel (see 

LEMON SYRUP: if of the first quality, consists of lemon juice, fresh lemon peel 
and sugar. The juice is first boiled with the peel, cooled and filtered, then a little 
water is added and finally the sugar is put in and dissolved. A lesser grade consists 
of syrup with citric acid and lemon extract added in the proportion of 2 to 1. 

LEMONADE: a beverage made from the lemon, popular both as a means of allay- 
ing thirst and for medicinal purposes, being in the latter case drunk either hot or 
cold, according to the complaint. Itinerant venders of lemonade formerly employed 
citric or tartaric acid, or even a few drops of sulphuric acid, to make their 



mixture, only slicing a Ecn lemons to float on top and please the eye. This practice 
is nui as common as it used to be, but in some sections caution is still advisable. Many 

«le nade powders" declared to he pure were made in a similar way. Reliable brands 

of ],] i or lime juice arc the besl substitute when the fresh fruit is not obtainable. 

In England, lemonade is known as "Lemon Squash." 


a mi 

tritive legume, the pods containing each three or four seeds of similar 


circumference to the ordinary pea. but flat and thin in shape. On 
analysis it shows an average composition of Starch 50%%, Albu- 
minoid materia] 30%, Sugar .". , ' 2 %, and Moisture, etc., 16%. Large 
quantities are consumed in Europe in the form of soups and stews, 
much of the supply being imported from Egypt, and it is steadily 
-rowing in favor in this country. 

For soups, the tough outer skin is, after boiling, removed by 
si raining, and meals arc added as a flavor. 

A considerable proportion of the present domestic supply of 
lentils is still imported, but it is probable that the near future will see the market 
fully supplied by growers in the Southwest sections. 

Revalenta Arabica, which has been sold as a dyspeptic food, consists of lentil meal, 
and the lentil probably formed the "red pottage" for which hungry Esau sold his birth- 

LETTUCE: the chief salad plant of modern days, is probably native to the Greek 
Islands. In England, the type generally known here as Bomaine still bears the name 
of "Cos Lettuce," after the Island of Cos, which now belongs to Turkey but was for- 
merly under Creek rule and is noteworthy as the birthplace of Hippocrates and several 
other famous men of ancient Greece. It was first used in England in 1320, and King 
Henry VIII conferred a special reward upon the gardener who devised the combina- 
tion of "Lettuce and Cherries" for the royal table. 

( Growing lettuce under glass— 20, heads under this one roof 


The many varieties under cultivation are capable of general classification into three 
principal types— (1) Cabbage or Head lettuce, the most widely cultivated form; (2) 
Romaine (which see) or Cos or Leaf lettuce, and (3) Cutting lettuce, which forms 
no head, being instead cut while the leaves are small and giving in that manner two 
or more crops. 

If the leaves are washed for salad making, they should be thoroughly dried after- 
wards with a towel or napkin. If the head is close and good, no washing is necessary 
after the removal of the outside leaves, as the inner leaves will be quite clean. 

The heart of a head lettuce should be firm, crisp and bleached — a rusty red tinge 
is an indication of overlong keeping. 

Lettuce will keep fresh longer when the roots are left on the plant. 

LICHEN: a moss which grows on trees or rocks. It has many colors and forms, 
from the grey or green covering on stones, and the larger and more bushy types 
attaching to trees, up to the edible forms such as Iceland Moss (which see), which 
grows over large areas and is an important food for man and beast in the Arctic. 

LICORICE or Liquorice. The black licorice rolls or sticks familiar to the consumer, 
consist, when pure, of the condensed juice of the root of the licorice plant, mixed with 
a little starch to prevent it from melting in warm weather. The word "licorice," 
through its Latin form Clycyrrhiza, is derived from the Greek words for "sweet root." 

The licorice plant is a small shrub of light green foliage, attaining a height of 
about three feet and favoring localities near rivers (see Color Page opposite 338). 
When dug, the root is full of water and the drying process frequently takes from six 
months to a year. It is then sawed or cut into small pieces, six inches to a foot long, 
and carefully sorted, the good and sound pieces being pressed into bales for shipment. 

The bulk of the licorice rolls, paste, etc., of domestic consumption is manufac- 
tured in this country from the imported dried root, the principal sources of which 
are Asiatic Turkey and Russia. 

The sale of licorice as a candy is merely incidental. It finds its principal use in 
medicine and it is also extensively employed in the manufacture of tobacco and 
liquors, to give color and flavor to Stout, etc. 

LIGHTS: a term applied to the lungs of animals. 

LIMA BEANS: a native American product. See sub-head in article on Beans. 

LIMBURGER CHEESE. See description in general article on Cheese. 

LIME (fruit). The lime is a fruit of the lemon species, grown abundantly in the 
West Indies, India and some parts of Europe. It is almost 
globular in shape and is much smaller than the lemon, averag- 
ing only from one to one and a half inches in diameter, bu1 its 
skin is thin and its juice very abundant. As the use of limes 
is steadily extending, the trade can profitably recommend them 
as good substitutes for lemons and as possessing a peculiarly 
agreeable aromatic flavor. Dominica and Jamaica, of the 
British West Indies, send us our main supplies of the fresh fruit. Ljm ,. s 

:;:;> the grocer's encyclopedia 

Fresh limes are, however, very perishable and they should be kept in a cool, dry 
place. If to be held for a considerable length of time and refrigerator facilities are 
limited, it is a good idea to cover them with dry sand. 

The whole limes are also put up in syrup as a dessert dish, and "candied"' as a 
confection, and the rinds are boiled in sugar and dried in the same manner as candied 
leu peel. 

Lime Juice, in which form the lime is best known to the general public, is put up 
in bottles of attractive appearance and makes a desirable article for all fancy grocers. 
The best qualities come from Dominica and Montserrat, West Indies. Besides mak- 
ing a delicious beverage, it has been for a long time recognized as a useful medicinal 
agent, almost identical in composition with Lemon Juice (which see). 

The color of good sound lime juice should be a very pale straw — if it tends 
toward red, the product should not be accepted at first-class prices. It is advisable 
to select only guaranteed brands, as a considerable percentage of the commercial 
supply consists of juice pressed from fruits in all sorts of conditions. The juice is 
offered in this market as low as twenty cents a gallon, and though this may possess 
good appearance and flavor when fresh, it is liable to acquire a moldy flavor in a 
year or two, and, if the bottles are not hermetically sealed, it will finally turn red. 

Low grade varieties also frequently contain preservatives and artificial coloring 

LIME: is commercially made from limestone or other forms of mineral calcium car- 
bonates by the action of heat, as by roasting in kilns. When pure, it is a white, brittle 
substance. "Unslaeked lime" is the dry product before the addition of water or its 
absorption from the atmosphere. The addition of water, if not in excess, produces great 
heat. Its chief use is in mortars and cements, but it is also employed as a fertilizing 
agent, in the purification of coal gas, in tanning and for numerous medicinal purposes 
and laboratory processes. Lime is found in many foods and is essential to the forma- 
tion of the human frame. 

Lime Water, when mixed with an equal or greater quantity of milk, is an excellent 
remedy for vomiting caused by irritability of the stomach. A solution of ordinary 
strength is obtained by dissolving a piece about the size of a lien's egg in a pint of 

LIMITATIONS, Statute of. On account of the frailty of human memory and the 
uncertainty attached to long-deferred claims, all civilized countries have established 
limits within which rights may be litigated, the law defining them being called the 
Statute of Limitations. The statute begins to run when the right is complete, i. e.. 
when the money claimed is due and payable, subject to certain exceptions in favor of 
minors, persons beyond seas and those non compos mentis. After it begins to run, it is 
not stopped by anything except a payment on account, or an acknowledgment of the debt 
accompanied by an express promise to pay it, which, in some States, must be in writ- 
ins. In either event, the debt is said to be "revived" and the statute commences to run 
anew from the date of such revival. The limitation, being regulated by the various 
State Legislatures, differs widely throughout the United States. 

LING: a lisli resembling the whiting, found on the northern Atlantic coast. 

LICORICE ffolla£e. root, and finished product 


LINSEED MEAL or Flaxseed Meal: is usually ground flaxseed oil-eake, but for 
medicinal purposes should be ground flaxseed from which the oil has not been 

LINSEED OIL or Flaxseed Oil: is produced from flaxseed by crushing and press- 
ing. It is amber in color and of a peculiar, rather disagreeable, odor and taste. It 
is sold mainly by weight, seven and a half pounds being reckoned to a gallon, and is 
used in the manufacture of paint and varnish, linoleum, patent leather, printing inks, 
etc. The cake from which the oil has been expressed is commercially known specifi- . 
eally as Oil-Cake (which see). 

LIPTAU CHEESE: a goat's milk product. See general article on Cheese. 

LIQUEURS, or Cordials. The numerous beverages classed under this heading differ 
widely in character. Some of them are prepared direct from fruits by fermentation 
and distillation, but the majority may be described in a general way as highly 
sweetened brandy or other spirit, flavored and aromatized with one or more spiers. 
herbs or fruits, or with a combination of all three. Their attractiveness is frequently 
enhanced by coloring with vegetable or harmless coal-tar extracts and putting up in 
bottles, etc., of fanciful design. 

It is the great care exercised in their preparation that has held the best known 
liqueurs so high and so long in public esteem — principally among good livers who 
are capable of discrimination. It is, however, so easy to manufacture grossly inferior 
imitations which resemble the original products closely enough to deceive the inex- 
perienced, that caution should be exercised in buying. 

Compound liqueurs are-made (1) by bringing the aromatic properties of the 
fruits, herbs, etc., in contact with vaporized, generally alcoholic, liquor; (2) by dis- 
tillation of the liquor following the addition of essences or essential oils (see remarks 
on Natural Essences in the article on Extracts), or (3) by dissolving essences in 
strong rectified spirits of wine. Ingredients, as sugar syrup, which are not volatile. 
are added after distillation. m 

The production of liquetrrs or cordials is at least as old as the records of civiliza- 
tion. Long before the Christian era, similar fragrant beverages were made both for 
human use and as offerings to heathen gods. Later, "cordials" — still of the same main 
characteristics, but improved by distillation and the^ advance of knowledge — were 
prominent in medical practice and graced every festival and celebration. Tn the Middle 
Ages, their use was fostered by the various orders of monks and nuns. To-day, 
France, Italy, Germany and the United States have large interests involved in their 

Confusion occasionally arises from the indiscriminate use of the terms Eau de 
(""water of") and Crime de ("cream of). Properly applied. Eau de (as, for 
example, Eau de Cedrat) means that the liqueur, though sweetened, is not syrupy. 
Creme dr (as. CreUie de Cedrat) means that sufficient sugar has been added to give it 
syrupy consistence. 

Extrait de ("extract of") and Elixir de ("elixir of"), are used in the same way 
as Eau de. 

Baume de ("balm of) and Huile de ("oil of), are used in the same way as 
C re me de. 



Ratafia i which see) is a generic term often applied to simple, light liqueurs, such 
as Apricot Ratafia, Cherry Ratafia, etc. 

Rosolio, in addition to its specific use, is sometimes employed to signify special 

The liqueurs most popular in this country arc Absinthe, Binedictine, Chartreuse, 
Crime de Menthe, Curagao, Kirsch, Kiimmel, Maraschino and Vermouth. The term is 
also frequently applied to fine old Cognac brandy, choice well-aged Schiedam 
Schnapps (gin), rich old wines such as Tokay, Vino Santo (Italian) and Rwesaltes, 
and very sweet rich wines such as Constancia and the Swiss Glacier, when they aire 
used as "liqueurs" at the end of a dinner — but they are not properly in this class. 

Liqueurs should be served at, or a few degrees above, the temperature of the 
average dining room. With occasional exceptions, the small liqueur glasses should 
be used, as little more than a mouthful is required — the idea being, with most 
varieties, merely to obtain a "fillip" to digestion after a meal and to leave a pleasant 
flavor in i lie month. 

Many liqueurs include a number of different spices, herbs, etc., in their formulas, 
but there is generally one principal item which supplies the distinctive character. 
The following supplementary list names these "character ingredients," or other special 
tenures, in lieu of more lengthy description. The full titles include in many cases 
one or other of the terms "Crime de" etc.. previously referred to. 

Abkicot — apricots. 


Aldabo (a Cuban imitation of Curagao) — bitter 

orange peel. 
Alkebxies — bay leaves and mace. 
Anise. Anisette — aniseed and coriander. 
Apbicotine — apricots. 
Aqua d'oro — an Italian cordial similar to Eau 

d'or (see below). 
Argent, Eau d' — similar to Eau d'or, substituting 

silver for gold. 
Banane. Bananine — bananas. 
Babbados — orange juice. 


Cacao — roasted cocoa beans with vanilla flavoring. 

Cafe — coffee extract. 

Cannelle — cinnamon. 

Cassis — fresh black currants. 

Cedrat — citron. 

Celeri — celery. 

Cerises — cherries. 


Chesky (cherry whisky) — cherries. 

Citronelle — orange and lemon peels. 

Chocol.vt — cocoa. 

i 01; i andre — coriander seed. 

Crlmi, di Men mm 


Eau de vle de Dantzic — brandy aromatized with 
spices, and containing particles of gold 
leaf floating in it. 

Eat; d'or. or "Gold Cordial" — Angelica, raisins, 
figs, licorice, etc. So named because 
gold leaf was formerly, and is still 
sometimes, added, as in Eau de vie de 

Framboises — raspberries. 

Fraises, Fraisette — strawberries. 

Gentiane — gentian flowers (Swiss). 

Gingembre — ginger root. 

Goldwasser — a German product similar to 

Eau d'or. 
Grenade. Grenadin — pomegranates. 

Ltmones — fresh and dried orange and lemon peel 

and seeds. 
Macaron — oil of bitter almonds. 
Mandarines — mandarin oranges. 

Mastica de Chios — Turkish Mastic (which see). 
Mazarine — wild cherries. 

Moka — coffee extract and oil of bitter almonds. 
Mures — blackberries. 
Noyau or Noix — oil of bitter almonds. 
Orange — fresh oranges and orange rind. 
Pomeranzen — oranges. 

Parfait Amour — lemon rind and vanilla essence. 
Pekoe — black tea. 
Persicot — peach flowers and seeds. 
Prl t ne Cognac — similar to Slivovitz (which see). 
Prun elle — si oes. 

Rakia (Hungarian) — very aromatic grapes. 
Roses — rose essence. 
Rosolio — rose and orange-blossom essences, spices, 

etc., colored pink. Also, a cordial made 

chiefly from raisins. 
Trappistine (yellow and green) — absinthe and 

various spices and herbs. 
Vanille — vanilla extract. 

Vino Pino (Cuban) — pineapples. 
Violette — violet essence. 
Yvktte — violet essence. 
Zwetschenwasser. See Slivovitz. 

♦See description in alphabetical position. 


(,) (2) Curacoa (3) Creme de Menthe 

Russ.anKu.mel (5) German Kummel (6) L.q. des Peres Chartreux (7) 



LIQUID MEASURE. See tables of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

LIQUORICE: another widely accepted way of spelling Licorice (which see). 

LITCHI, or Lichi: a nut grown in Southern China and sold in a dried state in this 
country. As seen here, it is nearly round and from one to one and a half inches at its 
widest diameter, with a very thin hut tough shell, dark brown and granulated in 
appearance, enclosing a dull reddish-brown pulp of raisin-like sweetness, with a round 
flat stone in its center (see Color Page opposite 414). The fresh nut looks like a straw- 
berry, and the sweet pulp enclosed in the rough red skin is then whitish and watery. 

LITHIA WATER. See article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

LITRE. See "Metric System," in Tables of Weights awl Measures in Appendix. 

LIVER. The livers of animals, such as the bullock, the calf and the sheep, contain 
a large amount of nitrogenous matter, but they are generally regarded as indigestible 
articles of diet and are therefore to be avoided by dyspeptics. 

Good, fresh liver should be clear, bright and of a yellowish red. 

Calf's liver is so much in demand by the hotel and restaurant trade that there 
is often none left for the casual domestic buyer. Beef liver is, consequently, often 
substituted for it if the purchaser is uninitiated. The order of quality is (1) calf's 
liver, (2) beef liver, (3) pig's liver and (4) sheep's liver. Sheep's liver is generally 
poor and hard. 

See also Foie Gras (Goose Livers). 

LOBSTER: a fish of the crab species which is rated by many people as the most 
delicate and delicious of all sea food. In addition to its 
consumption fresh, its meat is canned in immense 
quantities, the smallest of the catch retained being gen- 
erally used for the purpose. 

Lobsters weighing from fifteen to twenty pounds 
are not uncommon. It is the weight for size that indi- 
cates the quality— a large, light specimen is never as 

good as one smaller but heavier in proportion. A nine-inch lobster generally weighs 
about one pound. 

Lobsters are preferably sold alive, so that there can be no doubl as to their fresh- 
ness, and the use of improved shipping packages makes it possible aois to deliver them 
alive and in good condition to almost any part of the country, but large quantities are 
boiled as caught aud thus shipped. 

The enormous consumption and the difficulties experienced in safeguarding 
natural propagation have resulted in a steady diminution of the supply, but energetic 
measures are being taken by the Government to offset the conditions, and in the 
United States "Sea Nurseries" artificial propagation has already proved so successful 
that it is reasonable to hope for a long and large supply for the future. One of the 
most difficult problems is to prevent the baby lobsters from destroying each other, their 
cannibalistic tendencies making doubly arduous the care required to raise them. 

346 THE grocer's encyclopedia 

The lobster of the Atlantic Coast is distinguished from others of the family by 
its immense claws (see Color Page opposite). The native "spiney lobster" of the Pacific 
Coast, ami ilic Cuban and French lobsters have no claws, but are characterized by 
their •■horns," or remarkably well-developed antenna?. 

On the Atlantic Coast, lobster fishing is conducted all the way from Labrador to 
Delaware, bu1 the coasts of Maine and Nova Scotia are the most fruitful sections. 
Nova Scotia is also noted for its large canneries. 

Lobsters hug the shores of rocky coasts during the summer and arc then more 
easilj obtained than in the winter, when tbey go farther to sea. They are caught by 
means of ''pots" or traps — box-like affairs, averaging four feet long and two high, 
made of laths or iron bars. The entrance, on the end, is funnel-shaped and of netting 
or wood, so formed as to make ingress easv, and egress practically impossible. The 
poi is baited willi fish, weighted and sunk to the bottom of the lobsters' feeding 
-round, generally about a half mile from shore, its location being marked by a buoy 
bearing the owner's name. The fisherman empties the pot through a door at the top, 
and throws back into the water the lobsters under the legal size — which is regulated 
by state legislation and varies from time to time. 

It is estimated that but two lobsters out of every ten thousand reach maturity, but 
to counteract this alarmingly small percentage, a ten-inch lobster produces about ten 
thousand eggs at a time, and doubles her product with every additional two inches of 
length. The young lobster casts his shell four times before the characteristics of 
the adult are assumed, and until the fifth change, which is reached at the age of from 
three to six weeks, it remains near the surface of the water and is destroyed by the 
million, both by storms and surface-feeding fish. After this period, its habitat is the 
bottom of the sea, where it feeds principally on fish, alive or dead indifferently. It 
grows only during, or immediately after, its annual moulting or casting of its shell, 
but at that time the rapidity of its development is wonderful. 

Lobsters are very voracious in their habits, and frequently have very animated 
combats among themselves, during which one of the combatants is reasonably sure to 
lose some part of a leg or claw — another member grows in its place, but it is always 
smaller than the original. 

shellfish, and especially lobsters, afford more phosphorus than any other food. 
They are perhaps, unconsciously, on this account much eaten by the nerve-racked 
workers of the great cities. 

Lobster Butter or Paste: is cooked lobster "coral" or roe, pounded to a paste, 
mixed with butter, etc.. and rubbed through a sieve. The term "coral" had its origin 
in the appearance of the lobster eggs after cooking. 

LOCKSOY: rice boiled to a paste and drawn into threads, imported from China. 
Ir is used to thicken soups. 

LOGANBERRY: a California product, a cross of the black and red raspberry. 

LOGWOOD: a tree cultivated principally in the East and West Indies. The wood 
yields a principle which is employed as a dye. generally darkish-red in color. 

LONDONDERRY-LITHIA. See article on Table and Medicinal Mineral Waters. 

(3) Crayfish 
(51 Prawns (Cooked I 
(6) Cooked Lobster. Crab and Crayfish 



LONGAN: a fruit-nut resembling the 
Litchi, but generally smaller, much es- 
teemed in China and Malaysia. The in- 
terior, when fresh, is a sweetish pulp 
enclosing a single large seed. It makes 
excellent preserves and is exported both 
in that form and plain dried. 

LOOFAH. See Towel Gourd. 

LOQUAT: a yellow, generally oval, 
plum-like fruit, a near relative to the 
medlar and sometimes, but incorrectly, 
called the "Japan Plum." It is very 
agreeable to the taste when fully ripe. 
It can be eaten in almost any manner, 
raw or cooked, that serves for other 
fruits. The down should be carefully 
wiped off before serving to eat raw. See 
Color Page opposite page 320.. 

LOVAGE: an aromatic plant, now used 
chiefly in the manufacture of confection- 
ery. The blanched stalks were formerly 
consumed as a salad vegetable of the same 
type as celery and are still popular for 
that purpose in some parts of Southern 

Scottish Lovage, a similar plant of 
the same species, grows wild on the Shet- 
land Isles, north of Scotland, and is there 
used as a popular article of diet. 


1 a 

. A /yjrs*\*4 

«& M 





it. \ 


• * 

> » 


r ^> 

m f 






f M Y 






LOVE APPLE: the former name for the Tomato (which see). 

LOZENGES: are made in many different styles and shapes — square, circular and 
oval. They are composed of farinaceous matter, sugar, gum or gelatine, etc., 
variously flavored, and are employed both in medical practice and as candy. They were 
formerly the main candy supply of the country villages. 

LUCCA OIL: a trade name for fine Olive Oil (whirl) see). 

LUNCH TONGUE: a trade name for canned tongue (see TONGUE). 

LYE: is, in strict parlance, water impregnated with an alkali, but in general usage 
the word is applied to all forms of soap-making alkalies, from The "mother lye" of 
wood ashes, formerly used in farm life to make sofl soap, up to the metal drums of 
caustic potash and soda imported from Europe. 




MACARONI : is considered by the general public as a typical and peculiarly Italian 
food, and Italy is probably entitled to the credit for her early appreciation of its virtues 
and her fidelity to it after adoption, but history credits its invention to the Chinese 
and its European introduction to the Germans. The Italians are said to have learned 
the art of making it from the latter. History, however, also informs us that, by the 
time the fourteenth century had rolled around, Italy was the only European nation 
enjoying macaroni, and that she held for a full hundred years the secret of the method 
of its manufacture. Later, some enterprising Frenchman introduced it into France, 
and with great success, for it is on record that King Louis XIII ordered a dish of 
it from an inn-keeper at Tours who had made a great reputation for its preparation. 

The above is briefly the European idea of the history of macaroni — but it is dis- 
puted by the Japanese, who claim priority in its use by hundreds of years. The 
Japanese delight especially in a very fine kind of vermicelli, cut into lengths of six to 
ten inches and tied in bundles. This variety is also peculiar in that it is flexible. 

The essential point in the manufacture of macaroni is that the meal or "semola" 
be from hard, very glutenous wheat, the kind known as "macaroni wheat" in this 
country. The best imported macaroni is made from the blending of various grades of 
semola obtained from Taganrog wheat — a very hard Russian variety, both imported 
from Russia and raised from Russian seed in Southern Italy and France. 

By the original European method, the wheat is first steeped in water, then dried 
by heat, ground and sifted — both the husks and a considerable percentage of starch 
flour are thus separated, leaving a coarse meal, high in gluten and corresponding 
closely to the wheat "middlings" marketed here as wheat "farina" for consumption 
as a "cereal." The lessening of the starch proportion is advantageous, as in cooking 
its expansion tends to break the pipes or 
make them stick together in a pasty mass. 

In general modern manufacture, 
coarsely ground flour is moistened with 
the smallest possible quantity of boiling 
water, and thoroughly mixed, by ma- 
chinery, until smooth and "tough" and 
then kneaded in a special machine 
kneader known as a "gramola." The com- 
pleted dough goes into the cylinders of 
the press, where tremendous pressure is 
brought to bear on it by means of revolv- 
ing screws, and it is slowly passed out at 
the bottom of the cylinder through the 
small holes of the "trafila," as the per- 
forated plate is called. 

The form of the trafila fixes the char- 
acter of the product — for "macaroni" and 
similar varieties, there is in each hole a 
steel pin which gives the "pipes" their 
well-known hollow or tubular form. With 
smaller holes without pins, the trafila 
produces "spaghetti" and similar solid 
types. For flat, noodle-like or "ribbon" 





Foratinl or 

Forati or 






Mezzani or 


Mezzani Rigatl 
Zitonl Rigatl 

(11) Tagllarini 

(12) Llnguine 

(13) Trcnette 

(14) Fettuccelle 

(10, 10) Lasagne Rlcce 
(17, 18) Lasagne Llscl 
(10, 20) Tuliclti 

(21, 24. 251 Ditall Llscl 
122, 231 Dltali Rlgall 

(26) Rlgatonl 

(27) Bombollotls 

(28 to 49) "Fancy Pastes"— seeds, 

Stars, alphabets, animals. Ac 

(501 Curled Vermicelli 



Drying Spaghetti on canes 

varieties, a flat opening takes the place of 
the round hole. 

The short kinds are cut off by auto- 
matic rotary knives as the paste conies 
out of the trafila. The long varieties are 
cut off at the proper lengths by hand. 

Next conies the drying — in Italy gen- 
erally accomplished by outdoor exposure. 
The long solid pastes are looped over 
canes, the others are generally spread on 
frames. When sufficiently dry, they are 
carefully inspected, sorted, weighed and 

When outdoor exposure is not pos- 
sible, as, for example, in paste manufac- 
ture in the Eastern United States, a 
special drying room is used, the frames or canes being placed in tiers. 

The proportion of profit in paste manufacture depends to a considerable extent on 
the care in drying — on the vigilance exercised in ensuring an unvarying temperature 
of the proper degree. If the air is allowed to become too moist, the entire batch may 
be ruined by mildew or souring ; if too hot, it may spoil by over-rapid drying and con- 
sequent cracking or damage to its texture, and if the room is draughty, loss by crack- 
ing is again the result. 

The average American consumer has no idea of the number of forms, a hundred 
or more, in which the paste is made by Italian manufacturers. They range from 
lasagnes, short, flat pieces from one to two inches wide, cut out, and sometimes 
molded, by hand, to fidellini, long thin threads, the finest of which are many times 
smaller than vermicelli, which is the smallest type generally known here — and, in 
between, a great variety of forms and 
sizes — tubular, solid-round and flat, long 
and short, stars, dots, crescents, little 
animal shapes, etc., the last-named varie- 
ties being cut from thin sheets of the 
dough. See Color Page, opposite page 
350, illustrating a number of different 

Macaroni should be kept in a dry, 
cool place. Under proper conditions it 
will remain good for a long time, but 
it is not generally advisable to risk de- 
terioration by laying in a large stock. 

In cooking, be careful to put it into 
boiling, and salted, water. Cold water 
will spoil the best macaroni. The water 
must be kept fully boiling for from 
twenty to thirty minutes until the maca- 
roni is tender. When done, drain well 

and SeaSOn Or dreSS tO SUit individual Drying the "pastes" in the open air near Naples, Italy 

354 THK (IROCER'S encyclopedia 

tastes. The idea is to have every tube thoroughly tender, but each tube whole, 
separate and without pastiness. 

In Creole cookery, macaroni, spaghetti, etc., is freely added to many soups. 

If macaroni, after proper and careful cooking, is pasty or does not retain its shape, 
it is of poor quality and probably made from the wrong variety of wheat. Cooking 
is the only really conclusive test, consequently it is not good policy to stock heavily 
any macaroni by a new or unknown manufacturer until you have tried it by cooking 

MACARONI BREAD: that made from Macaroni Wheat. See Bread. 

MACARONI WHEAT: another name for Durum Wheat, so called because it is 
accepted as the most suitable of American-grown wheats for the manufacture of 
Macaroni (see articles on MACARONI and Wheat). 

MACAROONS. There are two leading varieties of the sweet biscuits known as 
Macaroons — those made of almond meal, and those of shredded cocoanut. They should 
be handled as fresh as possible, and should be kept in a dry, moderately cool place, 
protected from the air. 

Macaroons were first made by an order of nuns at St. Emilion, France. 

MACASSAR OIL: is, properly, the product of a tree of the Sapodilla family, grown 
in the Macassar district of Celebes, one of the East Indian Islands, but the trade article 
frequently consists of, or contains, cocoanut and safflower-seed oil. Its chief use is 
in the perfumery trade. 

MACE: is the inner covering which envelopes the nutmeg (sec Color Page of Spices). 
It closely resembles a lacerated membrane, being blood-red and somewhat fleshy when 
fresh. It is prepared for the market by being carefully flattened out and dried for 
several days in the sun, much of it becoming red -yellowish during the process. It is 
used both in "blade" and ground form to spice soups, sauces, puddings, etc., its flavor 
closely resembling nutmeg, but being, to many tastes, even more pleasing. It, also fur 
nishes a strong, yellow, volatile oil, and a red, buttery, fixed oil which, mixed with other 
substances, is known as Nutmeg Balsam. 

The bulk of the supply comes from Banda (the best), Penang, Singapore, Celebes 
ami. though only to a comparatively small extent, the West Indies. Care should be 
taken to choose that with a deep orange color and clear, transparent, wax-like appear- 
ance. I »nll looking parcels are not desirable. 

"Macassar," "Papua," and "Bombay" mace are fictitious titles sometimes given to 
.1 wild product, the mixing of which with cultivated mace is rated as adulteration. 

V. S. Standard Mace contains not less than 20% and not more than 30% of non- 
volatile ether extract ; not more than 3% of total ash; not more than 5% of ash insolu- 
ble in hydrochloric acid and not more than 10% of crude fibre. 

Mace should lie always kept in air-tight glass bottles or tin boxes. 

MACEDOINE: a mixture of cut fruits or vegetables of different colors. Vegetable 
Macedoine is now retailed in bottles, tins, etc., for use in soups, as a vegetable dish and 
for garnishing. 

the grocer's encyclopedia 355 

MACKEREL (see Color l'<i;/v opposite 504). The Common Mackerel, considered by 
many the most beautiful of all fish which find their way to our markets, make their 
appearance in early spring in immense shoals or "schools" off the coasts of Virginia 
and Maryland. Striking northward, they visit successively Cape May, Sandy Hook, 
Block Island, Cape Cod and various other points. They can be traced as far as 
Labrador. How much farther they go, no one can tell. They are, for the most part, 
caught in drift nets, shot into the sea from fishing smacks, but seines or single nets 
are often used. 

The mackerel ranges in length up to seventeen or eighteen inches, the average 
market size being twelve inches and the weight from three-quarters of a pound to one 
pound. It varies in color from multi-hued to white, with dark-blue stripes on the 
back. It is full grown at about four years. The young fish are known as "spikes," 
"blinkers" and "tinkers." "Spikes," the smallest marketed, are five to six inches long 
and five to seven months old. "Blinkers" are a size larger. "Tinkers" are those 
approaching, but under, nine inches in length and are supposed to be about two years 

The fresh fish is in/season only from April to about September, but the greater 
part of the catch is consumed salted, smoked and canned — whole or filleted, "soused" 
or pickled, in oil, wine sauce, etc. 

Salt mackerel are shipped first in barrels, to be later repacked according to the 
demands of the trade. They are carefully graded for the market as 1, 2, 3 and 4. 
No. 1 quality must not be under thirteen inches, free from taint, damage and rust, and 
fine, fat fish. No. 2 must be fat and free from rust, and not less than eleven inches. 
No. S consist of the best left after the selection of Nos. 1 and 2. No. 4 is the result 
of the three preceding assortings, but must be entirely free from damage or taint to 
pass muster. 

The location in which mackerel are caught has an influence in determining their 
commercial value. The finest European catches are those taken off the coasts of Ireland 
and Norway. The best sold here are from the New England shore waters, the June 
catch being considered superior to the spring and fall crops. 

In addition to the home supply, from twenty to thirty million pounds are imported 
annually, principally from the United Kingdom, Norway, Canada. Holland and 

The packing and re-packing of mackerel is an extensive business, and the result 
of the repacking is not always satisfactory to dealers or consumers. A barrel of mack- 
erel should weigh two hundred pounds. Two half-barrels, then, should weigh one hun- 
dred pounds each, but it happens sometimes that half-barrels scale fifteen to twenty 
pounds under that amount. The same remark applies to repacking in smaller quanti- 
ties. A "kit" is a fifth of a half-barrel and ought to contain a full twenty pounds. 
Retailers should carefully weigh packages or contents and refuse their custom to 
firms which violate the principles of business honesty. 

The mackerel is much esteemed, its flesh having an agreeable flavor, but, as 
usually prepared for the table, it is not readily digested on account of its large propor- 
tion of oil. This difficulty vanishes with proper cooking — by simmering it after boil- 
ing for a considerable time — three or four times as long as for any other fish, except 
salmon. In preparing it for cooking, it is nearly always preferable to wipe it dry with 
a clean cloth instead of washing it. 

See also Spanish Mackerel and Food Values. 




MADEIRA: a "white" wine of fine 
flavor and rich quality, usually fortified 
by the addition of clear spirit, produced 
in the Island of Madeira, a Portuguese 
possession, situated about 300 miles from 
the Coast of Morocco. It was at one time 
a very fashionable wine and has again 
increased somewhat in vogue. It is con- 
sumed in considerable quantities in Great 
Britain and Continental Europe. 

Madeira is exported in both casks 
and bottles. If circumstances warrant, 
it is generally preferable to purchase in 
casks, and bottle the wine after its receipt 
here, as, with the exception of very old 

stock, it is apt to throw a considerable sediment when shipped to colder cli- 
mates. Among the varieties most worthy of notice are Verdeilho, in both rich and dry 
styles; Malmsey, very sweet and soft; Sercial, or "Serceal," very dry with a nutty 
flavor, and Bual, or "Boal," which in the best qualities possesses an exquisite bouquet. 
It should be stored in a moderately warm place and it generally ripens better in demi- 
johns than in bottles. It should be served at about the temperature of the average 
dining room and can be decanted without disadvantage if so desired. 

Large quantities of spurious "Ma- 
deira" are made in France, Spain and else- 
where, but an abundance of the genuine 
wine is easily obtainable by those who 
specify it — the annual production of the 
Island having for many years averaged 
10,000 pipes, as against a total annual 
export of between 6,000 and 7,000 pipes 
The name "Madeira" is applied to 
numerous sauces, cakes, etc., but in actual 
practice other wines, such as sherry, are 
generally used. 

MAGGOTS. These destructive pests 
are the larva? of flies. They are found 
feeding upon many foods, especially the 

carcasses of animals (see article on Meat). If they appear in vegetables, the only 

proper method is to discard them entirely. 

MAIGRE: a term applied in cookery to dishes prepared without meat, poultry or 
game, and in which butter is used to the exclusion of lard, beef suet, etc. They con- 
sist chiefly of eggs, fish, vegetables, etc., and are eaten by Catholics on occasions which 
interdict the use of meat, as the term is generally understood. The word originally 
signified "lean," "poor," "scanty." 

MAITRANK. See item under heading of May Wine. 


MAIZE: the distinctive title of the grain generally known in the United States as 
Corn (which see) or Indian Corn. 

MAIZENA: another name for Cornstarch (which see). 

MALAGA GRAPES : Spanish grapes exported from Malaga. See Grapes. 

MALAGA WINE: a delicate wine from Malaga grapes. See Spanish Wines. 

MALDIVE FISH, or "Mummalon": an East Indian fish, sold canned at fancy 
grocery stores. 

MALLARD. See Ducks {Wild). 

MALMSEY, Malvoisie, Malvasia: are titles correctly applied only to wines from 
the Malvasia grape — which takes its name from the Greek island of Malvasia, where the 
type was first produced. So highly was it then esteemed that Virgil described it as 
"New Nectar." "Malvasia" grapes were later cultivated in many parts of the world — 
in Spain, the Canary Islands, Madeira, France, Italy, Greece in general, etc. — chiefly 
nowadays in the first three. They are of flue flavor, though less strongly characterized 
thau Muscats, and yield a soft and pleasing wine of delicate bouquet, which with age 
develops a liqueur style. The wines vary iu tint from light to purple or brown, being 
subject both to differences in methods of manufacture and in vine selection, the Mal- 
vasia grape being found in numerous varieties and in white, purple and black colors. 

MALT: grain in which Diastase has been developed by allowing it to sprout. It 
is used in large quantities in the manufacture of beer, whisky, malt extract, etc. The 
grain is first steeped in tubs of water for from forty-eight to seventy-two hours until 
it starts to germinate and is then spread on floors in a layer from eight to twelve 
inches deep, being turned over every twenty-four hours during the four days of the 
process in order to prevent "heating" and to ensure even growth. It is next kiln- 
dried and screened to remove the sprouts and is then ready for the market. When 
made by the "drum" system, the desired uniformity is even more thoroughly assured by 
putting the steeped grain in large revolving drums which keep it constantly moving 
as it grows. 

Barley is the grain chiefly malted, but rye, oats, etc., are also so treated in con- 
siderable quantities. 

Caramel Malt is that roasted especially dark. 

The great commercial value of the Diastase thus developed is its property, in 
solution under high temperature, of transforming starch, first into dextrin and then 
into a fermentable sugar. One part is capable of converting 2,000 parts of starch. 
Malted Barley or other grain contains only 1/800 part of the substance, yet this is suf- 
ficient to convert the starch of cereals of twenty times the bulk of the malt, as well as 
that of the malt, into fermentable sugar. The grinding of the grain in the manufacture 
of beer, whisky, etc., is to bring the Diastase more readily into contact with each 
minute particle of starch content. 

The Commercial Diastase employed in baking and for some other purposes, 
instead of the malted grain itself, is a hard, white, solid substance obtained by 



digesting the germinated grain in a mixture of three parts of water and one part of 
alcohol, then pressing and filtering. 

MALT BREAD. See sub-head in general article on Bread. 

MALT EXTRACT: a nutritious and invigorating beverage growing in public favor. 
So many varying qualities are offered, some of them differing little from ordinary beer 
or ale, that merchants are best guided by the reputations of the firms marketing them. 
True malt extract is a syrupy liquid obtained by the maceration and digestion of 
malt, generally barley malt, followed by filtration and concentration. It should con- 
tain from 70% to 80% residual extract, chiefly maltose, including about 2% diastase. 

MALT LIQUORS. Within this classification come Ale, Beer and Stout (or Porter), 
described under special headings. 

All malt liquors should be stored in a clean, dry places — a cellar preferably — with 
a uniform temperature of 4-1° to 50° Falir. 

MALT VINEGAR : is obtained from barley malt, beer, ale, etc. See Vinegar. 

MALT WINE: a tonic beverage obtained by the fermentation of a mixture of sugar 
syrup, brewer's "wort" (see article on Beer), hops and raisins. 

MALTED MILK: is milk combined with extract of malted grain, reduced to a 
powder by the vacuum process. It is used as a pleasant and nourishing beverage, 
both hot and cold, as an addition to broths, etc., for invalids, and in many other ways. 

MALTOSE: one of the "sugars" obtained by the action of malt or diastase on 
starch. See Glucose. 

MAMMEE, or Mammee Apple, or St. Domingo, or South American, "Apricot" : 
a tropical fruit about the size of a small grape fruit, sometimes round and sometimes 
angular in shape. The thick outer rind and the central seedy pulp are bitter in flavor, 
lint the intermediate flesh is aromatic and agreeable. It is eaten both raw and pre- 
served. It is related to the Mangosteen, but not to the Mammee Sapota in spite of the 
resemblance in name. 

MAMMEE SAPOTA or Mammee or 
Sapota: a large, generally oval-shaped, 
fruil of the Sapodilla family. Good speci- 
mens average a pound and upwards in 
weight. The skin is coarse in texture and 
light coffee-colored and ijTanulated in ap- 
pearance; the flesh is salmon-crimson in 
color, agood deal like thai of a soft musk- 
melon in texture, and enclosing one, two 
or three !<>nu. generally shiny-black, 


Mammee Sapota 

a small variety of the tangerine type (see Oranges) 

Two Types of MANGOES 




MANGO (see Color Page) : a fruit be- 
lieved to be a native of Southern Asia 
but now grown in nearly all sub-tropical 
and tropical countries and found in many 
different shapes, sizes and colors. The 
kidney shape is the form most generally 
seen, but some are nearly round and 
others long and narrow, either crooked 
or straight. The size ranges from a little 
larger than the biggest plum up to a 
weight of four pounds or more. The 
color may be either red, green or yellow. 

The quality varies as greatly as the 
other characteristics. The seed-stone of 
inferior grades is large and the flesh is 
so fibrous as to be of very little value, but 
in the best types the fibre is a negligible 
quantity and the stone is surrounded by 
a large mass of juicy, aromatic, generally 
orange-yellow pulp. 

In addition to its use as a fresh fruit, 
the mango forms the basis of most Chut- 
neys of East Indian type and is also 
canned and otherwise preserved. 

A majority of the mangoes imported until quite recently were of the poor, fibrous 
kinds — which compare to properly cultivated varieties as a crab apple to a 


Mangoes, Mexico 

Seed of mango of fine quality— the 
fibres reduced to a short, felt- 
like covering 

Seed of fruit of medium grade, but 

with fibres long enough to be 

somewhat objectionable 

Seed of common wild mango, with 
fibre running through the 

entire pulp 



Spitzenberg! — but tbere is to-day a constantly increasing supply of the choice fruits. 
The principal season is from April to the end of June — the fruit from Mexico, the 
West Indies, etc., arriving first and the 
Florida product a little latter. The best 
are those from India-style trees. 

A little practice is needed to acquire 
tbe art of eating a mango gracefully, yet 
without losing any of the aroma which 
distinguishes it. 

The fine fibreless varieties are the 
most easily eaten. Such fruit is best pre- 
pared by cutting through the skin and 
turning it back in a broad band, as 
Bhown in the accompanying illustration, 
or by making an X cut on each side, peel- 
ing the corners back as far as possible, 
and temporarily laying the skin in 
place again to prevent the aroma from 

escaping. The pulp Can then in either The best way of preparing a fine Mango for consumption 

case be eaten with a spoon, like a cantaloupe, turning the skin back as necessary. 

A third method sometimes employed, but requiring considerable deftness and only 
appropriate for immediate service and consumption, is. to halve the fruit lengthwise 
with a sharp knife, remove the stone and serve the two halves as one would cantaloupe. 

With a less delicate fruit, a better way is to cut the skin in a circle around each 
end and make seven or eight lengthwise incisions from circle to circle. The skin can 
then be easily lifted in strips and the flesh cut off in sections, lengthwise, as, or just 
before, eating. 

To slice a mango and let it stand before serving, as is customary for peaches, is to 
lose much of its delicate flavor — and to try to eat it out of hand in the nonchalant 
manner and care-free mind with which you tackle an apple, for example, is to wish you 
had gotten into a bathtub to perform the operation ! 

The principal objection that the fruit merchant has to the mango is that it is 
rather easily damaged in transportation. 

MANGO MELON, or Vegetable Peach, : a small round melon with yellow skin and 
white flesh, cultivated chiefly for domestic "Mango Pickles" and preserving. 

MANGO PEPPER: a mild sweet pepper, yellow and waxy in appearance, highly 
esteemed in the South for pickling. 

"MANGO PICKLES": a popular domestic title for pickled stuffed young melons 
(preferably Mango Melons), mango-peppers or cucumbers. 

MANGOLD-WURZEL, or Mangel-Wurzel : a large coarse type of beet, grown prin- 
cipally for cattle food. 

MANGOSTEEN: the fruit of a tree native to the East Indies, distinguished by 
long oval leathery leaves and a flower like a single rose. Manv travelers award it 



the title of "the world's choicest fruit." It is generally about the size of a small to 
medium orange, and in exterior appearance slightly suggests the pomegranate. Inside 
the thick pulpy rind, the flesh — a soft, juicy, rose-tinted or creamy pulp, enclosing the 
seeds — is divided orange-style. Its flavor, best uncooked, is sweet and slightly tart — 
enthusiasts says that it combines all the good qualities of the pineapple, grape, peach 
and strawberry, and physicians consider it especially wholesome. It unfortunately 
does not lend itself readily to transportation. See Tropical Fruits facing page 586. 

MANGROVE: a tropical fruit of sweet and pleasant flavor, eaten both fresh and 
preserved. A mild light wine is made by fermentation of the juice. 

Manioc Roots 

MANIOC or Cassava: a large, woody tropical plant botanically known as Manihot, 

whose roots furnish the Cassava-starch and 
Tapioca of commerce. It is variously known in 
the West Indies and South America as Manioc, 
Mandioca, Cassava and Cassada, as well as by 
various other titles, and as Ubi Tanah in Java 
and the Malay Peninsula, now the principal 
United States sources. The roots range in size 
from a diameter of one and a half to eight inches, 
and from eighteen inches to four feet in length, 
growing in clusters which average from five to 

ten pounds each but often reach thirty pounds and upwards. 

There are two principal types, the "sweet" and "bitter." Tapioca (described 

under its own heading) is generally made from the former, but both are equally 

valuable for the production of the commercial starch or "flour," which is the form in 

which the bulk of the importations is utilized in 

this country — in the manufacture of compressed 

yeast, as a sizing material, in the textile indus- 
tries, for glazing twine, etc., as a laundry starch 

and in various other industries. 

The Manioc root is an important native food 

in several tropical countries. In South America, 

a meal obtained by drying and grating is baked 

in thin cakes which are both nutritious and 

pleasing in taste. An interesting fact is that no 

water is added to the meal, sufficient adhesion 

being secured by the softening of the starch par- 
ticles by the heat applied. 

The Sweet Manioc is cultivated to a limited 

extent in Florida and other Southern States. 
The juice of the Bitter Manioc gives Cassa- 

reep (which See). The Manioc riant 

MWTt ta; 

MANNA: a species of sugar extracted chiefly from the Manna Ash, native to the 
mountainous parts of Southern Europe, bj making small incisions in the stems. It 
is principally used medicinally. The best quality is known as Flake Manna. 

The name "Manna" has also been applied to numerous special food preparations. 


THE grocer's encyclopedia 

MANNACROUP, or Wanna Groats: a kind of semolina or Farina (which see). 
Another more expensive variety consists of the seeds of the aquatic Manna Grass. 

MAPLE SUGAR and MAPLE SYRUP: are made from the sap of several varieties 
of the maple tree, native to the northern United States and Canada. The three chief 
varieties are the liock .Maple, which contains the largest percentage of sugar in the 
sap; the Hard Maple and the Soft Maple, the last-named containing the least. 

The sap is collected by "tapping" the trees about three feet from the ground. The 
tap hole is bored about an inch deep with a three-eighth inch bit; the spout is driven 
iuto this, and a covered tin sap-bucket is hung on the spout. It is the wood imme- 
diately under the bark which gives the sap — the largest amount coming from the ring 
made by the growth of the tree during the preceding year. 

The gathering season commences in the spring, generally during the month of 
March, just as the winter is breaking up and the general rule is thawing days and 
freezing nights. It ends when the trees begin to bud, as at that time the sap under- 
goes a change and the sugar content decreases. 

The percentage of sugar varies from 1% to 4%, being affected by many circum- 
stances — the variety of the tree, its location, the character of the soil, climate, etc. 
There are usually three or four "runs" during a good season and the first is generally 
the sweetest, averaging then from 3% to 4% of sugar. Each succeeding run is gener- 
ally less sweet and in consequence the product is of a darker color because of the 
longer boiling required. 

The quantity of sap depends to a great extent on the growth of the tree during 
the preceding summer and upon the weather conditions during the tapping season. 
Dnder good conditions, a tree large enough for two spouts will yield enough to pro- 
duce three or four quarts of syrup or six or seven pounds of sugar. 

After its receipt at the sugar-house, the sap is evaporated in sap-pans and syrup- 
pans to a syrup. For Maple Sump, this product is strained, filtered and clarified by 
tlie addition of milk, cream or egg white and is then ready for the market. 

Maple Siii/<ir is made by condensing the syrup until of the proper consistence. It 

is then stirred and "grained" and poured 
into molds or tin pails and allowed to cool. 
The evaporators vary in size according 
to local requirements — a machine two feet 
wide by eight feet long will handle the sap 
from three hundred trees. The largest 
made is six feet wide and twenty-four feet 
long, and will boil the sap from four 
thousand trees. The average Vermont sugar 
camp has from twelve to fifteen hundred. 
Maple Sugar making now and Maple 
Sugar making as it used to be, are very dif- 
ferent things — what the industry has gained 
in facility, it has lost in picturesqueness. 
The old style camp with its primitive ap- 
pliances is no more. The kettle was long 
ago superseded by the "pan" and the latter 
again by the evaporator, and the trongh has 


Tapping a Sugar-Maple Tree 



itmo« vrrif I 

Gathering the Sap in a Sugar-Maple orchard 

become a mass of crumbling decay. The womeu 
and children are kept at home and no longer 
know the old-time delights of "sugaring off," 
though in the Arcadia of the past their services 
were not despised and the whole household set 
up its abode in the woods. 

The sap was collected then in troughs, each 
about three feet long, hollowed out of sections 
of poplars, and was conveyed to the kettles in 
barrels, from which it was transferred by scoops. 
There were five or more kettles, from ten to 
thirty gallons in capacity, and each was filled 
with sap and kept at the boiling point, the larger 
kettles being filled from the smaller as evapora- 
tion reduced the contents. When the sap was 
sufficiently reduced, the hot syrup was dipped 
out and passed through a flannel strainer into 
uncovered tubs, from which it was again poured into a large, thick-bottomed kettle for 
the process of "sugaring off," some milk and the whites of several eggs being added 
to it. Thus prepared, it was placed over a slow fire, and kept below the boiling point 
until the sediment and all foreign matter had floated to the top and been removed, 
becoming temptingly translucent. It was then exposed to a greater heat and gently 
boiled, the evaporation gradually bringing it to the point of granulation. Then the 
sugar-maker became all watchfulness, and it fared ill with those who distracted him, 
for if the golden liquid seething in the kettle boiled the least bit too much, it would 
become too dry, and if it boiled too little, it would be "soggy." He tested it constantly, 
plucking threads of it from his stirring-stick, and trailing them around in cups of cold 
water. While the threads yielded waxily to the touch, the sugar was not yet ripe; but 
as soon as one broke crisp between his fingers, the moment bad come to take the kettle 
off the fire. As the sugar cooled, it crystallized round the sides, and gradually 
the whole mass, under a vigorous stirring, became granular. 

In that way was Maple Sugar made years ago and when the sap flowed profusely 
the operations were continued through the night and the fires cast strange shadows 
in the woods. But to-day everything is "improved." In place of the hut of logs is 
a permanent sugar-house, furnished with many elaborate devices to prevent waste and 
deterioration. The sap collections are made with letter-collect ion regularity and if the 
grove is on a hill and the sugar-house is in a hollow, the sap, as it is gathered, is 
emptied into a "flume," down which if flows into a large reservoir within the build- 
ing. A scoop or ladle is as anachronistic as a javelin! See Color Page opposite 368. 

MARASCHINO: a famous liqueur which takes its name from the small wild black 
Marasca cherry, native to the Dalmatian Mountains, Austria, but found also in Italy, 
Greece and parts of Provence. The fruit ia very sweet and aromatic and the kernel 
resembles the filbert in flavor. There are numerous commercial types of Maraschino 

which have departed from the original formula, but the true liqueur, the kind that 
made the name famous, knows no constituents except the Marasca cherry, white horn \ 
and clear syrup. The pulp and kernels of the thoroughly ripe fruit are crushed 
together and the mixture is emptied into vats, where it is diluted with a certain 


quantity of white honey. Fermentation quickly sets in and is followed by distillation— 
which produces the crude Maraschino. This is allowed to rest for about a year and is 
ilicu rectified several times until absolutely clear, mixed with clear white-sugar syrup 
and again sent to the cellars to mature, a full three years being required to produce the 
natural mellow strength so highly prized. The liqueur thus matured is the best quality 
ordinarily retailed. It continues, however, to improve in quality, and ascend in price, 
with still greater age, genuine old Maraschino being worth, even at the distillery, from 
two to three dollars a bottle — and at retail is of course very much more expensive. 

The bulk of the output of the best grades is produced in the city of Zara, the capi- 
tal of the province of Dalmatia, by distillers who receive the fermented mixture from 
various points in the cherry growing districts. It is generally marketed in wicker- 
covered bottles. 

A great quantity of imitation Maraschino is made from other varieties of cherries, 
miscellaneous fruits, peach leaves, etc., but it does not possess the delicate flavor, or 
aroma, of the true product. 

In this country, Maraschino is a popular liqueur for the preserving of whole 
fruits, as cherries, figs, etc. 

See also general article on, and Color Page of, Liqueurs. 

MARGARINE: the English name for Oleomargarine (which see). 

MARIENBAD. See article on table and medicinal Mineral Waters. 

MARINADE: pickle liquid, generally flavored, as with aromatic herbs, spices, etc. 
The term is best applied to vinegar and lemon pickle, but is also extended to brine. 

MARJORAM: a garden herb of the Aster family. There are numerous varieties, 
the most desirable being the Sweet or "Knotted," Winter Sweet and Pot. Both the 
tops and leaves, green and dried, are used to flavor soups, dressings, etc. For dry- 
ing, the branches are cut before the flowers open. 

Common, or Wild, Marjoram grows wild in many parts of the country in the open 
fields. It resembles the cultivated types but is coarser in flavor. 

MARKETS. The public market or fair is one of the links which connect 20th 
century civilization with the early history of the human race. Its origin is found in the 
first concerted attempt at commerce, and its initial history antedates the oldest records, 
yet the essential principles of the primitive market were the same which underlie the 
modern Exchange, and even the details of its operation were in all probability 
not unlike those of the fine modern markets of Continental Europe. 

The employment of the terms "market" and "fair" overlap at many points and in 
genera] usage, but they are perhaps best differentiated by applying the word "market" 
to a public selling-place continuously open during all, or a considerable portion of, 
the year and devoted chiefly to the sale of provisions. The term "Fair" may then be 
specialized to signify r. public selling-place for all classes of commodities — clothing, 
jewelry, etc.. in addition to provisions — open only for a limited time — as the 
periodic Fairs which constituted so important a feature of life during the Middle 
Ages, and the famous modern fairs at Leipsic, Nijni-Novgorod, etc., referred to in the 
closing paragraphs of this article. 



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— . . .*.. lfc jars 


Halles Centrales, Paris— the market buildings on each side 

The recognition of the desirability of a common interchange of goods seems to be 
instinctive among all races. When the Aztec country was disclosed to European eyes 
by the Spanish invasion of 1521, it was found that the greater part of the trade between 
city and country and the bulk of all classes of the retail business of large cities was 
transacted in markets and fairs. In his African explorations, Stanley found fairs in 
periodic or continuous operation in parts to which no white man had ever before pene- 
trated, the natives journeying to them from considerable distances to exchange goods. 

The public market was in former generations a noteworthy feature of American 
life, but it has in recent years lost its first significance. There are few communities in 
which the free open market-places are patronized by the general public, and no covered 
markets to which the general producer has access, the stalls of those still in opera- 
tion being occupied by tenants much in the same way as are ordinary retail stores. 
The wholesale or commission merchant, together with the retailer, have absorbed the 
place the market formerly held in public service. 

New York retains several of its old markets— Fulton, West Washington, etc.— 
and meat, fish and general produce merchants do a big business in them, but the char- 
acter of the custom has changed from exclusively retail to largely wholesale. The same 
remarks apply to Philadelphia and Boston. A considerable percentage of the sales in 
the Baltimore and New Orleans markets are at retail, but their accommodations are 
not accessible. to the general producer. 

American conditions are paralleled in England, but a strong contrast is found in 
Continental Europe, where markets of general use are found in all important cities. 

The finest markets in the world are those grouped in the Halles Centrales 
of Paris— ten large halls, covering a total of 365,000 square feet and divided 



according to the character of the supplies — butchers meat iu one, fish in another, etc. 

\l„,i te-third of the space is devoted to wholesale and the balance to retail purposes. 

Lining the thoroughfares between the halls — some of the spaces open and some covered 
arc stands for fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc., and underneath are cold storage cel- 
lars for tlif use of producers on payment of a small fee. The annual sales reach 
large figures — an average of 100 million pounds of meat, 50 million pounds of poultry, 
70 million pounds of fish, 50 million pounds of butter and cheese — and other items in 

The Ha lies Centrales retain the first feature of the market or fair in that the pro- 
ducer and consumer arc brought in direct contact. There are a great many permanent 
tenants, titulaires <l<- places fixes, as in English and American markets, but in Paris 
they have no exclusive possession — ample space is reserved for all occasional or 
periodic vendors — any producer who desires may, by conforming with the regulations 
and paying the very moderate fees, occupy space and sell his goods. If he cannot spare 
the time to come into the city, he can ship his goods to any of the official salesmen, to be 
disposed of at auction, the only charge being a small commission on the sales. These 
salesmen are appointed by a municipal official and their methods are rigorously 
inspected and controlled. 

Numerous smaller markets in other parts of the city supplement the service of the 
llalles Centrales. 

The famous old Butter Market at Cork, Ireland, is another institution worthy of 
mention as one of the best regulated of its kind. All the butter exposed for sale 


The Fish Market, Halles Centrales, Paris 



is tested, in bulk and without any name attached, and branded First Quality, Second 
Quality, etc., by a market committee, whose members also belong to the Common Coun- 
cil. No favoritism can be shown, as the committee are ignorant of the ownership of 
the butter they inspect. Merchants residing in any part of Great Britain can forward 
their orders for so many packages of certain qualities to local brokers, who buy on the 
market, charging the purchasers a commission of about fifty cents for each one hun- 
dred and twelve pounds — the fee being regulated by the same committee. On the fol- 
lowing day, the prices of all qualities are published in all the morning papers of Great 
Britain, the grocer being thus informed of the correct price of the quality he buys. 

The greatest Fairs in the world are the Easter and Michaelmas Fairs at Leipsic, 
and the Russian Fairs at Irkutsk, in Siberia, in June, and at Mjni-Novgorod, in Euro- 
pean Russia, in July. At Irkutsk, Russian and Tartar merchants gather to exchange 
and sell skins, iron, clothing, coffee, spices and a great variety of other articles. At 
Nijni-Novgorod, merchants from all parts of the world assemble to traffic in 
every imaginable commodity, the selling accommodations there including more than 
2,500 booths. 

MARMALADE: is a semi-liquid preserve, made by boiling the pulp or juice of 
thick-rind fruits, such as oranges, pineapples, lemons, etc., with portions of their rinds. 
The most popular is that of oranges, the Seville or Bitter orange being employed 
for a majority of the best types. 

In the manufacture of orange marmalade, the fruit are first prepared by picking 
off the eyes, washing in large tubs and halving and pulping by machinery. 

After the separation of the rind and pulp, the latter is placed in machines which 
express the juice, and the rind goes to the cutting machines, where revolving knives 
slice it into thin rings and drop it into vats of cold water, which, as filled, are boiled 
by means of the steam coils in the bottom of each vat. 

Peel and juice next go together into huge copper pans, half full of thick syrup 
of white sugar, and are boiled until the desired consistence has been reached. This 
process requires both care and experience, for if the fruit is over-boiled, the syrup 
will harden into candy, and if under-cooked, the product will mold. 

Cans, glasses and stone jars are all employed as containers, but the last named is 
the most characteristic form. 

The first record of the use of marmalade is found during the reign of Henry VII, 
the original "marmalade" having been made from the quince, the Portuguese name 
for which is Marmelo. It was in those days a choice rarity, served as one of the 
sweets which concluded the enormous ceremonial banquets of the age. 

MARMITE: a brown extract of which yeast juice is the principle. It resembles beef 
extract in flavor, color and stimulating properties. Petite Marmite (which see) is a 
popular French soup. 

MARRONS: a variety of chestnut extensively cultivated in France and Italy. They 
are best known here in preserved form, either bottled in brandy or syrup or "iced" 
dry (in the latter case being known as Marrons Olaces) and are used in the making 
of various frozen and other fancy desserts, in fruit salads, etc. 

Syrup Marrons are readily transformed into Marrons Glacis by exposing to the 
atmosphere for a few hours to allow the syrup to crystallize on them. 



MARSALA: a famous Sicilian product. See Italian Wines. 

MARSHM ALLOW: a plant native to both Europe and Asia 
which grows most freely in marshes near the sea. A decoction 
nl the roots and other parts of the plant gives a tasteless, color- 
less gum, used medicinally as a demulcent for children, etc. The 
candy known as "Marshmallows," originally made from the plant 
gum, is now manufactured of sugar, corn syrup and gelatine. 


MARSH MARIGOLD, called Cowslip in the Eastern States : a common swamp or 
water plant which grows from eight to ten inches high. The flowers may be used for 
flavoring soups, stews, etc. The leaves, when young, make acceptable "greens," and 
I lie flower buds, pickled in salt and vinegar, are an acceptable substitute for capers. 

MARTYNIA, or Unicorn Plant : a vege- 
table whose pods, distinguished by their 
long curved hooks, are pickled in the 

same way as cucumbers. 

MARZIPAN PASTE: a kind of al- 
mond paste used in the manufacture of 
fancy cakes and pastry novelties, for sale 
separate or mixed with hi^'h-grade 
candies, etc. 

Martynia pods 

MASTIC: a very fiery brandy, distilled in various parts of Greece and several 
Oriental countries from the fermented residue of grapes or currants after the juice has 
been expressed for wine, the astringent flavor due to the crushing of the seeds, skins, 
etc, being enhanced by the addition of gum mastic, a product of the Mastic tree, a 
member of the pistachio family. 

The Peruvian Mastic is the "Pepper Tree" of California, so named for the peppery 
flavor of its berries. 

MAT: properly speaking, a texture formed of barks, rushes or reeds. Coffee and 
various other commodities are shipped in bags of such material — hence the term 
"mats" of coffee, etc. Part of the date supply is similarly packed, but the coverings 
are then known as "frails." 

MATCHES. Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, matches were 
unknown. We read in Virgil, who lived in the Augustan period, that two centuries 
before Hie dawn of the Christian era, fire was obtained by rubbing decayed wood 
together with a roll of sulphur between two stones. Several centuries later, we have 
record of the use of a primitive tinder-box with flint and steel, and this method of 
producing a spark of light, elaborated and perfected, remained in vogue until com- 
paratively recent years. 

Phosphorus, the dominating: ingredient of the composition employed for the heads 

f matches, was first discovered in the eighth century by an Arab named Bechel, but, 

owing to the lack of mechanical and chemical appliances, it could not then be made of 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 373 

commercial or industrial value, and the utilization of its wonderful light-giving power 
was lost to the world until in 1669 a German named Brandt again brought it to the 
attention of mankind. Chlorate of potash, a great oxidizing agent, which, when 
utilized in conjunction with phosphorus, makes possible the production of the modern 
match, was discovered by a Frenchman in 1786. Burning glasses, dipping and match 
sticks, were all used in the onward march of progress, and in 1830 John Walker, a 
chemist of Stockton-on-Tees, England, produced the first successful friction match of 
which we have authentic record. These matches, named "Congreves," were sold in 
boxes of fifty for sixty cents, and their success soon led others to experiment in match 
manufacture, with the result that improvements were rapidly invented — the efficiency 
and reliability of the match increased and the cost of manufacture and the selling 
price decreased. 

The match-making industry affords a striking example of the great economy in 
cost and excellence of product which has been accomplished, particularly of late years, 
by the development of labor-saving machinery. Of the many articles that are neces- 
sary to the comfort of modern existence, none is more nearly indispensable and there 
are few that are sold so cheaply. The rapidity and magnitude of manufacture may be 
judged from the fact that the largest factory in the United States, located at Barber- 
ton, Ohio, can produce two hundred million a day. 

The process of match making, as conducted in a typical American factory, con- 
sists of the feeding of clear-grain white pine blocks to automatic machines, which cut 
the wood into smooth match sticks or "splints," and transport them for tipping 
through paraffin and composition chests, drying the chemicals by contact with the 
speedily tempered air, ultimately packing the matches into boxes, and, in some cases, 
even wrapping the boxes into packages ready for the trade. 

Matches of present manufacture can be divided into three general classes: 

(1) Ordinary Strike-Anywhere Wood Splint Matches, known to the trade as 
"Lucifer" Matches. 

(2) Safety Matches. 

(3) Miscellaneous and Fancy Matches. 

CLASS NO. 1 may be subdivided into the following styles: 

Double-Dip Parlor Matches, Safety-Head— capped with a sensitive, "strike-any- 
where" tip, but with the head of "safety" type. Although new, they represent about 
one-half of the total domestic output. 

Double-Dip Parlor Matches— with both the head and the tip made of the "strike- 
anywhere" phosphorous composition. These can usually be detected by the very high 
gloss of the composition. They are considered a dangerous product, owing to the per- 
centage of combustible material incorporated in the head and they also have a pene- 
trating odor, which affects many goods with which they are necessarily brought into 

Parlor Matches— with single, untipped head. This is the "old reliable" variety 
that has stood the test of time and still holds undisputed sway in certain sections of 
the country. 

Sulphur Matches— with heads dipped first in sulphur instead of paraffin. They are 
still in demand in some places, but they are rapidly decreasing in popularity, because 
of the disagreeable odor engendered in burning. They are made in blocks, cards or 
combs and loose in ordinary boxes. They are sure lighters and while the sulphur is 
burning on the splint it is difficult to extinguish them. 


SAFETY MATCHES are not supposed to ignite except by friction on a specially 
prepared amorphous phosphorous surface, obtained by painting one side of the match- 
box. They are sold principally in small boxes and are used in large quantities by hotels, 
railroads, etc., and the smoking public. 

MISCELLANEOUS & FANCY MATCHES include Wax Matches, "Book" 
Matches and such varieties as "Flamers," "Blazers" and "Vesuvians," matches 
which cannot be extinguished by wind or water, etc. 

Wax Matches are splints made of stearin and copal gum, capped with Parlor or 
Double Dip composition. They are not manufactured in the United States, but large 
quantities are produced in Great Britain, Belgium, France and other countries. They 
are more expensive than wood-splint matches and are sold here only to a comparatively 
small extent. 

Book Matches are usually of the safety type, made of cardboard, or thin wood 
splints, enclosed in a cardboard cover. They are frequently distributed free for adver- 
tising purposes. 

Under proper conditions, matches are not a dangerous article to handle or store, 
with the exception of Double-Dip Parlor Matches. If packed in well-constructed cases, 
they will stand a vast amount of abuse without ignition, and if ignition should occur, 
the gases generated smother and effectively extinguish the fire. Danger arises only 
when an accident results in a case being broken and the contents scattered. They are 
accepted by all railroad companies as an average risk. 

With the same exception (that of the Double-Dip Parlor), modern, well-made 
matches of the best type and manufacture, do not materially affect by odor other 
materials stored in their vicinity, or even in direct contact with them. 

The daily consumption in the United Slates is about 750 millions. 

The largest single match factory in the world is the Vulcan, at Tidaholm, Sweden. 
It employs more than sixteen hundred men, and manufactures daily two and a half 
million boxes of matches. 

MATE, or Paraguay Tea: the leaves and young shoots of a species of holly, Thea 
Paraguayensw, used universally in Brazil and also extensively in other parts of South 
America, in the brewing of a beverage which corresponds to the "tea" of other coun- 
tries. The leaves are ground to a coarse powder and the shoots or twigs are broken 
into small pieces. Their collection and preparation is an important industrial occu- 
pation in both Brazil and Paraguay. 

The title "mate"," now generally employed, was applied originally to the vessels 
in which the tea is infused. These vessels, or bowls, are generally dried gourds, 
which in many cases have been carefully developed into a variety of curious forms. A 
small quantity of the leaves, properly called Yerba Mate, is put into the gourd, and 
it is then filled with boiling water. Each person holds a small tube called a "Bom- 
billa," and with this he sucks up the infusion and passes the bowl back to be filled 
again for the next guest. One end of the Bombilla is finished with a small bulb of deli- 
cate basket work or perforated metal, which acts as a strainer to prevent the powder 
or other particles from being sucked up into the mouth. The beverage is very hot- 
much too hot indeed to be generally pleasant for novices! 

The effect of the mate beverage is stimulating, restorative and diuretic, and 

ecause of these properties it is frequently prescribed for hospital use in countries 

which it is otherwise practically unknown. An average analysis shows components 


very similar to that of tea and coffee, including an important percentage of their 
stimulating principle (Theine and Caffeine). 

More than 120,000,000 pounds of Mate are exported annually from Brazil, and 
5,000,000 pounds from Paraguay, to other sections of South America, but it has never 
found favor as an article of general consumption in other parts of the world. 

MATZOON: a fermented milk product. See Zoolak. 

MATZOTH. See Unleavened Bread in article on Bread. 

MAW-SEED: a title frequently applied to Poppy-seed (which see). 

MAY APPLE: the fruit of the Podophyllum peltatum, a woodland plant of the bar- 
berry genus, commonly known as the American Mandrake. The latter title is unfor- 
tunate, as the Mandrake proper, a plant growing in Mediterranean regions, is poison- 
ous and the connection of names has resulted in the May Apple also being popularly 
so considered — quite incorrectly, for it may be eaten freely with impunity. It deserves 
to be more generally known and used, its characteristic flavor being especially suitable 
for marmalades. 

MAYONNAISE: a sauce or salad dressing composed of raw egg yolks beaten up 
with olive oil to the consistence of thick cream and flavored with vinegar, mustard 
or lemon juice, etc. 

MAY-POP: the fruit of a small variety of the passion vine, growing wild in the 
South. It is excellent preserved, especially in jelly form. It is also known as the 
"May Apple," but that title is better reserved for the fruit of the "American Mandrake" 
(see May Apple). 

MAY-WINE, or "Maitrank": a German drink of white wine, sugar and sliced 
oranges or pineapple, flavored with woodruff. In May and June it is a feature of 
country entertainments, prepared in a punch bowl with fresh woodruff or "Wald- 

MEAD, or Honey Mead : a fermented liquor or "wine," formerly held in very high 
esteem but now seldom seen, made from a mixture of honey or syrup and spices, 
herbs, etc. 

MEAL: is any kind of grain coarsely ground, such as oatmeal, cornmeal, etc., 
described elsewhere under their respective headings. 

MEAL-WORM: the larva of a winged insect which frequently does much damage 
in granaries, mills and stores where meal and flour are stored. It is generally shiny 
in appearance and of pale brown color. Cleanliness and care are the only preven- 
tives against its depredations. 

Meal-worms are a favorite food for ca-;ed singing birds. 

MEASURES. See tables of Weights and Measures in Appendix. 

376 the grocer's encyclopedia 

MEAT. In no one thing has the general consumer gained over his predecessors more 
than in the matter of fresh meats. It is not so many years ago that residents in small 
towns and country districts were dependent for fresh meat on an uncertain and fluc- 
tuating supply from the occasional or periodic slaughtering of one or two animals by 
local butchers — the result being that dried or salted meats were the mainstay of a 
large percentage of the population. To-day, owing to the many improvements in 
transportation, the invention of refrigerator-cars and other commercial developments, 
fresh meat can be obtained all the year round even in the most remote sections. 

Groceries and meats are a good combination for a retailer, provided that the store 
is so arranged and equipped that the two lines do not conflict. People must buy gen- 
eral groceries frequently, and if they can secure their meats at the same place, there 
will be a saving of time and convenience, which must, if well managed, result profitably 
to the merchant. 

It is, however, very unwise for a grocer to attempt to sell meats unless he has his 
store well fitted with proper refrigerators or cooling rooms, so that he can carry 
them without risk of deterioration. 

The arranging and handling of the stock in order to make the most favorable 
impression on the buyer, is also of the greatest importance. Nothing is more detri- 
mental to an establishment doing a critical business than dirty hands, bloody or soiled 
apron, greasy cloths and general untidiness on the part of the meat salesman. It is 
essential to hold in persistent remembrance the fact that the goods he is selling are 
those which customers expect to eat and that they should therefore be handled with 
scrupulous care and cleanliness. 

The dealer who slights or overlooks these leading principles, will find his better 
class of trade going to other stores where employees endeavor to please a customer's 
eyes as well as his palate. 

As a rule, it pays the grocer best to handle only the finer grades of meat. In sell- 
ing, it is advisable to get the poor cuts disposed of as speedily as possible — the prime 
parts usually sell without special effort. From the standpoint of profit, the customers 
who buy the cheaper parts are just as important as those who pay high prices for 
the best cuts. 

The correct temperature for the meat refrigerator or cooling room is a trifle above 
the freezing point — the result being "chilled" meat, which will remain in prime con- 
dition for a long time. Freezing or placing the meat in direct contact with the ice, 
results in loss of flavor. When meat has been frozen, it is best not to thaw it until 
near the time of actual use, as it spoils more easily than chilled meat. 

In hot weather, the great enemy of the butcher is the fly, which leaves its eggs 
in moist crevices of unprotected meat. The eggs hatch and become maggots with sur- 
prising rapidity, hence a keen watch is necessary in order to arrest their development. 
Their presence does not necessarily signify that the whole piece is bad, but it is 
imperative to cut off the part into which they have obtained access and to rub all the 
exposed surface with brine or vinegar. The best preventive is to keep all, or nearly 
all, the stock in the refrigerator, only taking it out as required to show or cut. 

The housewife who in warm weather finds that her meat has become tainted, can 
restore its freshness by cutting off and throwing the fat away and washing the lean 
in a solution of borax or bicarbonate of soda and cold water — a teaspoonful to a quart 
— and then sponging off with fresh water. 


i i 

A summer household preventive of taint is to wash all meat as received in vine- 
gar or to rub it over with salad oil. 

Following are the U. S. Department of Agriculture definitions of the various 
classifications of meat : 

Fresh meat is meat from animals recently slaughtered or preserved only by refrig- 

Salted, pickled and smoked meats are unmixed meats preserved by salt, sugar vine- 
gar, spices or smoke, singly or in combination, whether in bulk or in packages. 

Manufactured meats are meats not included in the preceding definition, whether 
simple or mixed, whole or comminuted, in bulk or packages, with or without 
the addition of salt, sugar, vinegar, spices, smoke, oils or rendered fats. 

Bee also articles on Food Values, Beef, Lamb, Mutton. Veal, etc. 

MEAT EXTRACT: a term which in popular usage embraces several products differ- 
ing considerably in character. That best known and most widely used in the prepara- 
tion of "beef tea" is the commercial meat or beef extract obtained bv simple boiling, 
straining and evaporation without the addition of other ingredients. It consists prin- 
cipally of "extractives," or meat flavor, together with a certain proportion of mineral 
salts. The fat is removed, as it would in time render the extract rancid, and nearly 
all the valuable albuminoids are also lost — they coagulate during the stewing of the 
meat and are strained off together with the fibrine, etc. Dry albumin is added to some 
preparations in the final processes, but no attempt is made to carry through the natural 
beef albumen as, under the conditions in which meat extract is ordinarily made, 
marketed and used, it would readily decompose and spoil the product. 

The extract should furthermore contain as little gelatine as possible — gelatine ie 
so much lower in value that it is not profitable to buy it at the extract price! This 
loss is, though, not of much moment, as gelatine has comparatively little nutritive 

Meat extract of the type described, was formerly rated as a condensed food 
product of high nutritive value. That position has been entirely abandoned and it is 
now acknowledged that it is entirely inadequate to support life, but it has retained 
great importance in both the medical and commercial worlds on the more solid foun- 
dation of its indisputable merit as the basis of an agreeable and thoroughly whole- 
some beverage of mildly stimulating properties. Physicians find it a valuable adjunct 
in the care of invalids and convalescents, and its meaty taste often lends zest to the 
necessarily restricted diet of the sick room, exercising a highly beneficial effect by 
enabling the digestive organs to extract more nutriment from other foods. It is 
especially useful for mixing with milk — persons who cannot assimilate plain milk can 
nearlv alwavs disjest it when flavored with a little beef extract. Its other uses 
include its employment in large quantities to give a relish to the condensed foods, such 
as those made from pease-meal, carried by army commissaries, and its similar famil- 
iar employment in the kitchen to enhance the flavor of soups, sauces, etc. It is worth 
remembering that extract of meat contains those flavoring properties to which is prin- 
cipally due the higher market value of the choice cuts. 

Many almost worthless preparations are, however, sold as "meat extracts" and it 
is advisable to confine purchases to houses of known reliability. 

For a number of years after its first introduction, the greater part of both the 
European and American supply came from the Argentine Republic, in which country 


i he. Liebig Company, the original manufacturer, established its first factory. The 
United States is now one of the principal producers. 

Home-Made Beef Tea, Meat Juices, etc. In contrast to that from commercial Meat 
Extract home-made "beef tea," as generally prepared, is entitled to rank as both food 
and stimulant, as it contains a fair percentage of protein and fat, in addition to the 
gelatine and "extractives." 

Somewhat similar value attaches to properly made commercial preparations of 
meat juices or "meat extracts," obtained by pressure of the raw meat and then pre- 
served without cooking. 

A third class contains the soluble albumoses (peptoses) of the meat predigested — 
I. e., digested by artificial means. The best of these offer food values in important per- 
centages, but their use should be regulated by medical advice. 

In spite of the fact that most people enjoy — or at all events do not object to — the 
strono- flavor of the best extracts, their taste and odor are sometimes found quite offen- 
sive by those possessing especially delicate palates. When this objection is found by 
a patient, it can be obviated to a considerable extent by putting a little butter, a 
piece of toast and plenty of salt in the hot beef tea. 

Beef tea should always be served hot — if drunk cold, or nearly so, its stimulating 
property is much reduced. 

Following are the standards for meat extracts and similar products adopted by the 
Association of State and National Dairy and Food Departments and the Association 
of official Agricultural Chemists. 

( 1 ) Meat Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh meat with boiling 
water, and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after the removal of fat, 
mid contains not less than 757° of total solids, of which not over 27% is ash and not 
over 12% is sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not over 
0.6% is fat and not less than 8% is nitrogen. The nitrogenous compounds contain not 
less than 40% of meat bases, and not less than 10% of creatin (a compound found in 
muscular flesh) and creatinin. 

i 2 i Fluid Meat Extract is identical with meat extract, except that it is concen- 
l rated to a lower degree, and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of 
total solids. 

i 3) Bone Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh trimmed bones 
with boiling water and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after removal 
of fat. and contains not less than 75% of total solids. 

(4i Fluid Bone Extract is identical with bone extract, except that it is concen- 
trated to a lower degree and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total 

' .""> i Meat Juice is the fluid portion of muscle fibre, obtained by pressure or other- 
wise, and may be concentrated by evaporation at a temperature below the coagulating 
point of the soluble proteins. The solids contain not more than 15% of ash, not more 
than 2.5% of sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not more 
than 4% nor less than 2% of phosphoric acid and not less than 12% of nitrogen. The 
nitrogenous bodies contain not less than 35% of coagulable proteins and not more than 
10% of meat bases. 

MEAT PASTES: are used for sandwiches and similar purposes. See Potted Meats. 



MEDLAR: a fruit which belongs to the apple and quince family, but looks more 

like a plum. It has the unusual charac- 
teristic that it is not edible until well 
past the ripe stage — the pulp is tender 
and of an agreeable sub-acid flavor when 
it commences to decay, whereas it is hard 
and bitter when ripe. It is eaten both 
raw and cooked. 

The juice of the raw fruit makes an 
excellent cold drink, and the flesh, cut up. 
is a pleasing addition to many mixed 
fruit and other beverages. 

MELON. The principal divisions of the melon family are Watermelons, Citron melons 
(for preserving) and Muskmelons or "Cantaloupes." 

The Watermelon, which is supposed to be na- 
tive to Africa, is very extensively cultivated in all 
warm climates, in this country flourishing best on 
the warm soils of New Jersey and the Southern 
States. The numerous varieties differ consider- 
ably in coloring, shape and quality, but less atten- 
tion is paid to such matters than in almost any 
other fruit. All that the average consumer desires 
is fair size and red, ripe flesh. 

For consumption in the neighborhood of their 
growth, the thin-rind varieties are especially de- 
sirable, but for general market purposes the thick- 
rind types are preferable, as they stand transporta- 
tion better. See Color Page facing 388. Gathering Cantaloupes, near Buffalo, N. v. 

The watermelon is popularly known by its green exterior and red flesh. There 
are, however, several kinds distinguished by their bright yellow flesh, the flavor and 
other characteristics being practically the same. 

The white inside rinds are in the West largely prepared as a sweet pickle. 

The Citron Melon is small, nearly round, with variegated shell and seedy flesh. 
It resembles the watermelon in the general appearance of the outside rind. It is not 
edible raw, but it forms a good base for preserves when boiled in syrup strongly 
flavored with lemon or ginger or both, etc. 

Muskmelons were formerly divided into Cantaloupes, which term included only 
the furrowed, hard rind varieties, and Nutmegs or Netted melons — the netted soft rind 
types, (ieneral usage now tends to use the word "cantaloupe" as a class title for all 
kinds, distinguishing different types by style or locality pretixes. 

The best varieties are the result of much experimental inn in crossing. The "Rocky 
Ford" 1 is, perhaps, the most noted of the present types, it originated in the vicinity of 
Rocky Ford, Otero County, Colorado, but it is now extensively grown elsewhere, 
especially in the Carolinas and Georgia. 

A perfect Rocky Ford Cantaloupe should be about four and a half inches long and 
a little less in diameter. The Color Page opposite page 37S gives a good idea of its 


general appearance. The silver-gray netting should stand out like thick, heavy, lace, 
almost entirely covering the melon, excepting only the strongly marked slate-colored 
stripes running the entire length and terminating in a small "button." The ground- 
work of the skin should be light olive-green, turning slightly yellow as it ripens. The 
flesh should be thick, firm and smooth — never watery in appearance — and rich and 
melting in flavor. Near the rind the flesh should be dark green, shading lighter 
towards the seed part, which should be orange or salmon in color. The flesh is often 
mottled with the salmon hue and sometimes assumes it altogether. The seed cavity 
should be small and well filled with seeds or it will not ship or keep well. 

Among other well known varieties are the Nutmeg, Osage and Baltimore. The last 
named is one of the most popular of the especially long varieties found in season in 
a majority of the best hotels, restaurants and homes of the larger cities. It is a thick, 
green, fleshy type of oval form and excellent flavor. 

The first outdoor cantaloupes begin to reach the northern markets from Florida 
during the latter part of May. The crops from other Southern States follow in succes- 
sion northward, immense quantities coming from Georgia, Texas, Arkansas, Carolina, 
Virginia, etc. The first Rocky Fords from Colorado are generally shipped about the 
first week in August, the season from that place lasting about two months. 

As the cantaloupe is very perishable, it should be carefully handled. In purchas- 
ing, the housewife should avoid overripe, soft and bruised specimens. 

Imported and Winter Melons. Among the "fancy" varieties of melons sold in the 
East are the: 

"Golden" or "Egyptian" melon — imported from Egypt and received usually during 
the months of November, December and January. It weighs from ten to twenty 
pounds and is shaped like a long, narrow watermelon but has a yellow skin and flesh 
somewhat like that of a Rocky Ford cantaloupe. 

Spanish Melon — imported generally from November to February, principally from 
the West Indies. It weighs from five to ten pounds and is rather more oval than round, 
the skin dark-green with bronze marks and the flesh yellow and very sweet. 

French Melon — imported from June to September. It is shorter and broader than 
the Egyptian melon, weighing up to seven pounds, the skin rather heavily ribbed 
and netted like a nutmeg melon, with yellowish flesh. 

Canadian Melon — received from August to the end of October. It is similar to the 
French melon, but weighing up to ten pounds, and the flesh varying from green to 
yellow. The choicest are grown in the vicinity of Montreal, their delicacy being 
attributed to special soil characteristics. 

California Melon — in season from December 1 to the middle of January. It is simi- 
lar to the Canadian melon and of about the same size. The inside flesh is generally a 
light green. 

English Queen— a hot-house variety from England, weighing up to seven pounds, 
the skin netted and both skin and flesh yellowish. 

Pomegranate Melon: a small, green -rind mottled melon about the size of an 
orange. The inside is pink and contains a plentiful supply of small seeds. 

MELON D'ORPAGON, or Petit Melon d'Orpagon : a tiny seedless green melon about 
i size of a walnut, grown in Orpagon, France. They are put up in vinegar and have 
an agreeable sweetish-sour flavor. 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 383 

MELON FRUIT: a local title for the North American Papaw (which see). 

MELON PEAR: another name for the Pepino (which see). 

MELON THISTLE, Melocactus : a cactus which takes its name from the resemblance 
of many varieties to huge muskmelons — the plants consisting of deeply ridged, round 
bodies, one to two feet in height. It is also called the Turk's Cap, as in the center 
of the top is a crown of spines filled with woolly fibrous matter, the flowers appearing 
half-way through the upper surface. The small pear-like fruit is in many cases edible 
and of agreeable flavor. The body of the "melon" is full of succulent matter, which is 
eagerly sought by cattle in times of drought. 

MENHADEN: a fish somewhat resembling the shad, very plentiful along the North 
Atlantic coast. It is seldom eaten but is valuable commer- 
cially for the oil extracted, marketed as Menhaden Oil, and the 
residue is in demand as fertilizer. 

METRIC SYSTEM. See tables of Weights and Measures 

in Appendix. Menhaden 

MEXICAN STRAWBERRY: the fruit of a member of the Echinocactus or Hedge- 
hog Cactus family, of salmon color, about two inches long and one inch in diameter. 
It is much sweeter than the ordinary cactus fruit and the entire pulp is readily 
eaten, as the seeds, unlike those of the Prickly Pear, are as small as strawberry seeds. 
The Hedgehog Cactus takes its name from the long spines which cover its gen- 
erally globose or oval body. The plants often reach enormous size and many of them 
bear large showy flowers of great beauty. The spines are used in Mexico as toothpicks 
and for various other purposes. 

MICRO-ORGANISMS or Microbes. Within the scope of this subject come a large 
number of minute forms of vegetable life of the fungi order. Those which affect human 
foods and digestion may be divided into three classes under the titles of Molds, Yeast 
and Bacteria. The appearance of Molds, or moldiness, is familiar to everyone. Yeasts 
are too small for single specimens to be seen without the aid of a microscope, but in 
a mass, of hundreds of thousands or millions, they are handled by the general public 
in the form of yeast cakes. Bacteria are still more minute and the average consumer 
never attains a personal acquaintance with them, but the effects of their existence are 
observable all around him. Molds propagate by means of spores or seed dust; Yeasts 
produce new cells by "budding," and Bacteria principally by the division of mature 
cells. With a few exceptions, Molds seem to serve no good purpose in the human food 
supply. Yeasts are responsible for all kinds of fermentation (as popularly under- 
stood), both desirable and otherwise. To Bacteria is due much of the enjoyable flavor 
of many of our foods, but their uncontrolled presence is the cause of all real putrefac- 
tion and decay. 

Mold spores and Yeast and Bacteria cells are present everywhere — the middle of 
the ocean, the center of a desert and regions of extreme cold alone excepted — and are 
especially numerous in the vicinity of human habitations. Any food into which they fall, 
if it affords suitable soil and temperature, is speedily rendered unfit for human use — in 


spite of their value under certain conditions — hence the danger of exposing foods to 
the atmosphere, the advisability of the speedy consumption of fresh foods and the 
importance of the cold-storage and canning industries. It is not any poisonous qual- 
ity in the microbes themselves that accomplishes the damage — for with a few excep- 
tions they are entirely harmless to the human system — but their growth, multiplica- 
tion and life in food, change and break down its chemical structure and render it 
unsuitable and finally unlit for use. Cold storage retards the growth of all micro- 
organisms, and canning may be briefly described as the science of destroying by 
sterilization all those contained in the food used, and preventing by hermetical seal- 
ing the entrance of any others. 

Special articles on each of these three classes of microbes will be found under their 
respective titles — Bacteria, Molds, Yeasts. 

The word "mold" is not an accepted botanical expression, but it is employed as 
a useful term, widely used and understood, for describing the thread-like, branching 
fungi, the largest of the micro-organisms referred to in this article, which produce 
"moldiness." "Yeast" and "Bacteria," as here employed, are true botanical terms. 

MIDDLINGS : coarse particles of the wheat grain, the residual product in the "bolt- 
ing" of flour. It was formerly used only as stock feed, but is now recognized as the 
most valuable part of the grain because of its high percentage of gluten. See Farina. 

MIGNONETTE PEPPER: a term applied to peppercorns coarsely ground. 

MILK. The value of milk as an article ol food is clearly shown by the fact that it 
is sufficient to support, and to increase the growth of, the young of every species of 
mammalia. Examined by a microscope, it is seen as a transparent fluid in which float 
numbers of extremely minute transparent globules, consisting of fat surrounded by 
an albuminous envelope — its whitish, almost opaque appearance is an optical illusion. 

Cow's milk — which is in this country exclusively understood by the general 
title of "milk," though in some parts of the world the milk of goats, ewes, mares and 
various other animals forms an important part of the human diet — varies in compo- 
sition from 84% to 90% water and 10% to 16% "solids." The solids include from 2% 
to 7'< fat, 2i 2 % to 4i/ 2 % casein, 2% to $7< 
sugar, a small amount of albumin, and small 
quantities of "ash" or salts of various kinds. 

The Fat when extracted is what we know 
as Butter. The Casein is the main principle of 
Cheese. The Sugar, or "lactose," has the same 
chemical composition as the ordinary sugar of 
commerce, but is not so sweet. 

The law generally requires from 3% to 
ZWl fat, and 8% to 0% of other solids. U. 8. 
Standa7-d Milk contains not less than st{_,% of 
solids not fat, nor loss than 314% of milk fat. 
Some milks will reach a fat percentage of 10%, 
but this is very unusual, the amount rarely ex- 
ceeding 7%. The mixed milk of a large cream- 
ery seldom goes above 5% or below 3%. 




A Milk Pasteurizer 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 385 

Pasteurized Milk is milk that has been heated — below boiling but to a degree suf- 
ficiently high to kill all pathogenic bacteria — and immediately cooled to 50° Fahr. or 
lower, to retard the development of any remaining organisms. 

Sterilized Milk is milk that has been heated to the temperature of boiling water, 
or higher, and held at that point long enough to kill all organisms present, or that has 
been repeatedly pasteurized. 

Modified or Blended Milk is milk modified in its composition so as to have a defi- 
nite and stated percentage of one or more of its constituents. 

Cream is milk containing a large percentage of the fat globules, generally from 
15% to 25%. It is obtained by centrifugal separation or by permitting the globules 
to rise by leaving the milk undisturbed for a number of hours. 

Skim Milk is that from which a part or all of the cream (fat) has been removed. 
U. S. Standard Skim Milk contains not less than 9*4% of milk solids. 

"Sour Milk" is the result of the formation of lactic acid by the development of 
lactic bacteria (see article on Bacteria). In spite of the general prejudice against it, 
it is a thoroughly wholesome drink, for the lactic acid prevents for a time the action 
of other bacteria which would speedily bring about putrefaction In Europe, milk 
is commonly soured in cellars for use, especially in summer, as a popular and refresh- 
ing beverage. 

Buttermilk (which see) is the product that remains when butter is removed from 
milk or cream in the process of churning. 

Milk Tests. Generally speaking, pure milk is of a slightly yellowish-white color, 
with little or no odor, and of a distinctly sweet and fresh taste. If allowed to stand 
for several hours, cream should rise naturally and should form from one-eighth to 
one-fifth of the total volume, and no sediment should be left in the vessel. In "rich" 
milk the proportion of cream may be as high as one-quarter. When poured from a 
tumbler, the milk should cling to the glass a little instead of running off clean like 

Artificial coloring generally consists of annatto or coal-tar dyes. If any consid- 
erable quantity is used, its presence can generally be detected by noting the appear- 
ance of the milk when the cream has risen in the bottle. The natural color of milk 
is confined largely to the cream and there is consequently a noticeable difference 
between the color of the pure cream and that of the milk below it — the latter pre- 
sents a bluish tinge. Artificial colors will generally tint also the milk below the cream. 

There are several instruments in use to detect adulteration and ascertain the 
comparative richness of milk, prominent among them being the Lactometer and the 
Babcock Test (which see), but trained judgment is necessary to obtain conclusive 
results because of the variation in milk from different sources and at different seasons. 

Care of Milk. Milk should be kept at a low temperature, below 50° Fahr., and apart 
from all articles of strong smell. Every receptacle employed in handling it should 
be scrupulously clean. The necessity for absolute cleanliness in its care should 
be impressed particularly upon those who have the care of children. 

Many glass jars are sent to the grocer's for milk with a dingy coating on the 
inside — this is inviting sickness. Glass receptacles of any kind which have held milk, 
should be first thoroughly rinsed in cold water and then washed in hot water to which 
a little ammonia has been added. 

See also article on Condensed Milk. 



MILK CHOCOLATE. See article on Cocoa and Chocolate. 

MILK POWDER: is desiccated milk, either "whole" or "skim," sold in bulk and 
canned. It is used principally by bakers and manufacturers of milk chocolate. 
"Whole milk" powder contains from 25% to 27% fat, 30% to 32% protein and 30% to 
32% milk sugar. 

MILK SUGAR: is made from the whey obtained from cheese factories, or by 
coagulating skim milk. The whey is digested with aluminum hydroxide and chalk 
and then filtered, the liquid obtained being concentrated to a syrup and stood in 
copper-lined tubs to crystallize, chips of wood being added to and immersed in it. The 
crystals which are deposited on the chips are considered the finest quality; those form- 
ing on the sides of the vessel are secondary in commercial importance. Milk sugar is 
produced principally in Switzerland and is largely used in the preparation of homeo- 
pathic remedies and in infants' foods. 

MILK WEED or Milk Vetch: the general title of a widely distributed family of 
plants, growing wild in many sections, whose young shoots and leaves are excellent 
cooked as "greens." The shoots are generally marketed in bundles like asparagus. 
They are best in the early spring and are especially tender if blanched or grown in 
shady locations. 

MILLET: is the smallest of the grains but is very abundant in product, each plant hav- 
ing a number of stalks and a single head sometimes giving two 
ounces of seed. Common Millet, the variety chiefly cultivated 
in this country, is broadly divided into Brown and Yellow grain. 
The former, used in the same manner as rice, makes good pud- 
dings, but the greater part of the domestic crop of all types is 
used as green fodder. The ripe seeds are also valuable as poul- 
t rj food. 

Imported millet — in Germany and Italy consumed in large 
quantities in soups and other forms — is of smaller grain types 
than Common Millet. The Yellow Italian is used here to some 
extenl for puddings, but the bulk of the supply is retailed as food 
for cage birds. 

Another variety, known as Guinea Maize, is common in Peru, furnishing there 
white flour of very pleasing flavor. 

MILT: the soft (male) roe of fish. 

MINCE-MEAT. The season for mince-meat opens about October 1, and continues as 
long as the cold weather. It is important to have a supply on hand before the actual 
demand sets in, rather than after it. In common with all mixed articles, it may be 
variously prepared, and much that is offered is so poor that most families prefer to 
prepare their own supplies. Several leading manufacturers, however, put up goods 
which cannot be excelled— their fruit is cleaned and handled by machinery and the 
other components also are selected and prepared with scrupulous exactness. Such 
products may be recommended as a great convenience under many circumstances. 

Mill. 'I 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 387 

MINERAL WATERS: are waters which contain unusually large quantities of the 
ordinary mineral ingredients, or contain minerals not generally found in ordinary 
water. They are roughly divided into "table" and "medicinal," but the division is not 
exact, as many of the milder and more delicate types are used for both purposes. 

Tabic Mineral Waters are those which have little or no pronounced flavor and 
are only sufficiently alkaline to counteract to a certain extent the acids of wines, etc. 
Among the best known are Apollinaris, Clysmic, Poland Spring, Perrier, White Rock, 
etc. A greater proportion of mineral ingredients detracts from the palatable flavor 
of the water and also renders it unsuitable for mixing with wines, as it gives the 
beverage a "flat" taste. 

Table mineral waters generally constitute an especially satisfactory line for retail 
grocers, both in margin of profit and because they draw a good class of trade. They 
are easy to handle if kept in a cool place and laid on their sides. 

Medicinal Mineral Waters are those employed in the treatment of various dis- 
orders and diseases. They have been used as remedial agents from a very early period — 
the old Greek physicians had great faith in their curative powers, and the temples 
erected to Aesculapius were usually in close proximity to mineral springs. They may 
be generally classed as Alkaline-Saline, Carlsbad, Marienbad, etc.; Alkaline, Vichy, 
etc.; Muriated, Saratoga, Kissingen, etc.; Miniated Alkaline, Selters, etc.; Lithia; 
"Bitter" Pullna, etc. (named from the flavors of their chief ingredients, sulphates of 
soda and magnesia). Chalybeate (containing iron) and Earthy (bicarbonates of lime 
and magnesia predominating). 

The medical qualities of various mineral waters are undeniable — plainly so in the 
case of purgative waters and those containing lithia and iron — but the apparent effi- 
cacy of many kinds is attributable chiefly to the fact that in "taking the waters," 
visitors to the "springs" are drinking large quantities of innocuous liquid — stimulated 
to its free use by the example of others, local medical advice, etc. The result is fre- 
quently a very desirable improvement in physical condition, but the same pur- 
pose might have been achieved at home by the consumption of an equal quantity of 
ordinary pure water! 

Artificial Mineral Waters are, if properly made, chemically correct reproductions 
of the waters whose names they bear. If from a first-class house they can be fully 
recommended, but it is wise to avoid dealing with irresponsible "mineral water" con- 
cerns, for their product is too often a fraud on both dealer and consumer. 

The following list names the sources and principal ingredients of a majority of 
the best known waters, both table and medicinal : 

Aix-la-Chapelle, from warm springs at Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia. Contains a 
considerable percentage of common salt and other sodium salts and sulphur. 

Aix-les-Baixs, from warm springs at Aix-les-Bains, Savoy, France. Contains mag- 
nesium, calcium and sodium (sulphates and carbonates). Employed externally for 
skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, etc. 

Apexta, an aperient water from the Apenta Springs, near Budapest. Hungary. 
Its principal constituents are sulphates of magnesia and soda. Sold both sparkling 
and still. 

Aporj.ix.vRis, an effervescent table water from the Apollinaris Spring, Ahr Valley, 
Rhenish Prussia. Drawn from a rocky source at a depth of 50 feet. 

Ballston Spa. from Ballston. N. Y. An effervescent water, tonic and cathar- 
tic, containing common salt and carbonates of magnesium and calcium. 

3gg THE grocer's encyclopedia 

Bear-Lithia, from Bear-Lithia Springs, Va. Contains carbonates of calcium and 
magnesium, etc. Used both as a table water and in the treatment of kidney trouble. 
° Bethesda, from Waukesha, Wis. Effervescent and mildly impregnated. Used as 
a table water and as a diuretic. 

Blue Lick, from Blue Lick Springs, Ky. Contains sulphur and salt and possesses 
cathartic properties. 

Bokert, from Bokert Springs, De Soto County, Missouri. Used in the treatment 
of kidney trouble. 

Buffalo Lithia, from Buffalo Lithia Springs, Va. Contains sulphuric anhy- 
dride, lithia, etc. Used in the treatment of digestive and kidney disorders, etc. 

C a rlsb ad, from warm springs in Carlsbad, Bohemia. Sulphated and strongly 
charged with carbon-dioxide. Employed for rheumatism, gout, etc. 

Clysmic, from Waukesha, Wis. A sparkling table water of which calcium car- 
bonate is the chief ingredient. Also used as a diuretic. 

Contrexeville, from Contrexeville, France. A light mineralized water, contain- 
ins sodium, maernesium and calcium. Used as a laxative and diuretic. 

Friedrichshall, from Saxony, Germany. Contains sodium, magnesium and cal- 
cium. Used as a tonic and mild purgative. 

Hathorn. See Saratoga. 

Hunyadi Janos. from Budapest, Hungary. Contains sodium and magnesium sul- 
phates and possesses cathartic properties. 

Johannis-Lithia, from Zollhaus, Rhenish Prussia. Contains an average of two 
grains of lithia to a quart. Used in the treatment of kidney disorders, etc. 

Kissingen, from Kissengen, Bavaria. A slightly laxative water used for disorders 
of the liver and the alimentary canal. 

Londonderry-Lithia, from Londonderry Lithia Springs, N. H. Used as a table 
water and in the treatment of kidney troubles. Sold both sparkling and still. 

Manitou, from Manitou Springs, Colo. Impregnated with alkalies and iron. 
Used as a tonic and cathartic. 

Marienbad, from Marienbad, Bohemia. Used in the same way as Carlsbad. 

Perrier, an effervescent table water from springs near Vergaze, in the south of 

Poland Spring, from South Poland, Me. Only slightly mineral. Used as a table 
water and as a diuretic. 

Ptjllna, a strongly purgative Bohemian water. 

Rhens, an effervescent, mildly alkaline table water from Rhens-on-the-Rhine. 

Richfield Springs, from Richfield Springs, N. Y. Contains sulphur and is used 
in the treatment of skin diseases, rheumatism, etc. 

Rubinat-Condal, from the Spanish Pyrenees. The principal ingredient is sodium, 
with minor quantities of magnesium and calcium. Used as an aperient. 

Saratoga, a general name for a number of waters from Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
including Hathorn, etc., some used for tonic and others for laxative purposes. 

Seeters or Seltzer, from Nieder-Selters, Prussia. Contains chiefly common salt 
and smaller quantities of carbonates of magnesium, calcium and sodium. 

Sharon Springs, from Sharon Springs, N. Y. A sulphur water used for the treat- 
ment of skin diseases, rheumatism, etc. 

St. Galmier, an effervescent table water from St. Galmier, Canton of Loire, 
France. The principal mineral ingredients are sodium and calcium. 


TAUNUS Spuing. Sometimes used as a class name for a number of mineral waters 
from the Taunus Mountains, Germany, including Ems, Wiesbaden, Selters, etc. 

Teplitz, from warm springs at Teplitz, Austria. The most noteworthy prin- 
ciple is carbonate of sodium, with traces of magnesium ami iron. 

Yals, from Vals, France. Contains sodium, calcium ami magnesium. Used in the 
treatment of dyspepsia ami skin diseases and as a diuretic. 

Vichy, from warm springs in Vichy, France. Contains sodium, potassium and cal- 
cium, etc., and minute quantities of arsenic and iron. Used in the treatment of rheu- 
matism, kidney and intestinal disorders, etc. 

Vittel, from Vittel, France. Used both as a medicinal water and for special 
baths. There are three main springs — the water of La Grande Source is used as a 
diuretic; that of Marie, as a purgative, and of Des Demoiselles, as a tonic. 

White Sulphub Springs, from White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. A sulphur water 
employed in the treatment of skiu diseases, catarrhal disorders of the digestion, etc. 

Wiesbaden, from warm springs in Wiesbaden, Prussia. Contains a considerable 
percentage of saline matter and is employed for skin diseases, gout, etc. 

Yellow Sulphub Spbings, from Yellow Sulphur Springs, Va. A cathartic water 
containing lime salts and sulphates. 

White Rock, an effervescent table water from Waukesha, "Wis. 

MINT: a general name for a large number of perennial plants, the best known of 
which are Peppermint, Spearmint and Pennyroyal, cultivated chiefly for the essential 
nil which contains their aromatic and medicinal principles. 

About 90% of the supply of Peppt rmint and Spearmint oils is 
produced and distilled in an area which has the city of Kalama- 
zoo, Mich., for its center and within a seventy-five miles radius from 
that city. Their chief uses are in medicine, confectionery, chew- 
ing-gum, liqueurs (as Crerrn de Wenthe), etc. The annual consump- 
tion of Peppermint is about 300,000 pounds; that of Spearmint 
about 25.000 pounds. Spearmint leaves are also used for mint- 
sauce and other culinary purposes and for the flavoring of bever- 
ages such as Mint Julep. 

Pennyroyal was at one time extensively employed medicinally. 
but it is now grown only in comparatively small quantities and is 
used almost exclusively for seasoning. 

For oil extraction, the plants are cut down when mature and 
in full bloom, and allowed to cure like hay. They go next into 
large wooden vats through which steam is forced, the heal ruptur- 
ing the oil cells and permitting the oil to escape with the steam. 
The oil is separated after the condensation of the steam. 

Dried /Mint is retailed in packages, bottles and cans. It should always be kept 
in a dry place. 

Mint is easily grown under almost any conditions and is a heavy producer — a lied 
three feet square will give a surprisingly large quantity. If to be used as a dried herb, 
It is best to cut the stalks just prior to full bloom and to spread them out in a shady 
location where rhev can dry slowly. 


Mint Extract. U. S. Standard mint extract contains not less than :'.'-' of mint oil. 


MIXED-PICKLES: a vinegar pickle which includes a variety of vegetables, as cauli- 
flower, onions, etc. 

MOCK TURTLE (thick) : a strong flavored soup now sold in cans, containing diced 
a lf> s i„" ;11 l meat, etc., in a thickened brown soup stock, flavored with various vege- 
tables lierbs and spices, lemon juice, Madeira or sherry, etc. Clear Mock-Turtle is 
similar in flavor and character ingredients, but the liquid is of consomme type. 

MOLASSES: is the syrup, or, as it is termed in the districts where it is manufac- 
tured, the "mother-water," that is separated from the crystals or grains of "raw 
si,.. ■;„■■• in the process of manufacture (see article on Sugar). It is also widely, but 
incorrectly, applied to burnt Sugar-house Syrup or "black-strap," the uncrystallizable 
residue left alter boiling molasses to extract additional sugar from it. U. 8. 
Standard Molasses contains not more than 25% water nor more than 5% ash. 

The qualilv of molasses depends on the color, strength and treatment of the raw 
sugar from which it is obtained. The best is that from sugar made from the first 
. pops collected previous to the copious periodical rains which occur where the cane 
is cultivated. It is generally of dark-brown color, but the best grades, those pro- 
duced in St. Croix, Barbados, Antigua, Porto Kico and Louisiana, are of bright amber 
tint. The choicest qualities are listed commercially by the name of the place of 
production ; ordinary types are graded as "open-kettle," prime, good, fair, common, etc. 

In addition to Us consumption in its natural condition and in various degrees of 
refining, large quantities of molasses are used in the manufacture of rum. 

MOLASSES SUGAR: a trade term for the sugar obtained by boiling the molasses 
separated in the first manufacture of "raw sugar" (see article on Sugar). 

MOLD, or Mould: the common name for several varieties of minute, thread-like fungi 
which reproduce themselves by spores or seed dust. They grow on almost anything 
that is moist or damp and secluded from direct light-rays, but they flourish best on 
soft articles, such as bread, cheese, fruits, etc., which permit the threads to strike 
down into them. On harder substances, such as leather, they achieve only a stunted 
growth and are then popularly known as "mildew." Dampness, warmth and seclu- 
sion are the principal incentives for their growth — so dryness, low temperature and 
good air circulation form the best preventives. 

Molds especially favor acid foods, hence their predilection for many fruits and 
the fact that even pickles put up in strong vinegar will mold if exposed to the air, 
though they are, until "moldy," entirely exempt from the growth of yeasts or bacteria. 

Absolutely dry foods, as flour, crackers, etc., kept in a dry temperature, afford 
no soil for Molds — but any moisture in the air will speedily render them liable to 

Special varieties of Mold are used in the ripening of Brie, Camembert, Gorgon- 
zola. Roquefort, Stilton and similar cheese, but with this exception, they are not gen- 
erally employed in the manufacture or preparation of food. Their propagation and 
growth — as of all micro-organisms — should always in any event be prevented by 
retailers and in the household. 

During their firsl growth, Molds are generally soft and fluffy in appearance and 
white in color. As they develop and the threads stretch down into the article in 


which they have taken root and branch out in ail directions, the surface and other 
parts most affected soon present a dense mass. When they commence to "fruit" and 
lorm seeds, the general surface is changed to various colors — blue, brown, white, etc. 
— the most common being the bluish-green of the Blue Mold which particularly 
affects bread, cheese and other foods, as well as many other articles. 

If allowed to continue its growth, Mold destroys the food by its own consumption 
and with the aid of bacteria, but in its early stages it does not render it unwholesome. 
The appearance of decay and the musty smell are unpleasant to the eye and nose, but 
Mold has not the putrefactive qualities of bacterial life and if the affected part 
is removed before the growth has continued too long and the remainder is subjected 
to baking or boiling, according to individual circumstances, the food can often be 
saved for use. 

Mold spore is present everywhere. Moderately dry food can be saved from its 
growth by the exercise of proper care, unless the climate or surroundings are 
especially damp, but articles such as fruits, which are inherently moist and which 
cannot be frozen without injury, are very difficult to hold in a raw condition for 
any considerable length of time. Cold storage is the only sure protection, and then 
in many cases for only a limited term. 

Thick-skinned fruits, such as apples, oranges, etc., may be kept for a compara- 
tively long time without cold storage facilities if the conditions are favorable — if they 
have not been bruised, so as to let the mold get through the skin, if the cellar or other 
storage place is dry, cool and well ventilated, and if imperfect fruits are promptly 
removed and others are occasionally wiped off to remove mold spores and sweat. All 
these precautions are, though, insufficient for thin-skinned fruits, and the last is, of 
course, impracticable in the case of berries and other small fruits, the only recourse 
being to consume them as fresh as possible or to make them into sauces, jams or some 
other form of preserves. 

MOLLUSC A: a division of the animal kingdom, which includes all invertebrate 

shellfish (see Shellfish). 

MOOR-FOWL: a bird of the grouse family, also known as the Red Grouse. It 
is about the size of a small bantam hen, with upper plumage a dee]! varying olive- 
brown, front of scarlet and under-parts of grey and white, shading to pure white 
under the tail. 

MOREL: an edible fungus, botanically of the truffle family, but from its habit of 
growth generally classed as a mushroom (see Mushrooms). 

MORTADELLI: a large, smoked Italian sausage. See Sausages. 

MOSELLE WINES. See article on Rhine and Moselle Winks. 

MOSS: a class of small herbaceous plants, the term being generally applied to a 
number growing together in a mass. The title is also popularly extended to similar 
growths of other types, particularly to some Lichens and Seaweeds, 

Anion? the "mosses" valuable as food, the best known are Iceland Moss i which 
see), a lichen; Ceylon Moss (see Kantexi and Irish Moss (see Carragheen), 



the lasl two being seaweeds. "Moss" or "Sea .Moss" Farina is a prepared granulated 

I in which lichen or seaweed is the principal ingredient. 

Muss is als.i employed by cooks and confectioners instead of isinglass, and by 
painters to make their size. 

MOULD: a popular spelling of Mold (which see). 

MUCILAGE: ii 11 adhesive substance prepared from the exudations of various trees 
and plains (see Gum), from linseed, marshmallow roots, onions, etc., by the addition 
generally of an alkali solution. The same r.esult can be obtained by long boiling in 


A very serviceable mucilage can easily he made from onion juic< — after a short 
boiling, a good-sized Spanish onion will readily yield on pressure a large quantity 
..I' very adhesive fluid. This product is used extensively in various trades for pasting 
paper on tin or zinc or even glass, its tenacity being surprisingly great and equalling 
the result of many of the more costly patent cements. Sonic of the cements sold by 
street fakirs at ten cents a bottle consist of nothing but onion juice and water — 
the bottle and cork cost a greal deal more than the contents! 

MUGWORT: a rail perennial herb 
with woolly leaves, formerly popular. 
both fresh and dried, as seasoning and for 
flavoring beverages. 

MULBERRY: a berry very popular in 
Europe and very plentiful, but not quite 
so highly considered in this country. It 
is both wholesome ami agreeable eaten 
iaw. and is excellent for cooking, especi- 
ally when mixed with some more acid 
fruit as apples, rhubarb, etc.. in pies and 

The Common or Black Mulberry, of 
which the big French Black Mulberry is 
the highesl type, is a low tree of bushy 
growth, the fruit purplish-black, with 
dark red juice, decidedly aromatic and of 
sub-acid sweet flavor. 

Another desirable variety is the cul- 
tivated Red .Mulberry. 

The White Mulberry has not the tine 
flavor of the other two varieties, but it is 
widely grown for silk worm food, its 
leaves being generally preferred to those 
of the Black ami Red t pees 

i, Black Mulberry 

MULLET. There are two principal varieties of the fish known as Mullet — the Red 
he Grey or "Xtripcfl." The former, so named for the coppery color of the upper 


part of its body, is found most plentifully in the Indo-Pacific, but also to some 
extent in Europe, where ii is so highly considered for its firm, lean and delicious 
riesli that it brings high prices. It has indeed always been esteemed one of the 

epicure's greatest luxuries— in ancient R< > it was held in the most extravagant 

regard among wealthy patricians, good-sized specimens frequently fetching the value 
of their weight in gold. 

The Grey Mullet, with upper body of -rev or greenish hue, is less delicate in 
flavor and larger in size, averaging from five to six pounds markel weight and reach- 
ing ten to twelve on maturity. In this country it is found on the Atlantic Coast and 
is in season from June to October. 

MULLIGATAWNY: a highly seasoned, thick. East-Indian-type soup, of which 
curry-powder is the essential "character" ingredient. Meats, vegetables, mango chut- 
ney, cocoanut flesh, rice, cayenne pepper, etc, are variously employed and blended to 
suit the ideas of the cook or canner. The title is derived from two native words 
signifying "pepper water." 

MUM: a strong sweetish beer, named after one Mumme, a brewer of Brunswick, 
Germany, who introduced it in the year 1492. It was a beverage of general European 
popularity until toward the close of the seventeenth century and is still largely con- 
sumed in Germany, especially in Brunswick. 

MUSCADIN, or Bullace Grape: the cultivated Fox <lr<i/n. tin- largest variety of 
American grape, growing freely in the Southern States and Mexico. The highesl type 
is the SCUPPERNONG (which seel. 

MUSCALLONGE, Maskalonge, Maskinotige : a large fresh-water fish resembling the 

pike, frequently weighing forty pounds and upward, in season 
from June to December. The White Muscallonge is generally 

^^k considered the choicer, hut some people prefer the somewhat 
^^ ^^ coarser flesh of the Yellow variety. 

MUSCAT, Muscatel: a rich -rape, variously employed — for table purposes, both 
fresh and as raisins, and in wine and brandy manufacture. There are many varieties 
under cultivation, both "white" and red, the former being the more common. 

The title is also applied to numerous sweet, strong, generally aromatic wines, 
varying in color from pale to tawny, prepared either wholly or in part from Muscat 
grapes — in France (see Rivesaltes), Italy. Austria-Hungary, Greece, Spain, United 
States and many other countries. 

There is also a fine variety of pear known by the same title 

MUSCOVADO SUGAR: a trade designation for the "raw sugar" separated from 
cane juice other than by centrifugal machines i see article on Sugar). 

MUSH: the name generally given in cornmeal porridge, either eaten hot or left to 
cool and afterwards fried in slices. It is now prepared and supplied i" the trade in 
tin pans holding about five pounds each. As the store article insures against lumpi- 
ness, burning, etc. the product enjoys a good sale in some sections. 


MUSHROOMS: both in their own varieties and by general custom, in this country 
especially, present a curiously interesting study in contradictions. By the quantities 
which grow wild, and by the ease with which they may be raised, they would seem 
id be a food especially useful to the poor — instead, it is chiefly the well-to-do who eat 
them. They are overlooked or distrusted by country residents who can have them for 
the picking — yet epicures and the wealthier classes in the cities pay high prices for 
them and consider them delicious luxuries! 

The general explanation is, that the majority are afraid of mushrooms because of 
the poisonous fungi which resemble them — yet many tribes of savages who are certainly 
not more intelligent in other respects, appreciate them and devour them in great quan- 
tities — the natives of Terra del Fuego, for example, live almost exclusively on mush- 
rooms and fish. 

Again, though mushrooms have been cultivated for at least two thousand years, 
and have been for generations raised in enormous and ever-increasing quantities in 
France, Italy, Russia, Australia, New Zealand and other countries, for home 
consumption and export, it is only within recent years that intelligible information 
concerning their growth has been generally obtainable here — there existed formerly 
an air of mystery on the subject, as though mushroom cultivation were a cross 
between accident and magic! England has been under a similar blight of misinfor- 
mation and prejudice, though not to quite the same extent as this country. 

Eastern countries are the greatest per capita consumers, with Japan and China 
well in the lead. Japan made an attractive exhibit of many varieties at the Chicago 
World's Fair, and both Japan and China export dried mushrooms to the United States 
and Europe. 

The general title of "mushrooms" is here used, as popularly employed, to cover 
all kinds of edible fungi except truffles, though they vary considerably in shape, size 
and color. They are found in nearly all temperate regions and in every part of the 
world, growing wild most freely in the spring and autumn — in forests, orchards, 
vineyards and pastures. Many varieties are agreeable in flavor and rich in food value. 

The mushroom is not, as generally understood, the plant or fungus itself — it is 
the fruit of the growth which produces it and which remains underground — a white 
<>r bluish mold called mycelium or "spawn," a network mass of thin thread-like roots 
or underground stems. The mushroom or "fruit," when mature, diffuses a quantity 
of the powder or "spores," generally dark in color, by which the fungus extends its 
propagation. Artificial cultivation of the mushroom by "spores" is slow and uncer- 
tain, so the "spawn," which is sold in both "cake" and "flake" form, is used instead. 

Any place is suitable for cultivation which is moderately cool and moist, even in 
temperature and away from direct sunlight. A cellar is the best ordinary example, 
but growing on a large scale is generally done in caves, closed tunnels, abandoned 
quarries or specially constructed "mushroom houses" — usually wooden buildings 
partly below and partly above "round. The spawn is planted in beds of mixed 
manure and earth, with a final covering of the latter. When the crop is well under 
way, the beds are picked once or twice a day for every mushroom large enough for 
market, as they are choicer for eating before fully matured and while the "veil" over 
them is still unbroken — after that time they are generally used for catsup, etc. 

The following list briefly describes the principal edible varieties. The Orange. 
Brick Top, Rodman, Peppery Lactarius, Parasol. Ink Cap, Fain/ Club and Oyster 
Mushroom are shown on the half-tone page illustration opposite — as also the Puff 






Edible Fungi — see also Color Page opposite .*y> 


Ball described under its own heading. The Common Mushroom, Boletus, Cantharellus 
or ' hanterelle, Fairy Ring, Morel and I egetable Beefsteak are depicted on the accom- 
pany in- Color Page. 

i'hmmiin mi Cultivated Mushroom [Agaricus Campestris) : the most generally 
acceptable type in this country and England, and the common Champignon Comestible 
of i In' French canned product. It is found wild during the late summer and fall iu 
grassy places, manured ground, etc. — never in thick woods. The wild types grow either 
singly or in groups; bul the cultivated often form large tufts. The fruit consists of 
a central stalk, generally cream or white in color and from two to three inches in 
height, supporting a rounded, table-like cap, varying in the color of its upper surface 
from while to u deep brown. The under surface of the cap is marked with gill-like pro- 
ject ions, generally pink in the white or cream cap varieties, and grey-brown in the 
In-own kinds, changing in the former to brown and iu the latter to brownish-black 
—in dried specimens to almost or quite black. The flesh is white. It is served in 
many ways, both raw and cooked — being considered especially delicious broiled. 

Button Mushroom. The most highly valued of this class is the French Mous- 
xt run. the true type of which is the Champignon Muscat, of the Agaric family. 
It is of medium size, the stem short, thick, full and swelling at the base; the cap thick, 
whitish-yellow on top and covered with a very dry skin. It grows most freely in green- 
sward and on the outskirts of woods, and is one of the first to appear in the early 
spring. It is gathered when in the "button" or round stage and generally when the 
cait is quite small. On maturity it becomes bell-shaped. It is very pleasing in flavor 
anil is marked by a distinct musk aroma which it retains even after drying. 

Large quantities are imported, both dried and canned, in oil, etc., and there is an 
increasing out put of the home-grown product. Care should be taken to avoid over- 
cooking, as that destroys the musk odor. 

For lesser grades of "button" mushrooms, many other varieties of both Agarics 
and Gymnopes are gathered in the button stage. 

Orange (the French Oronge) or Orange Amanita (Amanita Caesarea) : a large 
variety with cap usually nearly flat on maturity and of orange color. It is found gen- 
erally in the sandy soil of thinly wooded districts during the summer and early fall and 
is distinguished from nearly all other edible varieties by the yellow color of its gills. 
The flesh is while with occasional yellow stains and of delicate and pleasing flavor. It 
grows abundantly in Southern Europe and is imported here canned in oil. 

The Orange Amanita lias been accounted a delicacy for centuries — as far back as 
the days of the Roman Empire. 

BOLETUS (the French Cepes). The several varieties of the Boletus family of 
fungi are distinguished from the ordinary mushroom principally by small tubes or 
holes taking the place of the gills under the cap. They find much favor in France 
and Germany, and -row freely in this country also. Among the best of the types 
commonly found are the Granulated Boletus, named for the small brown granules 
don in- the stem— the cap. which is from one and a half to four inches broad, varying 
widely iu co|,,r: the Rough Stemmed Hot, his. the stem roughened with small promi- 
neiii reddish or blackish dots or scales, the cap varying from white to nearly black, 
and the Edible Boletus, one of the largest kinds, the cap, of varying color, 
ranging up to six indies broad. All three types find much favor in France and Ger- 
many, and the last named is imported in considerable quantities, chiefly from France, 

(1) Common Mushroom (4) Cantharellus (21 Morel 

(3> "Vegetable Beefsteak" C5) Boletus 6 "Fairy Ring" Mushrooms 



preserved in olive oil, sauces, etc., being generally known by the French title of Cepes. 
It is noted for its strong flavor. 

Chantaeelle : a variety of the Cantharellus family, which grows in nearly every 
part of the world and has always been highly esteemed in Europe. Its cap, generally 
convex but sometimes riat and even centrally depressed, is of varying and irregular 
shape, but it is distinguished by its beautiful, rich reddish-yellow or egg-yellow color, 
which extends to all parts of the plant except the white inner flesh. The Liills are in 
the form of shallow folds growing down the stem. It is most commonly found in the 
woods in groups, but also often in open grounds. 

Morel, H orchella (the French Mori lie) : most frequently found in forests and 
woodland swamps. It is known by its rather conical, deeply honey-combed, light yel- 
lowish-brown head, growing darker with age. It is excellent — tender ami sweet — 
either stewed as a vegetable or iu sauces, etc. Its principal types are the Common, 
Delicious, Tioo-Spored, Conical and Narrow Cap. Though here described among mush- 
room types, tlie "morel" botanically is more nearly allied to the truffle type -of fungus. 

Brick Top or Reddish Mushroom (Hypholoma Sublateritium) : resembling the 
Common Mushroom somewhat in general contour, but with stem generally longer and 
top more rounded and of a reddish color with pale yellow border. The ijills change 
from creamy to olive. The flesh is creamy and of a pronounced almond flavor. 

Rodman's Mushroom (Agaricus Rodmani) : similar in many respects to the 
Common Mushroom. The cap is creamy, with brownish spots; the gills change from 
white to pink and then to dark brown; the stem is short, fleshy and thick, and the 
flesh is white with pinkish tint and of pleasing flavor. It is most frequently found 
during May, June and July in grassy grounds. 

LACTARIUS: a genus marked by the milky or colored juice which exudes from tin' 
-ills when broken. The Peppery Lactarius has a creamy- white fleshy cap, from three 
to ten inches in width, depressed toward the center. The gills are creamy white and 
exude a white milk when bruised. The flesh is lighter in color than the surface of the 
cap and is peppery in flavor and somewhat aromatic. Its favorite habitat is wood- 
land during the summer. Another common type is the Orange Mill- Mushroom or 
Delicious Lactarius, found in woods and damp mossy places. When young, its cap is 
convex, but as it matures it heroines flat and sometimes funnel shaped. In color, it 
is a mottled orange. The flesh is white tinged with orange, firm, delicate and nutri- 
tious, and the "milk" is orange colored. In size it varies, in the cap, from two to five 
inches in diameter. 

Horse or Field Mushroom {Agaricus Arvensis) : resembles the Common Mush- 
room, but averages larger and may be distinguished by its hollow, somewhat bulbous 
stem. The cap when dried is apt to assume a yellowish hue. 

Parasol Mushroom or Tall Lepiota (Lepiota Procera). The cap, on top of a 
long stem with a bulbous base, is shaped like an open umbrella, the upper surface, 
three to five inches in diameter, covered With small scales and of a brownish, spotted 
appearance with a dark center. The flesh is thin, white and soft. 

Ink Cads or Inky Coprinus [CopHnus Atramentarius) . The genus Coprinus 
are readily distinguished by their oblong caps, which do not open until they are about 
to dissolve into the inky fluid which gives them their popular name. They should he 
gathered before thev show any sign of expanding and must he cooked without delay, 

102 the grocer's encyclopedia 

their flesh then being decidedly palatable. They are harmless even in the inky stage, 
but they do not present an attractive appearance by any means! The life of the Ink 
Cap above ground is very brief — it pushes through the soil in great numbers and 
develops and dissolves very rapidly. 

Faiky Ring Mushroom, Marasmius Oreades (the French Mousseron d'automne) : 
a small variety found principally in the autumn, in meadows, on lawns, etc., in wet 
weather or after heavy rains. It is so called because of its habit of growing in rings 
or circles. When young, the cap, from one to two inches in diameter, is reddish, yel- 
lowish-red or yellowish-brown, becoming paler in maturing or as its moisture evapo- 
rates. When dry, it is generally of a buff color. Its flesh is inclined to be tough 
except when fresh or young, but careful cooking makes it very palatable — broiled, 
pickled, in sauces, etc 

In many parts of France, the Fairy Ring is popularly known as the "False Mous- 
seron" or "Fall Mousseron," because of its similarity in shape of cap to the Mous- 
seron type (see Button Mushrooms, preceding). 

Fairy Clubs and Corals. The genus Clavariaceae includes a number of fleshy, 
club-shaped and coral-like fungi, many of which are edible. Some of them are very 
beautiful, showing the most delicate shades of pink, yellow, violet, etc. They range 
from very small to several inches in height. 

Tree Mushrooms. The most famous of tree fungi is the Liver Fistulixa (Fistulina 
Hepatica), commonly known in Europe as "Oak Tongue," "Beefsteak Fungus," 
"Vegetable Beefsteak," "Beef Tongue," etc. Its cap, varying from two to six inches 
and more in breadth, has, when young, a rough reddish surface which reminds one of 
beef tongue, and the flesh is streaked with red and gives a reddish juice. Its taste 
when cooked bears a distinct resemblance to meat, ami it yields a rich, brown gravy. 

Another valuable variety is that known as the Elm Tree Pleurotus, which grows, 
attached by a side stem, most freely on stumps and dead branches, etc., of elm trees, 
though also found on other trees, such as the maple and poplar. Its cap, two to five 
inches broad, is generally whitish, often with a central tinting of reddish or brownish 
yellow. The flesh of young fruits is white, moderately tender and of agreeable flavor. 

Of the same family is the Oyster Mushroom {Pleurotus Ostreatus), somewhat shell 
shaped, white or ashy or light brown on the upper surface and white or ashy on the 
under-parts. with white, rather tough, flesh. It grows on dead trees and wood, gen- 
erally in the early fall, attached by a short side stem or directly to the wood without 
any stem at all. The shells vary in size, with a maximum width of about four inches. 

A fourth important fungus of similar character is the Sulphury Polyporus. 
growing on wood and trees and in the open country. It is easily recognized by its 
clustered mode of growth and orange or yellow color. The caps are often five to six 
inches broad, overlapping each other in tufts or clusters. The flesh is about half an 
inch thick ami sufr and juicy when young. 

Gathering, Preparation, Etc. It is easy for the experienced person to distinguish 
edible from poisonous fungi, but it is well for the novice to confine himself to those 
types with which he is familiar, even at the cost of rejecting some good varieties. It 
- w isest, in spite of the exceptions noted in the foregoing list, for him to discard all 
those which are brightly colored, which change color considerably when cut or broken, 
which have yellow gills or give a milky juice. He should also always avoid any specimen 

THE grocer's encyclopedia 403 

of any kind which is infested by insects or in any degree decomposed, and should not 
collect mushrooms in the "button" stage, as when undeveloped it is more difficult to 
distinguish between those which are edible and those which are not. Morels and puff 
balls are safe to experiment with, as there are no poisonous varieties resembling them. 

Receipts for preparing the "ordinary" mushroom are given in all cook-books. 

Agarics, which include the Common, Eodman's, Horse, or "Field," and choice 
qualities of Button mushrooms, and Orange Amanitas, require only moderate cook- 
ing. Chantarelles and Morels, on the other hand, require long cooking — Chantarelles 
should also previously be soaked in warm milk for several hours. Lactarius should be 
soaked in a vinegar solution for several hours before cooking. 

MUSKMELONS. See descriptive matter in general article on Melons. 

MUSKRAT: a small aquatic rodent found generally throughout North America, 
resembling the common rat in general appearance and the beaver in many of its habits. 
It averages the size of a small rabbit, its body attaining a length of 10 to 12 inches. 
Among its distinguishing characteristics are its partially webbed hind feet and its long 
scaly tail, laterally flattened. It is commercially valuable for its skin — dark brown 
fur above and greyish on the under-parts — -which within recent years has risen greatly 
in market value, the supply seldom equalling the demand for its manufacture into 
overcoats, etc. Its flesh also is worthy of consideration, for, properly prepared, it 
makes an agreeable dish. The most generally acceptable method is to soak it in salt 
water for an hour or so, or overnight, then to cut it up and slowly stew it with a 
small quantity of pork, cut in dice, a little onion, etc. A considerable number of the 
little animals are marketed in the larger cities, especially in Canada, under their own 
name and various other appellations. 

MUSSEL: an almond shaped shellfish, cheap and plentiful, found along the coasts. 
Many connoisseurs consider it as palatable as the oyster, but it has never yet attained 
full popular favor. It can be eaten raw like the oyster, but is generally cooked. 
Bottled pickled mussels have recently found some demand. 

MUST: the expressed juice of ripe grapes, before fermentation. The term is also 
sometimes applied to the newly fermented juice or young wine. 

MUSTARD. The mustard of general use as a condiment consists of the crushed 

seeds of the mustard plant, native to England but capable of almost 

universal cultivation. The mature plant ranges from three to six feet in 

height and has bright yellow flowers. There are two chief varieties — 

the White, producing smooth, pale-yellow seeds, and the Black, with 

seeds smaller, more irregular and dark brown on the outside — though 

also yellow inside. In trade circles, the products are distinguished as 

"Yellow" and "Brown," but there is little difference in composition, and 

the retail product is generally a mixture of the two. 

Mustard was used medicinally by the most celebrated physicians of 
antiquity. As a condiment, it dates from the latter pair of the six- 
teenth century, but it was little known until the year 1720 when an old 
woman of the name of Clements, residing in Durham, England, began 
to grind the seed in a mill and to pass the flour through the several 

Black Mustard 


processes necessary to-free ii from the husks. She kept her secret for many years, sell- 
in- large quantities throughout the country, especially in London. The product 
obtained the name of "Durham Mustard" from her residence in that city. 

The manufacture of mustard at first consisted essentially of grinding the seed into 
a \cr.\ fine flour, a bushel of seed weighing sixty pounds yielding twenty-eight to 
thirty pounds of Flour .Mustard. Manufacturers, however, soon discovered that they 
could please the public palate better by modifying the pungency of the flavor, and the 
result is that to-day it is made in a great variety of styles, each establishment follow- 
ing its own formula for mellowing, blending, mixing, etc. Genuine mustard is easily 
obtainable, hut it does not please the general taste as well as the prepared modified 

In moistening or "mixing" dry mustard, or mustard flour, two main objects 
must he kept in view — first, to obtain the desired consistence; second, to make it per- 
fect I v smooth. To produce these effects, add the liquid in small quantities and rub 
ami pound the mustard well witli a spoon. The simplest form of preparation consists 
of mustard flour, moistened with sufficient water to produce the consistence of thick 
batter, with half a teaspoonful of salt added for each two ounces of mustard flour. Some 
people like tine powdered sugar included in the same proportion as salt. Vinegar and 
olive oil can be used according to taste, but some cold water is necessary for the first 
mixing in order to develop the pungency. If for immediate use, milk or milk and 
cream may lie employed in place of either vinegar or oil. 

The greater part of the prepared mustard now enjoying popular use and favor. 
consists of from 50%, to 7o% vinegar, flour-thickening and various condiments. 

/ . N. Standard Ground Mustard is mustard containing not more than 2^% of 
starch by the diastase method and not more than S% of total ash. 

/ . 8. Prepared Mustard, German Mustard, French Mustard. Mustard Paste, is 
a paste composed of a mixture of ground mustard seed or mustard flour with salt, 
spices ami vinegar, and, calculated free from water, fat and salt, contains not more 
than 24% of carbohydrates, calculated as starch, determined according to the official 
methods, not more than 12%> of crude fibre nor less than 35% of protein, derived 
solely from the materials named. 

Mustard and Cress: a salad, popular in England, made of young sprouts of the 
mustard ami cress plants (see CRESS). The larger leaves of the mustard plant are 
sometimes used as "greens." 

MUTTON: is the dressed flesh of the sheep. If is best from animals three to five 
years old. If too young, it lacks flavor; if too old. it is tough. It is best liked in the 
spring, as it is generally more juicy then and less liable to be marked by any "woolly" 
or "sheepy" taste. All mutton, in order to avoid this taste, should be hung up for at 
least two days before use — and should thereafter always receive close attention and be 
kepi as much as possible from exposure to the air. 

The quality depends both on the breed and the feeding of the sheep. In England 
and France these two points have received more attention than in the United States, 
but the domestic product is steadily improving and sheep raising is now an impor- 
tant industry in several states. 

Much i.f the objection which many Americans feel to the use of mutton is due 
to the pooi- stock formerly sold hen — many of the animals slaughtered were ill-fed. 

i2j Hind Quarter 

(1) Shoulder 

(3) Le£ 



badly cared for and old. The meat of a young, well-fed sheep kept in a good refrig- 
erator will seldom have any disagreeable flavor. 

The most famous English product is the "Southdown mutton,'' the fine flavor of 
which is attributed to a little insect which flourishes in the fine pasture of the South 
Downs. In France, the best is the Pre sale I "Salt Field" i. so-called because the sheep 

pasture on the salt marshes along the sea coast. 

In purchasing carcasses, the grocer must take into account the loss of weight which 
will ensue from drying out while it hangs in his store. The better his refrigerating 
facilities, the smaller will he the loss. 

In selecting, he should see that the meat is fine -rained and firm and of darkish. 
clear red color, and the fat firm and white. If the flesh is flahby, or the kidney fat 
small, the carcass should he avoided. 

Diagrams 1 and 2 show a division of the carcass practised in many parts of the 
country. Diagram 3 is a well recognized Eastern method. 

Diagrams 1 and 2 

1 Xeck 

3 Chuck 

3 Shoulder 

t Flank 

5 Loin 

f> Leg 


Dl U.K AM 3 

1 Neck 
.' Shoulder 
3 Rack or Chops 
1 Breast 

.3 I.oin 
i; Leg 
Forequart r — I . 2, 3. 1 

Hindqu u-u >■ — .;, « 

The description in the Department of Agriculture Bulletin accompanying 1 >ia 

grams 1 and 2 comments on the fact That the cuts in a side of lamb or mutton generally 
number only six. three in each quarter. The Chuck includes the ribs as far as the end 
of the shoulder blades; the Loin reaches from the chuck back to the lei;, and the Flank 
is made to include all the under-side of the animal. Some butchers, however, make a 
larger number of cuts from the forequarter, taking a portion of the Loin and chuck 
to make a cut known as Rib; and pari of the Flank and Shoulder for a cut designated 
as Brisket. 

The term "Chops" is ordinarily used to designate portions of either the loin, ribs, 
chuck or shoulder, cut or "chopped" by the butcher into pieces suitable lor frying or 
broiling. The so-called ••French chops" are cut from the "Rack," a term sometimes 
applied to the chuck and Ribs. See also Color Page opposite page 404. 



MYRTLE: a small evergreen tree, whose sweet, pulpy and aromatic black berries 
are dried for use as a condiment, in addition to their consumption fresh. Both leaves 
and wood also yield an oil used in perfumery manufacture. The Chilian Myrtle is 
one of the most highly esteemed varieties. 

The tree giving "Myrtle Wax" (see Wax), which is locally known as the "Tal- 
low" or "Candleberry" Tree, is of a different species. 

NAILS. There is no date in history fixing the first use of nails, but it is of curious 
in i. 'rest that up to only a century ago they were still exclusively hand-made, and even 
as late as 1850 it was the general custom in this country for the nail maker with his 
forge and anvil to come with the carpenter to make the nails needed in the erection 
of a building. Iron has been the material chiefly employed for many hundreds of years, 
but bronze, brass and copper nails have been found in very ancient work. 

The terms "Id," "6d," "lOd," etc. — a mystery to many people ! — originated when 
nails were sold by the hundred. When 100 nails weighed 2 pennyweights they were 
• ailed 2d; when 100 weighed 20 pennyweights they were called 20d, etc., and the 
names have been retained although the comparative weights of the various sizes have 
changed greatly. 

The first nail-making machinery was originated in Massachusetts in 1810 to make 
"cut nails" from steel or iron plates. Cut-nail machinery is to-day very similar to that 
hrst used, except that the plate, which must be reversed as each nail is cut, is now 
turned automatically instead of by boys as originally. The use of cut nails has been 
greatly reduced in late years by the introduction of Wire Nails, the first machinery 
for their manufacture reaching the United States from Germany in 1875. Wire Nails 
arc in many ways superior to the square Cut Nail — they are easier to drive and 
cheaper to make — but it was discovered shortly after their introduction that they did 
not possess as great holding power. This defect was overcome in 1882 by Ira Cope- 
land, of Whitman. Mass., who conceived the idea of coating them with vegetable gum. 
the result being to give them even greater holding power than the cut nails. Coated 
nails are to-day much used where exceptional strength is required, as in packing- 
boxes and other styles of shipping packages. 

The word Nail is applied specifically to those of moderate length and weight, 
with flat heads of considerable diameter. Very small nails are known as Tacks. 
Those longer than six inches, or of exceptionally heavy shank, are called Spikes. 
Those with heads so small that they can be sunk beneath the surface of the wood in 
order to conceal the nailing, are classed as Brads — sub-divided 
into Flooring Brads, Finishing Nails and Casing Nails. 

NAPTHA, Naphtha. See Petroleum. 

NASTURTIUM, or Indian C 
America, which is cultivated h 
blossoms. It possesses conside 
especially for blending with o 
sin nits and flower buds having 
The pi'klcd seed-pods are freq 
Botanically. the name "N 
ablr to the Watercress. 

ress : a plant native to South 
ere principally for its brilliant 
rable merit as a salad plant, 
ther salads, the leaves, young 
an agreeably pungent flavor, 
uentlv substituted for capers, 
asturtium" is applied prefer- 



Tuberous-rooted Nasturtium: a variety which furnishes edible roots about the size 
of a hen's egg, of general cone-shape, marked with numerous warty swellings, and red- 
streaked yellow in color. Plain-boiled, they have an agreeable and refreshing aroma, 
but are rather watery and not particularly pleasing in flavor. In the mountainous dis- 
tricts of parts of northern South America they are considered a delicacy when frozen 
after boiling. In other sections, they are consumed in various forms after semi-drying 
and exposure to the air suspended in nets. In French market gardens they are culti- 
vated to a limited extent in much the same way as the ordinary potato. 

NEATSFOOT OIL: is a high grade industrial oil obtained from the feet of oxen, 
sheep, horses, etc. It is pale yellow, nearly odorless and of bland taste. It 
is commercially valuable because of its property of remaining liquid at a freezing 
temperature and it is therefore employed for lubricating exposed machinery, clocks, etc. 

NECTAR: the fabled drink of the mythological deities. The name was formerly 
used to signify a mixture of wine and honey and it is still occasionally applied to 
similar sweet beverages of stimulating character. See also Greek Wines. 

NECTARINE: a delicate variety of peach, which is distinguished by the smoothness 
of its skin and its pulpy flesh. It is grown in this country chiefly in California and 
Oregon. There are many different varieties, divided, as peaches, into "Freestones" 
and "Clingstones." As a general rule, nectarines cannot be grown in the northern 
United States except under glass. 

NEGUS: a well known beverage, named after its originator, Colonel Negus. It is 
made of either port or sherry, mixed with about twice its bulk of hot water, lump sugar, 
a little lemon juice, grated nutmeg and a small fragment of the yellow peel of the 
lemon. The flavor of the beverage is further improved by the addition of about one 
drop of essence of ambergris, or eight or ten drops of vanilla essence, for each 
dozen glasses. 

NEROLI, or Orange Flower Oil: the essential oil of orange flowers, obtained by 
distillation, used as a flavoring for liqueurs, syrups, etc., in perfumery and soap manu- 
facture and many other purposes. See Serillc Orange in article on Oranges. 

NEUFCHATEL: a small cream cheese. See general article <m Cheese. 

NIAGARA GRAPES: one of the four principal grapes of Eastern cultivation (see 

NOODLES: which originated in Germany and have been in popular use there for 
centuries, resemble in general character the flat forms of Italian paste described in 
the article on Macaroni, their title being indeed an American spelling of Nudel, the 
German word for "Macaroni." They consist of dough of wheat flour, pressed through 
rollers into large thin sheets, cut into various sizes and forms by special machines 
and then carefully and thoroughly dined. They are retailed both in hulk and packages 
— chiefly in strips of three standard sizes, the smallest 1 L6 inch in width and the 
largest U inch, but also in fancy shapes, "alphabets." etc. If properly made, they will 

UK I ii i; GEOl I. i; 's K NCT C LOPEDIA 

keep fur six months or longer, if stored in a dry place and protected from changes of 
atmosphere; In the besl qualities, eggs are added in the dough, the producl being 
then known as Eier \.udeln Or "egg 1 lies." 

I'mil ;i few pears ago ii was the custom i<> import noodles from Germany, but 
domestic manufacturers now supplj the market. New York, Philadelphia. Cleveland 
;,,„! a few other places are centers of the industry, which is of considerable propor- 
tions as housewives find it cheaper and easier to buy noodles than to make them. 

Egg Noodles of the besl grades, made of fresh eggs and selected wheat flour, are 

highly nutritious and are so easily digested even by delicate stomachs that they are 
frequently recommended for invalids and convalescents. The "fine" size is much used 

in soups, tasting particularly g 1 in bouillon and consomme. The broader types are 

frequently served as a separate dish, cooked in slightly salted boiling water, or baked 
like macaroni with cheese, or stewed with tomatoes and butter. 

Plain or water noodles are frequently colored to imitate egg noodles, so it is besl 
io buy in original packages, giving the preference to those carrying a guarantee of 
their purity. 

NOUGAT: a title given to several varieties of candy, usually a paste tilled with 
chopped almonds, pistachios, etc.; as almond nougat, etc. 

NOYAU. See general article on Liqueurs. 

NUTS. Among the mosl popular nuts of general use are almonds, Brazil or Para nuts, 
chestnuts, cocoanuts, filberts, hickory nuts, pecans, pine nuts or pignolias, pistachio 
nuts and walnuts. With the exception of the Brazil nut, filbert ami pistachio, all of 
these are now grown in the United States, the domestic product being, however, supple- 
mented by imports to an annual value of nearly $10,000,000. California especially 
raises big crops of walnuts and almonds, ami Louisiana and Texas are noted for pecans. 

Of imported nuts. Brazil Nuts come principally from the Brazilian states of Para, 
Amazonas ami Maranhao; Chestnuts from Italy. Spain, Portugal and France; 
Cocoanuts from the Wesl indies, Philippines ami South Sea Islands: Filberts from 
Sicily and. better grades, from Naples; Walnuts from France, and also to a less 
extent from Spain, Italy, Turkey, Chile, etc., and llmonds and Pistachios from Spain. 

Nuts can be carried safely in winter by storing in a cool, dry place, but cold storage 
at a tempera! ure just above freezing is the only sure method of preserving them during 
the summer and tl nly practical policy if the quantity is considerable. 

Nuts contain a large amount of nutriment in highly concentrated form. They are 
composed chiefly of oil and proteids, though some varieties substitute carbohydrates 
arch, sugar, etc.), as the principal component in place of fat (see Food Values). 
Their constantly increasing consumption throughout the United States, augurs well 
for a better appreciation of their food value by all classes — they are no longer regarded 
merely as a luxury, or as something to lie eaten out of hand at odd times. Sanatori- 
ums are giving many patients nut products as the chief principle of their diets. 

Nuts should !»• well chewed, and should be held in the same consideration as the 
meat or other substantial portion of a meal — not eaten as a delicacy after the stomach 
is already loaded with a heavy repast. To this latter practice is due much of their repu- 
tation for indigestibility. The skin of some varieties is leathery and hard to digest, but 
en, ,kim: may often he advantageously employed to offse! this condition — when almonds. 

(1) Butternut 

(2) Walnut 
(4) Brazil Nuts 

(3) Black Walnut 



for instance, are parboiled, the tough leathery skins peel off and the remaining kerne] is 

easily assimilated. Drying must speedily follow the parboiling or loss of flavor will 

Nut pastes and "butters" arc rapidly growing in favor, both for home consumption 
and in confectionery manufacture. They are an agreeable and very desirable addition 
to the daily diet. They are best bought in small pots or glasses, as they are liable To 
become rancid if kept long after opening. 

The composition of nuts and nut products lias been studied at a number of I". S. 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the following table summarizes the results of 
this work, the American data being supplemented in some cases by European analyses. 


Acorn (fresh) 34.7 

Almond 4.9 

Almond Paste 24 .2 

Beechnut 6.6 

Brazil Nut 4.7 

Butternut 4.5 

Chestnut (fresh) 43.4 

Chestnut (dry) 6.1 

Chestnut (preserved) 18.2 

Chincapin or water chestnut iu.6 

Chufa (earth almond) 2.2 

Cocoanut 13 . 

Cocoanut, desiccated (copra i 3.5 

Cocoanut milk 92.7 

Filbert 5.4 

Ginkgo nut 47.3 

Hickory nut 3.7 

Litehi nut 16.4 

Paradise nut 2.3 

Peanut 7.4 

Peanut Butter 2.1 

Pecan 3.4 

Pine nut (American) 3.4 

Pine nut (Spanish) or pignolia 6.2 

Pistachio 4.2 

Walnut 3.4 




Sugar. Crude Starch. 

eral Bi 



Mber. >- 









! .I'. 





:: . :. 



29 . 4 







3. 'J 
























50.2 10.5 

■: . 






:,: . 4 

; l . 5 






16 . 5 
























: 1 

. .. 







3 .7 








1 . 1 










It will be noted that several varieties — the Spanish pine nut, the peanut ami the 
butternut particularly — rank much higher in protein value than a majority of either 
animal or vegetable foods and that a number of others equal the averages of the best 
known examples. 

The fat value is very high — pecans, Brazil nuts, butternuts, filberts, hickory nuts, 
walnuts, almonds, cocoanuts, pistachios, beechnuts, peanuts, etc., containing 50?i or 
more — up to nearly 71 ' < in the pecan. 

Most noteworthy among the few nuts which oiler a large percentage of carbohy- 
drates and a small percentage of fat. are the dry chestnut and chufa. 

Many special nut foods, such as malted mils, meal substitutes, etc., have hen 
devised and extensively advertised by manufacturers for general dietetic use and for 
the special needs of vegetarians and fruitarians. It is said that some of these products 
contain soy beans, but apparently the peanut is very important in their composition. 

NUT OILS. Many varieties of nuts yield oils of value as food and medicine and for 
soapmaking and numerous other commercial purposes. Prominent among them are 

11 1 


the almond, cocoanut, peanut and walnut, all of which are treated in their alphabetical 

posit ions. 

The principal sources of imported nut oils, other than that of the cocoanut, are 

( 'hiiKi. Holland and France. 

NUTMEG (see illustration in Color Page of Spices i. The nutmeg is the kernel of 

the fruil of a tropical tree, native to Asia, Africa and South America. The pink 

or red flesh covering il. is the almost equally popular spice known as Mace (which see). 

Tin- whole fruit, about as large as a peach 

and of a yellowish-green color, is in the 

East Indies often preserved entire as a 


The tree begins bearing at the age 
of eight years, and continues to yield for 
aboul seventy-five years, li carries ripe 
fruit at all seasons, but there are three 
principal harvest periods — July, when 
the fruit is most abundant, though yield- 
ing thin mace; November, when the fruit 
is thickest, but the nutmegs arc small, 
and March, when both nutmegs and mace 
attain their finest condition, but the total 
product is less in quantity on account of 
the dryness of the season. 

After the nutmegs have been gathered 

and Stripped of their outer covering, they 
are placed upon gratings over slow tires 
and dried a i a low heat, not oyer 140° 
l-'ahr.. until the kernel rattles freely in 
the shell. The shells are next cracked and 
removed and the kernels are sprinkled 
wM lime, to protect them from the 
attacks of insects and to destroy their 
power of germination, and then packed 
for export in tight casks, previously 
soaked and coated on the inside with 
liniewash. In this condition they will keep for an indefinite length of time. 

In purchasing nutmegs, choose those which are round and compact in shape, of 
oily appearance ami heavy. They are graded and quoted by the number to the pound 
—varying (Tom 80 to Mil. The largest are the more showy, but those of moderate size, 
other points being equal, are just as good. Light, dried, dull kinds or those of long, 
oval Shape, should lie avoided. 

Sift top cans of ready-grated nutmeg find good retail demand and give satisfaction 
when the contents are pure and fresh. 

The bulk of the United Slates supply — which is more than the total consumption 
1 other countries combined! — comes from Penang and Celebes, of the East Indies. 

There is also a small, steady importation from the British West Indies. 

See also general article on Spices. 



' A '*k 



'si, jk!a V 2 



•f • 

Nutmegs, Kingston, Jamaica 

(I) Pecan 
(5) Almond 
(8) Chestnut 

(2) Plgnolla (Pine) 
(4) Ll-tchl Nut 
(7) Hickory Nut 

(3) Filbert 
(6) Paradise 
(91 Pistachio 


NUTROSE: a food prepared, principally for invalids, by the action of alkali on the 
dried casein of milk. 

OATS (see Color Page opposite G76) : a grain which has lung been cultivated as 
food for men and horses. Its several varieties, White oats, Black oats. Potato oats and 
rilcorn or "naked" oats, etc., all grow best in cold climates. See < >atmi:.yl. following. 

OATMEAL. The title "Oatmeal," though properly applicable only to the ground 
meal of the grain, is commonly applied indifferently to both ground and "rolled" oats. 
It was formerly retailed principally in bulk, but to-day package goods are almost 
exclusively used. The change has been of great advantage to both merchant and con- 
sumer, for oatmeal exposed to the air, as in the ordinary bin, is much subject to 
depreciation in flavor — and consequently in value. Unless packed in airtight boxes 
er bags it rapidly becomes "old" and acquires a disagreeably bitter flavor. 

In manufacture, the grain is cleaned by various processes, next kiln-dried — which 
loosens the hull and also develops the nutty flavor of the kernel or "groat" — and then 
put through machines which remove the hulls. All forms of oatmeal are produced from 
the "groats" thus obtained. 

For Rolled Oat*, the groats go to heated rolls -which flatten them into the flakes 
familiar to the consumer, the rolling being followed by additional cleansing process' - 
to loosen and remove the fine particles of floury matter, etc., before the flakes are filled 
into the packages. Fully OCTc of the present consumption of oatmeal in this country is 
of this semi-cooked "rolled oats" type, which owes much of its popularity to its easier 
preparation for the table. 

Oatmeal other than Rolled Oats is divided into two classes: Steel-Cut, in three 
sizes, and Ground, graded from Coarse to Extra-Fine. Steel-Cut is obtained by passing 
the groats through special cutting machines. Ground Oatmeal is Steel-Cut Oatmeal 
ground between corrugated steel rolls. 

The use of oatmeal, of the Rolled Oats type, is largely on the increase here, but it 
is not yet so extensively consumed as in many European countries. There is, however, 
an important foreign demand for the American product. 

Oats are very rich in gluten and contain appreciable quantities of fat and sugar. 
In this country, the grain is used very little for human food purposes except as a cereal 
or as "groats" or "grits" in the preparation of. gruel, but in other parts of the world 
it is employed in a variety of ways. It cannot be leavened into bread because it lacks 
the proportion of gliadin found in the gluten of wheat, but it makes excellent "cakes." 

In Scotland, the most popular form of consumption is as "brose," prepared by 
stirring the meal with boiling water, or broth, etc.. until it has the consistence of 
"hasty pudding." If mure diluted and boiled for a longer time, it becomes "porridge." 
The coarse meal is also cooked in thick cakes called "bannocks." and finer qualities in 
thin cakes or wafers. Another palatable dish is made by toasting the meal before a 
lnight fire, then mixing it with a little beef or mutton fat, pepper, salt and fine-chopped 
onions, and again toasting it. 

In Ireland, oatmeal is mixed with cornmeal and then stirred into boiling water or 
whey and milk, the result being known as "Stirabout." 

In Norway, a common food among the peasantry is a thin cake, called "Had brod," 
made of ground oats, husk and all, mixed sometimes with barley meal, potatoes or pea- 
meal, baked in a griddle or frying pan. See also article on CEREALS. 

H g Til 1 ; G eocee's encyclopedia 

OFFAL: a word frequently applied to all parts separated from the carcass of an 
animal while dressing ii for market. 

The most important food items which come within the classification are hearts, 
livers, tongues, oxtails, oxlips, ox-palates and stomachs (tripe). 

The items more correctly styled "offal" are those unfit for use as food — the hair, 
employed in making mattresses; the skin, which goes to leather tanneries; the bones. 
dried and ground for sale as fertilizer, used in refining, etc.; the intestines, which 
become sausage casings, etc. The white skin and bones also serve in the manufacture 
of gelatine. 

OILS: are divided according to their sources as Animal, Vegetable and Mineral, or 
for various specific purposes, as Edible and Industrial, Cold Drawn and otherwise, 
Fixed and Essential, Drying and Non-drying, etc. 

Vnimals Oils may be divided into those from (1) fish and marine mammals, as 
Menhaden and Whale Oil for industrial purposes, and Cod Liver Oil; and (2) land 
animals, as Lard Oil, Oleo Oil and Neatsfoot Oil. 

The chief Vegetable Oils are almond, castor, cocoanut, corn, cotton-seed, hemp, 
linseed, olive, palm, palm kernel, peanut, poppy-seed, rape, sesame and walnut. Cold 
Drawn or Cold Pressed oil, the highest grade of vegetable fixed oil, is that obtained by 
the first expression, without heat or chemical additions. The general rule in the treat- 
ment of fruits and seeds which give edible oils, is to use cold-expression first to 
obtain the edible grades, then to extract the remaining oil-content after heating or 
chemical treatment, or first one and then the other, for industrial purposes. The hot- 
expression always changes the character of the oil and in some cases entirely alters 
i he flavor. 

Mineral Oils, as benzine, gasoline, kerosene, etc., are in this country obtained 
chiefly by the distillation of Petroleum (which see). 

Fixed Oils are those which, under ordinary temperature, leave a permanent 
greasy residue on any substance, as paper, etc. The classification includes the major- 
ity of the- vegetable oils of general use, the heavier mineral oils and all the animal 

Essential or Volatile oils speedily evaporate in ordinary temperature. They are 
divisible into two main classes, vegetable and mineral. Vegetable essential oils. 
obtained from herbs, fruits, flowers, seeds, etc., are used in great variety by the per- 
fumer i see Perfumery), in medical practice and in the manufacture of flavoring 
extracts for food purposes (see Extracts). They are soluble in alcohol, ether and 
fixed oils, but only to a limited extent in water. The mineral volatile oils include the 
lighter Petroleum products. 

Drying Oils — as hemp, linseed, poppy, walnut and some whale oils — are those 
which on contact with the air form a tough skin and are therefore suitable for use in 
the manufacture of paints and varnishes. Castor, corn, cotton-seed, rape, sesame, sun- 
flower and most whale oils, are Partial or Slotc Drying. Almond, lard, mineral oils. 
oleo oil. olive, peanut and sperm oils, are Non-Drying. In temperate climates, cocoa- 
nut, palm, palm kernel and kindred types are nearly solid fats. 

OIL-CAKE: is made from the pulp remaining after the extraction of oil from cot- 
ton-seed, linseed, ere. When the extraction is confined to the use of presses, the cakes 



make excellent cattle food, as the residue contains some oil. If all the oil has been 
removed by a supplementary chemical process, they are suitable only for use as fer- 
tilizin"' material. 

OKA: a 

plant native to Peru which is worthy of more extensive cultivation in this 
country — it has already made a place for itself in Europe. Its 
principal value is in its roots. When fresh pulled, their flavor 
is too acid to be generally acceptable, but South American 
producers rectify this by placing them in woollen bags and set- 
ting in the sun for a few days, the result being to give them 
a sweet and floury character suggestive of fine sweet potatoes. 
If the drying is continued, they wrinkle and shrivel, acquiring 
a flavor resembling dried figs. The young leaves and shoots 
are also eaten as "greens" or salad. 

OKRA or Gumbo : a AVest Indian plant of the Mallow 
family, largely cultivated in the southern states and in 
warm countries generally. Its mucilaginous pods are 
excellent in soup or stewed as a vegetable, separate or 
with tomatoes, etc. They were formerly dried in large 
quantities for consumption when fresh okra is unobtain- 
able, by cutting into rings and hanging in the sun on 
long strings, but their use in that form has decreased in 
recent years, as the canned product is decidedly prefer- 
able. Okra seed, known as "ambrette," is much em- 
ployed by perfumers and is occasionally roasted for use 
as a coffee substitute. 



OLEO OIL: is the oil obtained from animal fat, especially beef fat, by the removal 
of the tissues and solid fatty acids (see Stearin). It is largely used in the manu- 
facture of oleomargarine. 

The word Oleo is also employed as an abbreviated form of Oleomargarine and as an 
adjective signifying "oily." 

OLEOMARGARINE, also called Margarine and Butierine: was invented by the 
French chemist, Mege Mouriez in 1871. 

As manufactured to-day it is generally composed of 10% to 45% beef or Oleo oil; 
20% to 25% Neutral lard (from the first rendering of the leaf fat of the hog) and 10% 
to 30% butter, milk or cream. Vegetable oils, such as cotton-seed oil, are sometimes 
added. The mixture is churned at a temperature above the melting point, and then 
chilled and salted, worked, etc., in about the same way as butter. 

At the solicitation of those interested in the production and sale of butter, Con 
-ress passed a law, effective July 1, 1002, placing a tax of one-quarter of a cent a pound 
on uncolored Oleomargarine, and a tax of ten cents a pound on the colored product. In 
a great many states, manufacturers are, under severe penalties, entirely forbidden the 
use of coloring matter. 

The law also requires that all Oleonnrgarine shall be plainly so labeled, that it 
shall not be sold in substitution for butter, and that when used in hotels, boarding- 

I I'll 


houses etc. the facl must be made known by announcements to that effect posted where 

they maj be readily seen. 

The manufacturers of Oleomargarine claim that their product is equal to the finest 
,laiiy butter in purity and nutritiveness and that in flavor it is far superior to the 
cheaper grades of butter. These claims are supported by many chemists and scientists. 

OLIVES. Asia Minor is generally credited with being the original home of the olive, 
which is one of the oldest of known fruits and is often mentioned in ancient writings. 

The tree is an evergreen with abundant foliage of very small greenish-gray leaves. 
ii often reaches a great height and attains a remarkable age — there are trees in the 
districts near Nice. France, and Genoa, Italy, believed to be more than 2,000 years old. 

Fruil is borne every other year. The flowering begins in the spring and the olive 
is formed by the end of -July. It is green in color until it attains its full size, but it 
then gradually becomes yellowish and, later, a dark purplish brown as it ripens. 
The picking commences in November and frequently lasts until the beginning of April. 
The nil obtained from the January and February crops is generally considered the best. 

The olive is cultivated in many countries — in the Eastern Hemisphere in all 
countries bordering on the Mediterranean; in the United States, chiefly in California. 
There are many varieties, differing considerably both in the size of the fruit and its oil 
content, the latter avera-in- from 20% to 30%. For the production of Olive Oil, the 
feature next in importance to a sufficient crop is a large percentage of oil. For pick- 
ling, the chief desiderata are large size and firm flesh. France, Italy and California 
produce the bulk of the fruit used in the making of oil. The finest pickled Green 
Olives come from the South of Spain, some of the fruit reaching the size of a plum. 
California and Arizona lead in the marketing of the pickled ripe or "Black" olive — on 
the Pacific coast, the green olive is passing into oblivion. 

California Olives 


Among the best known varieties of pickling olives are the Queen, Manzanillo and 

The fruit for pickled green olives are gathered when they have attained full size, 
but before the final ripening commences. They are assorted according to size and qual- 
ity, then washed and placed in a solution of lime and potash to remove their bitter 
taste. Next comes washing with sufficient water to remove the caustic flavor of the 
solution and finally the pickling, the process varying with the customs of various locali- 
ties. Some use brine only, or salt and vinegar mixed — others add fennel and thyme or 
coriander, laurel leaves, etc. The fruit is generally pickled whole, but when it is 
desired to give it a stronger pickle savor, it is marked with incisions to the stone. 

A perfect pickled green olive is yellowish-green, very firm, with pinkish pit ami 
agreeable flavor. It must have all of these points, for each is essential to a fine prod- 
uct. Fruit of lesser quality is generally dark in color, with meat soft and mushy or 
woody and tasteless, these defects being caused either by age or imperfect curing. 

Pickled or salted ripe or "Black" olives are purplish-black in exterior appear- 
ance and dark and rather soft in pulp, with a bland flavor due to the oil developed in 
ripening. They are processed in much the same manner as the green fruit, as prior to 
pickling they still retain the characteristic bitter flavor. 

Green olives are essentially a relish. Ripe olives constitute a wholesome and very 
nutritious food. Dry bread, unsweetened biscuits, boiled or baked potatoes or similar 
articles should be eaten with ripe olives, as they are too rich for consumption alone. 

Olives are not at first taste generally enjoyed by the average person in this country, 
but appreciation of them is, in most cases, readily acquired and there is a steadily 
increasing consumption of both imported and domestic brands, many varieties of green 
olives being very popular stuffed or filled with peppers, celery, etc., especially the first- 

A saucer of olives placed on the counter convenient to the customer's reach, will 
sometimes start the olive habit in a family and lead to steady sales. When plain olives 
are not relished, the stuffed varieties may often lie advantageously "demonstrated," or 
offered free to be sampled. 

Olives should be served in a small quantity of brine and cracked ice, after being 
thoroughly chilled in the refrigerator. They should never be rinsed in water. 

OLIVE OIL: is made from the tree-ripened fruit of the Olive and commercially 
holds first place among vegetable oils. The best is that from the small fruit extensively 
cultivated in the section of Southern France formerly known as Provence; the Lucca 
district, Italy, and California. The highest production is generally froin trees growing 

on rocky hillsides. A climate of uninterrupted warmth is essential — a cold spell dur- 
ing the months of November and December will often render the fruit hard and the oil 
of inferior quality. 

In regions where quality is of paramount importance, the fruit is carefully plucked 
by hand. As soon as possible after gathering, it is carried id the nearest mill, for the 
manufacture must commence within ten to twelve hours, ripe olives having a tendency 
to rot, to the great detriment of the oil. The result is that, as a general thing, a number 
of small mills are scattered throughout each district. 

The olives are first spread out and slightly heated for about twenty-four hours, as 
this renders the extraction of the oil easier by expanding the oil vesicles. The process 
requires much skill and experience, as even slight over-heating will damage the product. 



The fruit is then ground or crushed to a paste until the oil begins to swim on top. The 
paste goes into round baskets made of rush or alpha weed, called "scourtins," or into 
sacks of similar materials, or iron hoops covered with crash, and a certain number of 
the receptacles are piled together, with or without slat-grating between, and subjected to 
gentle pressure. This first oil is of the finest quality and is called "Virgin Oil." For 
l lie second pressing, more force is employed and is cbntinued until nothing further can 
be extracted in that manner, the oil thus obtained varying in grades and value. The 
paste is then saturated with boiling water, and subjected to a third and fourth press- 
ing by hydraulic power, but the resultant oil is used only for industrial purposes, for 
the manufacture of soaps, etc. 

The oil as extracted by pressing contains a considerable percentage of water and 
some vegetable matter. This removed by repeated "settling" and "decanting." 
By another method, the oil is put in tanks and mixed thoroughly until it presents a 
milky appearance. Then fresh water is added and this, as it passes through, takes with 
ii the greater part of the fruit- water, leaving the oil to rise to the surface. This prod- 
uct, skimmed off or "decanted," is known as "unrefined" or Crude Olive Oil. If made 
hy one of the old style firms, it goes next to underground cellars or vaults, where it is 
allowed to settle for about a fortnight, when the cleared oil is run off and filtered 
several times. It is then ready for market. One hundred pounds of olives will yield an 
average of fifteen to twenty pounds of edible oil, i. e., oil of the first pressings. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
on the left, a modern olive crusher — the 
upright, wide, circular wheels crushing 
the fruit in a stone or metal basin. Im- 
mediately to the right, in the rear, is the 
press for extracting the oil from the 
baskets or bags of crushed pulp. From 
the press, the oil goes to a small round 
separator tank, kept nearly full of water, 
being ejected into it, near the bottom, 
tliii nigh the outlet of a pipe running 
down the side and making a short turn 
up into the center of the bottom of the 
tank. Just below the oil-jet, is a water- 
je1 which keeps the oil-flow and the main 
body of water gently but constantly agi- 
tated. With the result that the heavy im- oiive crusher, press and "settler" 

purities fall to the bottom and the oil drops rise to the top, where they are drawn off 
through a faucet. 

The oil thus obtained is "settled" in the funnel-shaped apparatus shown on the 
right of the illustration and is then passed through cotton-wool into the settling 
tanks, \\ here it is allowed to rest for about a month. It is next "racked off" into other 
tanks, the process beinu repeated two or three times in lieu of additional filtering pro- 


An (dive oil is very sensitive to foreign odors and flavors, manufacturers are obliged 

to use the greatest care in handling and storing it. The leading manufaHurers stock 

finished marketable oils in vaults, with walls of glass tiles to facilitate the most 

scrupulous cleanliness. The merit of the finished product depends upon many different 

Fruit bearing Branch of the Olive Tree 





points — the quality of the fruit, its condition when picked — for neither unripe nor 
over-ripe fruit will give the finer grades — and the methods of refining, etc. 

The best test is its color — that of a golden or straw yellow tint is best. If it is of 
greenish hue, it is either an inferior grade or it has not been well refined. When 
fresh and of good quality, it is of sweetish, nutty flavor. 

Italian olive oil is more fruity in flavor than the French, and has a more decided 
olive taste. Some people enjoy this, but the majority prefer the French, as it is more 
neutral, softer and more delicate. There is an increasing demand among the best class 
of customers for the finer grades of California olive oil, which in flavor and purity 
alike have attained front rank. 

Olive oil should not be exposed to extremes of light or temperature. Light will 
fade its color, heat will make it rancid and cold will cause it to congeal and separate, 
('old does not however injure the quality. 

Housewives would find it profitable to employ olive oil more generally for cook- 
ing, etc. In the average American household it is used only for salads and salad dress- 
ing, but it is also excellent for frying — it can be heated to higher temperature than 
either lard or butter and it has no disagreeable odor or flavor. Xor is it expensive, in 
spite of the general impression to that effect, for one gallon of oil is equivalent to seven 
and a half pounds of butter for cooking. 

After all deep frying, such as fritters, doughnuts or French fried potatoes, the oil 
should be carefully strained and placed in a clean, tight bottle for further use. 

OLLA PODRIDA: one of the national dishes of Spain — a rich soup stew of meat, 
sausages, chick peas, etc. Because of the varied character of the mixture, its name is 
often used to describe any jumble of words or ideas. 

ONION: a common garden vegetable, of the lily family, cultivated in great variety 



and supplied to the markets nearly all the year round. It is a native 
of Turkey in Asia, but it has been an article of diet in various 
countries for a great many centuries, and is now grown in nearly every 
part of the world — in particularly large quantities in Germany. Spain, 
parts of Africa and parts of the United States. In quantity, it stands 
third among the "truck" crops of the United States, the most import- 
ant states being Texas, Ohio, Western New York and Connecticut. 

'Among the principal varieties are the White or Silver-skinned, 
Yellow and Red — all with various names according to their size, shape, 
season and flavor. The different colors are, alone, no gauge of quality 
— there are all grades in each color and the choice is almost entirely 
one of individual preference. The demand varies in different localities 
and changes from time to time — one section will for a long time give 
the preference to Yellow, then popularity will veer to White, etc. 
Local taste is the only correct guide for the merchant on this point. 

The strong smell and flavor of the onion is due to a pungent vola- 
tile oil. rich in sulphur. When grown in warm places, it is generally 
milder and sweeter than the more northern product. Those of moder- 
ate size contain about 91% of water. 

The earliest shipments to this country are from Bermuda — which was at one time 
almost equally famous for Easter lilies and onions— but which is in the latter respect 



diminishing in importance as the result of the development of the industry in the South 
—particularly in Texas. The importations of the famous Spanish onions are, on the 
other hand, increasing yearly in volume, and Spain is now the largest individual 
exporter to this country— the United Kingdom, Bermuda and Egypt occupying the 
aexl inosl importanl positions. 

The domestic crop is always shipped in gunny sacks, holding about two bushels, or 
in wooden boxes -never in bulk. 

Many people make a mistake in storing onions. They need to be kept dry instead of 
damp, ami consequently an airy place is the best for them — though, for the same reason, 
on foggy days all windows should be kept closed. < >pen crates of lath, such as are used 

to ship potatoes, make g 1 receptacles, as they afford ventilation and keep the onions 

from lving in a deep mass. When many are piled together, they are liable to sweat, 
grow and induce rot. A temperature of 34° to 40" Fahr. is best. Curing in the sun for 
several days should precede placing in the cellar. 

( arc should be taken to avoid bruising, and damaged specimens should be promptly 
removed. When possible, it is a good idea to turn the stock over occasionally. If one 

has I gh1 largely to take advantage of market rises, it is well to leave the tops on until 

ii is time to make ready for market, as they tend to protect against bruising and 
the consequenl Liability to rot. When removing the tops, it is also.advisable to avoid 

.11 1 1 Log tOO close to the bulbs. 

The uses of onions are many and varied. In this country, the fresh vegetable is 
cooked in every imaginable way, and there is a large sale of small onions pickled in 
numerous styles. Increasing in popularity also is Onion Essence or Sauce, in bottles, 
for flavoring soups, etc. In Europe, the laboring classes eat onions raw as we eat 

A good idea for the housewife, is to keep a knife with a different-colored handle 
for peeling and cutting onions. Then there is no danger of its being used for, and car- 
rying the flavor into, other articles. The color signal proves an effective deterrent! 

OPOSSUM: a small an- 
imal of the marsupial fam- 
ily found in the Southern 
Stales, the Common or 
Virginia type being about 
the size of a cat, with grey- 
ish fur and black ears and 
feet. It has recently been 
popularized as a "new" 
dish among the white race 
in the North, generally 
r o ast e d or baked and 
served with sweet potatoes 
i roasted around it i and 
corn bread. It tastes 
somewhat like young pig. 


a pot herb 

which makes good "greens. " 


ORANGES— Flowers and Fruit 



ORANGES. The ordinary Sweet orange appears to have been first cultivated in the 

fifteenth century, but it has since spread to every part of the world where the climate 
is of sub-tropieal warmth. The tree is an evergreen of moderate height with white 
flowers of heavy, sweet fragrance and considerable beautj (see Color Page opposite 
page 426). It bears foliage, flowers and fruit simultaneously, for the fruit requires 
about twelve months to become fully ripe. Mature cultivated California trees of good 
growth will generally give from two hundred and fifty to four hundred fruit annually. 
Those in more tropical latitudes average considerably higher and often produce several 
times that number. 

The first oranges in the market are the early Floridas and, next, the Arizona 
Navels, commencing November 1 or even earlier. Then comes the bulk of the Califor- 
nia and Florida products — Navels and others. The finest summer orange is the Late 
Valencia of California, in season from the middle of June to November. 

There is an increasing demand for fancy varieties of the Tangerine type — strongly 
aromatic fruits, generally small in size and flattened at the ends, with loose dark- 
colored skins and mild, sweet, rather dry pulp. They have been nicknamed "kid- 
glove" oranges, because one can eat them without the aid of plate or spoon, as conve- 
niently as candy. The most popular of the numerous varieties are the Tangerine proper, 
the Mandarin, larger and lighter in color, the Satsuma, and the King of Siam, or 
"King" — the last named generally of fair to large size and of very rough skin i see 
Color Page of orange types opposite page 430). 

The ordinary sweet orange imported from Europe is the variety known as the 
Lisbon or Portugal and its near relatives. The most noteworthy special types include 
the St. Michael; the "China," with very smooth, thin rind and abundant juice; the 
Maltese or "Blood Orange" with mottled pulp, and the Tangerine. The European Tan- 
gerine is grown in two sizes — one about half the size of an ordinary orange, and the 
other very small and sweet, scarcely an inch in diameter. The latter is seldom seen in 
this country. Still others are the Majorca, a seedless type, and the Egg Orange, so 
named from its oval shape. 

By far the greater part of the oranges eaten in the United Stales are now -town in 
Florida and California, supplemented by a considerable supply from Porto Rico. The 
importations from the other "West Indian Islands 
and Europe, formerly very large, have been great- 
ly reduced and are still falling. A noteworthy 
percentage of the present supply of imported 
oranges comes from Mexico, and there is also a 
small regular influx from Japan (chiefly of a 
type a little larger than the Mandarin), parts 
of Central America, etc. 

The fame of the California product has been 
much enhanced by the fine "Navel" or seedless 
oranges marketed in increasing quantities each 
year. Contrary to general belief, these oranges 
arc not the result of scientific development by 
horticulturists. They are a natural fruit of 
special variety. 

The story of the rise of the Navel to its pres- 
ent commercial importance, reads like a fairy 

Orange <>ro\t-s m midwinter, California 



Orange Trees protected from freezing by the use of extensible coverings. Florid;! 

tale. Iii 1872, an United 
states Consul at Bahia, 
Brazilj sent a few young 
seedless orange trees from 
the swamps of the Amazon 
to Washington. The fol- 
lowing year, a .Mrs. Eliza 
Tibbets, of Maine, took 
three of the shrubs to 
Riverside, California, and 
planted them on land 
which her husband had 
p urchased there. Two 
died, but the third sur- 
vived, throve and bore 
fruit. California growers 

were quick to appreciate the merits of the Navel and competition in its cultivation 
was very keen. As the oranges were seedless, propagation had to be accomplished by 
budding, and for a time Mrs. Tibbets secured a dollar a bud for all she sold. 

In 1880, the navel orange crop was one whole box! — but since, from that one tree 
has grown an industry whose yearly value averages from fifteen to twenty million 
dollars. The original tree planted by Mrs. Tibbets still lives and bears fruit. It is 
imw in the court of the Glenwood Hotel, Riverside, California, where it was trans- 
planted with much ceremony in 1903. 

The Washington Navel, the original type, so called because the first trees were 
secured from the agricultural department in Washington, D. C, is accredited with bet- 
ter and longer keeping qualities than any varieties of later introduction or develop- 
nieni. hut that known as the Valencia is considered the choicest in flavor. 

The Florida orange is too well known to need much description. In its best types, 
it may be conservatively described as one of ,h"e finest fruits the world has ever produced. 
The skin is generally thin, and the pulp and juice are rich in flavor and very generous 
in weight and amount. Among the best types of the mid-season Floridas are the Indiau 
Riyer and Pineapple — of the later, the Tardif. 

The best Porto Rico oranges are of delicious flavor and sweetness, but they do not 
appeal to the public as strongly as the Florida and California, the product being small 
and less "fancy" in style, because West Indian shippers have not yet learned to exer- 
cise the same care in selection, sorting and "polishing" the fruit. 

tn "California, oranges receive much "grooming" after leaving the parent tree — 
and they are gathered only on sunny days, as the damp fruit would attract dust, to the 
detriment of their appearance. 

Sulphuring orange tree* to kill parasite life 


(1) Florida 
(3) Tangerine 


(2) Navel 
(4) King 



The first step after plucking, is to 
give them a bath to remove any dust that 
may have settled on them. For this, they 
are placed in a long, narrow tank of 
water, at one end of which is a large wheel 
with a tire of soft bristles, revolving in 
connection with another set of brushes 
in a smaller tank below, the oranges pass- 
ing in between the wet brushes and com- 
ing out bright and clean. This device has 
almost entirely done away with the 
method of hand scrubbing, but at some of 
the smaller packing houses may still be 
seen groups of women, each busily scour- 
ing the golden balls. 

After their bath, the oranges are 
spread out in the sun to dry, on long 
slanting racks. At the lower end, they 
roll off into boxes, to be carried away to 
the warehouses for their "rest,*' for vari- 
ous changes take place in the fruit so 
recently cut off from the sap supply, the 
skin drawing closer to the pulp and 
"sweating" or giving off moisture that 
would result in damage if the fruit were 
packed at once. 

After the days of curing, the oranges are fed into a hopper, which drops them on a 
belt running between revolving cylindrical brushes, which produce the smooth, shiny 
appearance of the fine market fruit, and then they go to the "sorting tables," where they 
are rapidly graded according to color and general appearance, as "Fancy." "choice," 
"standard," "culls," etc., and, mechanically, by size. The "Fancy" fruit are perfect in 
form and style and with unmarred skins of the typical orange color. The lesser grade- 
are principally those in which the skin is more or less stained or "russef'-brown in 
color. Other trade terms of division are "Brights," divided into "Fancies" and 
"Seconds"; "Golden Russets," "Dark Russets," err. The sorting tables are built at a 
slight incline and the divided streams of oranges run in files on tracks of moving ropes. 
The smallest fruit falls through first, and so on to the largest, the oranges graduating 
themselves into their proper bins. There are twelve principal sizes, from those which 
run three hundred and sixty to a box, to the big specimens which take only forty-eight. 

Sharp corners are avoided or carefully padded in all these processes, for the fruit 
is so susceptible that even a small scratch might fester and destroy its merit between 
shipping point and destination. For the same reason, handlers and packers are obliged 
to keep their finger nails short and filed smooth. 

Finally comes the wrapping of the finer fruit in paper— there are machines which 
can each handle forty thousand to fifty thousand a day— and the packing in boxes, the 
barrel method of shipping having been almost entirely superseded. 

Though only fruit of fair size and appearance are. as a rule, offered for sale to the 
public, there is use for all undersized specimens. Very small oranges, generally unripe. 

COPTfKCKT, tTW7>rawoor> £ TTS&B 

Picking oranges, California 


are preserved whole in sugar as a sweetmeat, or used to make some varieties of 
"curagoa" and other liqueurs, for juices and jams or marmalades, extracts, essential 

oils, etc. 

The orange peel most in demand for confectionery, preserves, candying, etc., is, 
however, thai of the sour or Seville orange, described in the next article. 

Ripe oranges should be stored in a cool, dry place with a temperature never much 
above 10 Fahr. and never falling to the freezing point. If subjected to careful sort- 
ing beforehand and properly orated, they will at that temperature generally remain 
sound for from eight to twelve weeks. For a moderate length of time, they will stand 
warmth up to 80° or S5° Fahr., but anything beyond that will dry and shrivel them. In 
warm weal her, a plentiful supply of fresh air is essential to their proper keeping, 
whether in transportation or in store or home. Wrapping in soft paper and packing 
in sawdust is recommended. The thin-skinned varieties are especially liable to absorb 
odors, so proximity to strong smelling articles should be avoided. 

< Granges received in a green state may be ripened in a temperature of 70° to 75° 
I 'a hr. While ripening, it is well to cover the boxes with burlap soaked in water. 

Oranges are probably the most wholesome and useful of all the sub-acid fruits. 
Their juice differs from that of the lemon chiefly in containing less citric acid and more 
sugar. Their free and regular consumption is beneficial to nearly everyone and with 
many persons they area real specific for ill health based on digestive disorders. 

A point to be remembered by the consumer is that many a choice fruit is concealed 
in a mottled looking skin! Weight for size, ripeness and soundness-, are the principal 
points for consideration. All of these may be found equally in those of "fancy" and 
those of less pleasing appearance. Both "Brights" and "Russets" may be plucked from 
the same tree and under the skin will average exactly the same in quality. The russet 
color is caused by the puncturing of the rind by a tiny insect known as the 
Rust .Mite, which permits the oil of the rind to exude — but the mite does not touch 
nor affect the fruit pulp. "Golden Russets*' are those attacked later or in less degree. 
For ordinary family purposes it is not necessary to confine oneself to the more expensive 
fruits, classed as "fancy" because of their handsome exteriors. 

Seville Orange, Bigarade Orange, Sour Orange. The foregoing article dealt with 
the ordinary Sweet Orange, the one with which the general public is almost exclusively 
familiar. The lirst orange known to civilization was, however, the Seville or Sour 
Orange, the French Bigarade, which was brought into Spain by the Moors early in the 
eighth century, nearly seven hundred years before the Sweet Orange made its appear- 
ance in Europe. 

The Seville Orange tree is smaller than that bearing the Sweet Orange, more 
inclined to be spiney and with leaves more nearly elliptical in shape. The oil cells of 
the l'i -nil are concave and both the pulp and rind are heavier and coarser. 

Unless very ripe and considerably sweetened, the Seville orange is not to the 
average palate a pleasing fruit to be eaten raw, but it is grown very largely through- 
out Southern Europe, ami to some extent here, for use preserved and in liqueurs, per- 
fumery, etc. 

[n the preserved form it is best known- as Marmalade (which see), but great quali- 
ties of the green fruit are also preserved and candied whole. The peels, by distilla- 
furnish the characteristic principle of Curagoa and are similarly utilized for 
many other liqueurs, flavoring syrups, etc, and medicinally as a stomachic. Neroli, 


or Orangt Flower Oil, and Orange Flower Water, produced in France in enormous 
quantities for perfumery, soap manufacture, syrups, liqueurs, etc., are made from the 
blossoms and. lesser grades, from the leaves and small twigs. 

The greater part of the commercial supply of orange flowers is obtained from the 
especially developed variety known in France as he Bouquetier, or "Nosegay Plant," 
which furnishes also the "orange blossoms" of the European florists. The flowers are 
similar to those of the Sweet Orange, but in Le Bouquetier they grow in thick clusters 
at the end of the branches. There are some varieties with double blossoms and others 
with myrtle and purplish-white flowers. 

The practice of wearing orange blossoms by brides is derived from the Saracens, 
among whom it was regarded as emblematic of happiness and prosperity. 

South America is also important as a source of orange-flower and leaf essence— 
in Paraguay, for example, the wild groves are dotted with numerous small establish- 
ments devoted to the industry. In addition to its commercial uses, the extract is 
employed locally as a healing ointment and the dried flowers are made into a gently 
stimulating beverage. In some places, a "Tea" brewed from the leaves is considered 
efficacious in fever cases. 

The Spaniards brought the Seville Orange to Florida and there it found a soil and 
climate so well suited to its requirements that wild groves were soon to be found all 
over the State — to such an extent, indeed, that many authorities held for a long time 
that the tree must he native to the country. The wild groves have, however, almost 
entirely disappeared — many of them were killed by the severe freezing spells of a few 
decades ago, and a majority of the remainder have been budded to the Sweet variety. 

The Sour-Sweet orange is merely a local variety or adaptation of the Seville. 

ORANGE AMANITA. See subhead in article on MUSHROOMS. 

ORANGE BLOSSOMS: are employed in the preparation of many Southern pud- 
dings, ices, etc., being crushed to bring out the flavor as strongly as possible, and they 
are also candied whole in the same way as violets, but their chief use is in the manufac- 
ture of Neroli and Orange Flower Water. 

ORANGE EXTRACT: is made in the same ways as Lemon Extract (which see), 
and the orange oil used is extracted in the same manner as Lemon Oil, nearly all the 
trade supply coming from Sicily. 

ORANGE FLOWER OIL. See matter following trade title of Neroli. 

ORANGE FLOWER WATER: the fragrant liquid resulting from the distillation 
of orange blossoms after the essential oil. Neroli, has been removed. It is used in the 
making of syrups, perfumery, soaps, etc., and in the household in the preparation of 
various desserts, 

ORANGE MARMALADE. See general article on Marmalade. 
ORANGEADE: an orange beverage similar to lemonade in preparation. 
ORANGEAT: a Term applied both to candied orange peel and to orangeade. 
ORCHANET. See matter following heading of Alkanet. 
ORGEAT: a form of Almond Syrup (which see). 

OYSTERS and method of oyster-dredging) 


ORMERS: a shellfish found on the coast of Florida. The flavor may be described as 
between that of oysters and very delicate veal. 

ORTOLAN: a European bird about the size of a lark, distinguished by its black 
wings and greenish-grey head. When fat, it is considered a great delicacy. The "Orto- 
lans" sold here are generally various kinds of small "reed" birds. 

OTAHEITE APPLE: a fruit of the cashew family, about the size of an apple and 
generally resembling an orange in color. Its rind has an odor suggestive of turpentine 
but the pulp resembles the pineapple in aroma and flavor. 

OUTING SUPPLIES. When the summer approaches it is well for the retailer to 
bear in mind that "outing supplies" afford liberal profits. If a dealer proves himself 
expert in furnishing needed outfits, packing in a superior manner, etc., the informa- 
tion spreads rapidly among customers, for a judiciously selected and arranged supply 
of good things to eat is equally important whether the buyers merely intend to spend 
the day in a city park or are going further afield. 

Among the many articles that may be appropriately suggested for any occasion 
are : crackers and sweet biscuits ; cheese, of the types easily handled ; pickles, olives, 
candy, etc., and canned goods such as salmon, sardines, tongue, devilled meats, boned 
game and poultry, condensed milk, fruits, etc. 

Camping parties offer a still wider range of possibilities, for the supplies should 
also include sugar, tea, coffee, salt and pepper; butter of the very best quality, in screw- 
top glass jars ; pilot bread for chowder or to use with the early cup of coffee ; toilet soap 
and a bar of laundry soap, matches, etc. These are only sample suggestions, for there 
are scores of other articles in a grocer's stock that may be included. 

Worthy of consideration also are the numerous "camp kits" composed of collapsi- 
ble articles that occupy little space and enhance the comfort of a camping party. In- 
cluded are usually found various cooking utensils and a stove, the whole fitting closely 
together and capable of being packed in a big boiling pot or fitted into a box that may 
be slung over the shoulder. A wisely selected kit will include a stove, kettle, frying 
pan, gridiron, coffee pot, a few canisters and pepper and salt boxes. 

As individual items, are collapsible chafing dishes and picnic baskets of various 
kinds and sizes. 

In many places it pays to advertise in local papers a readiness to meet all demands 
for outing supplies; to send special circulars to customers, and to scatter advertising 
matter throughout the district. 

OYSTERS. One of the most democratic of food luxuries is the oyster — you find it 
in higli favor in the most expensive establishments, yet it is equally abundant in "popu- 
lar price" restaurants, in lunch rooms and in the cheapest of eating stalls. In stores, 
it is sold both in and out of the shell, fresh and canned, and it is eaten in every con- 
ceivable way! 

Among the best known varieties are: Bine Points, Bockaways, Lynnhavens, 
Saddle Rocks, f'otuits, Cape Cods, Buzzard Bays, etc. 

These titles have in many sections lost much of their first significance by trade 
misuse. "Blue Point," for example, is often, though incorrectly, applied to all small 
oysters, irrespective of their geographical source; and "Rockaway" and "Saddle Rock," 



particularly the former, are similarly employed for large sizes. As a matter of fact, 
there are both small and large oysters of all varieties, the difference in size being chiefly 

that of age. 

A small quantity of European oysters is imported every year — particularly of 
the French Marennes, which has a greenish color from feeding on a green seaweed, but 
it is intended only for limited consumption in a few cosmopolitan establishments. The 
general trend is the other way 'round, for every year sees large exports of American 
oysters, which are almost universally conceded to be the finest in the world. 

Oysters have been enjoyed as food as far back as history takes us and have been an 
object of special culture for a couple of thousand years. Every country has its own 
particular method of cultivation, for within the last century even those sections where 
the natural crop is largest have been compelled to resort to special growing to keep 
pace with the enormous annual consumption. 

In England, the most popular method consists in spreading the brood-oysters over 
smooth, hard, clean areas. In Holland and France, they are bred on tiles ranged 
sideways in rows along the shores and thence later removed to the deeper waters from 
which they are (hedged for the market. In this country, the seed-oysters are gener- 
ally spread on a carefully laid bed of old shells — oyster shells, mussel shells, etc. 

The growing period intervening between the first setting and the final shifting, is 
ordinarily three years, but is subject to variations in accordance with the size of the 
seed when planted, its rate of growth, the size desired, etc. On some grounds the rate 
of growth is much more rapid than on others. 

Between March 1 and July 1, the planter 
shifts the oysters he intends to market in the fall, 
from beds of soft bottom to those of hard bottom. 
This change has been found beneficial to the 
oyster, as it clears it of mud and other extraneous 
substances and improves its color and flavor, and 
it also gives an opportunity for separating the 
clusters, when necessary, into single oysters. The 
bed thus cleared by shifting is replanted with 
seed-oysters, obtained generally from natural 

The season for marketing opens with Sep- 
tember. The oysters are taken by means of 
dredges and tongs and are prepared for the mar- 
ket by "culling" or sorting by sizes, the dirt and 
attached shells being removed during the process. 
In some cases the cleaning is assisted by dump- 
ing them on the sand at low tide, removing them 
at the next low tide. 

The three sizes chiefly recognized in the trade are "half-shells," the smallest, 
usually preferred for eating raw; "culls," medium size, for consumption raw, stewing, 
etc.; and "box," the largest, generally for frying — although true oyster lovers take 
delight in large Lynnhavens or other deep sea oysters "on the half-shell." 

The eating of oysters raw is as correct from a hygienic standpoint as from that of 
the epicure. Raw, the component parts of the oyster practically digest themselves in 
the human stomach. Cooked, the human stomach must do the work as for other food. 

A mountain of "Seed" Oysters ready for planting, 
Hampton, Va. 

CO Raking the "oyster parks" and placing the oysters in the trays or " carriers." (2) Filling sacks from the "carriers." 
(8) Loading a Chaland. a large flat-bottomed boat used for transporting the tilled sacks or baskets 


MB ^B 

. ~~w • *** *~ *ri 

(1) Gathering oysters at low tide. (J) Unloading the Chalands 



California oysters are very much like those of the Mediterranean and other parts 
of Europe — small and of the same coppery taste. Those found further north, on the 
coasts of Oregon and Washington, are similar to the Atlantic varieties. 

Large quantities are grown also in Japan and China, and in the latter country 
there is a heavy trade in dried oysters, the bivalves being cooked and then sun-dried. 

The oyster is peculiar in the fact that age makes no difference in its tenderness. 
Custom and trade demands result in its bein^ consumed while still young ami com- 
paratively small, but if left to live until old and very much larger, the flesh is just as 
tender and fresh. The illustration on page 444 shows the average size of an oyster at 
the ages of one, two, six and eight years. 

By almost universal custom, oysters are tabooed during the months of May, June, 
July and August, but there is really no good reason for thus banishing them from the 
bill of fare. The oyster is not a desirable article of diet when spawning, which period 
covers from three to four weeks, but as the time of spawning differs in various locali- 
ties, no elimination of certain fixed invariable months can ensure protection against 

"** < **3(j*r 



A typical Tong Boat, and men "tonging" oysters 

their use in that condition, and the same care that is now exercised during eight months 
in the year could certainly lie extended to cover the remaining four. 

The rule is, however, a tradition of great and venerable age! It was first, we 
believe, put on record in L599, by a certain Dr. Butler, the vicar of an English 
country parish — but he can hardly be considered an authority sufficiently weighty to 
bind the human race for all time to come! The custom has been sustained with some 
reservations by recent European investigations, because of a disease apparently 
peculiar to that hemisphere to which oysters cultivated there are subject during the 
summer months, but the symptoms noted have not been found in this country to any 
appreciable extent and to little, if any, greater degree in summer than at other 



seasons. In some sections of the United States, oysters have indeed always been eaten 
as freely in summer as in winter without any bad effects being noted. 

A valuable peculiarity of oysters is the ease with which their lives can be sus- 
tained for a long time after being removed from tlieir native element. Placed in a 
cool damp place, with the deep shell down and occasionally sprinkled with brackish 

A ft ±&£ 

'rr«»iii a photograph taken at 

water, they may be kept alive and in good condition for weeks. This tenacity is 
attributed to the liquor in the shells, which serves to sustain the respiratory currents. 

When removed from the shell or "shucked,"' the oyster may still be kept in edible 
condition for several days, but it is then necessary to remove its liquor, for, although 
this is the medium by which existence is sustained while in the shell, it has been 
found to have the opposite effect after shucking. Shucked oysters which are to be 
transported any considerable distance, are carefully washed, frequently in five or six 
waters, until no particle of any substance but the bivalve itself remains. Thus pre- 
pared, packed in air-tight receptacles and kept cold, they may be held eight to ten 
days without injuring their flavor or otherwise affecting them as an article of food. 

Oysters should always be kept in a cool place, but never where there is any danger 
of freezing. The Color Parje of Oysters faces pace 436. 

OYSTER CRABS. See reference in article on Crabs. 

OYSTER PLANT or Salsify: a vegetable, native to Europe and nmv generally grown 
in this country, chiefly for its long and tapering root, which is white and fleshy in 
texture and contains a large proportion of milky-white juice. It owes its name to 


its resemblance in flavor, when cooked, to that of the oyster. There are two main 
varieties, the "While" and the "Black," distinguished by the color of the outside skin, 
the meat of both types being white. The Black Salsify is also known as Scorzonera. 
The best market season is during July and August, the home supply being supple- 
mented by imports from Europe, principally from Belgium and Germany. 

Oyster Plant is prepared in various ways — half-boiled and grated fine, made into 
small flat balls, dipped in a batter and fried like oysters — or stewed like carrots, etc. 

The young flower stalks, if cut in the spring of the second year, may be dressed and 
served like asparagus, which they resemble in flavor. The white part of the stalk and 
the young top leaves, if well bleached, make an excellent salad. 

PADDY: a name applied to rice before the hull has been removed (see Rice). 

PALM OIL: is made from the oily, generally red, pulp surrounding the nuts of sev- 
eral varieties of the low thick-trunked Oil Palm, found in Africa and South America. 
When fresh, it is generally orange-yellow and of pleasing odor. The color changes 
with age to red or dirty white, and old stock and inferior grades obtained by local 
methods of fermentation, are rank in flavor and disagreeable in smell prior to refining. 

Palm Kernel, or Palm Nut, Oil: is obtained by expression or chemical extraction 
from the kernels of the same fruit. It is generally white or pink and of agreeable odor 
ami taste, resembling cocoanut oil and being frequently substituted for it. 

PALM TREES: endogenous plants, native to tropical regions, often growing to great 
height and generally with straight bare stems and tops of constantly growing, long 
green haves. Mark Twain likened them to "huge feather-dusters." No other genus of 
plants has been so generous a provider for the needs of mankind. The two types 
most important to civilization are the Date and the Cocoanut. 

PALMETTO, or Cabbage Palm : a palm growing freely in the Southern States. The 
young leaf buds are eaten like cabbage and are very delicate in flavor. The mature 
leaves are used in hat manufacture. 

PANCAKES. The pancake is probably the oldest form of bread. Ancient ceremonies 

connected with it are still practiced in some places, although, generally speaking, their 

first significance long ago passed into oblivion. The most widely observed is the popiv 

lar custom in many communities of eating them on Shrove Tuesday, which, especially 

in France, often develops into a veritable pancake feast. 

English, American and French pancakes all have distinctively national character- 
istics. The old-fashioned English type is the lightest of all, as the batter is mixed with 
ale and allowed to rise. This method also makes the English pancake thicker than 
tl e American. It is properly served flat, as also is the American, instead of folded like 
the French, piping hot, dusted with pulverized sugar and sprinkled with lemon juice. 

The American "batter cake" is usually raised by means of baking powder or yeast, 
tn;t nut with ale nor to the same extent as the English. 

French pancakes contain no leavening material other than the eggs which are in- 
eluded in the best receipts — it is only their thinness that prevents them from being 
tough, 'liev are generally spread with jam or jelly, rolled np omelet fashion, covered 
with sugar and glared by melting the sugar in an oven or branding with a red-hot iron. 



\\ 11.1 



PANCREAS. See remarks in article on Sweetbread. 

PAPAW, Paw-Paw, Papaya. As the result of an erroneous impression that they 
are related, there are two entirely different fruits known under the name of "Papaw." 
One is a wild fruit of the middle United States ; the other is a tropical product. 

The North American Papaw is 
shaped somewhat like a short banana, 
but thicker. When ripe, it contains a 
yellowish pulp which resembles an over- 
ripe muskmelon in taste. It is excellent 
cooked, but opinions are divided as to its 
desirability for eating raw- — some people 
pronounce it delicious, but its peculiar 
flavor is not generally appreciated. 

The tropical Papaw, supplied to 
American markets chiefly from Florida 
and the West Indies, is about the size 
of a cantaloupe, elongated in shape and 
with a thick, greenish or dull-orange 
roughly corrugated skin. It is eaten raw 
with salt, being agreeable in flavor when 
at its best, and also cooked and pickled, 
particularly the last-named. It is especi- 
ally noteworthy for the character of its 
juice, which includes a principle known 
as "Papain," which has much the same 
digestive effect as pepsin, and also 
"fibrine," a principle rarely found outside 
the animal kingdom which has been 
described as "blood without color." 

Water containing a few drops of 

papaw juice is Said to pOSSeSS the prop- Papaw Tree, Honolulu 

erty of imparting tenderness to tough meat immersed in it for a few minutes. 

PAPER: was first made at Nuremberg in the year 1390; in England, in 1450, and in 
America, near Philadelphia, in 1690. It was probably known in China 2,000 years ago. 

Modern paper is manufactured from a greal variety of articles — wood, rags, rope, 
etc. — reduced to a pulp. Bag- pa per is made principally from wood pulp, the wood 
being converted by either mechanical or chemical means. 

Mechanically-made pulp consists of the wood ground up, generally by water pres- 
sure, and then pressed into thick sheets or "blankets." 

When chemically treated, the wood is cut into chips and treated with sulphurous 
or other acid. The pulp finally appears in "blankets" as from the mechanical process. 

The next step is the mixing of different kinds of pulp to produce the desired 
grades of paper, followed by "beating," in which the fibres are drawn out and the 
pulp again thoroughly mixed, various chemicals being added for "size" and color, etc. 
The "stock" is then ready for the paper machine, where the fibres are shaken on mov- 
ing wire cloth, the greater part of the water being thus removed and the fibres so 


THE grocer's encyclopedia 


Paprika Peppers. Whole dried fruits as they appear when ready for market 

interlocked as to obtain the desired strength. Next conies the drying, a very important 
process— thorough dryness is essential, yet paper that is overdried is brittle and 
entirely unsuitable for bag purposes, etc. 

I'.i per is put up in reams, containing when full count twenty quires of twenty-four 
sheeis each. It is sold by count, but is usually short of the standard number of sheets 
called Cor by the ream, quire, etc. Its quality for bags, etc., is easily tested by its 
strength in comparison with its weight. See also Bags and Waxed Paper. 

PAPRIKA, called also Hungarian Pepper and Sweet Cayenne Pepper: is the 

powdered flesh of a long 
large-fruited variety of cap- 
sicum, grown principally in 
Hungary and Spain but also 
to an increasing extent here. 
It is red and mildly pungent. 

The several grades are 
determined by the selection 
of the peppers and their 
treatment both before and 
after grinding. Pods of especially reddish color and mild flavor are considered the 
choicest. Sharpness of taste denotes inferiority. 

Paprika is a very valuable spice for flavoring dishes and is almost universally 
liked even on the first use. It should always be kept dry. 

PARADISE NUT (see Color Page opposite 

410 ) : a sweet oily nut resembling the Brazil Nut, 

but with a thinner, smoother shell, the fruit of a 

large forest tree growing in the Amazon valley. 

The nuts are formed inside a large urn-shaped 

shell, commonly known as a "Monkey Pot," simi- 

in construction to that enclosing Brazil 

^^^_^ Nuts but generally 

much larger. 

The high cost 
and comparative 
scarcity of Paradise 
Nuts are attribu- 
table to the fact 
that when the ma- 
ture pod falls to the 
ground, the natural 
gas formed inside 
blows out the neat- 
ly fitting lid which 
nature has fash- 
ioned for the top of 
the urn or "pot," 
scattering manv of 

Paradise \..t- and tin.- "Monkes Pot" in which they develop (.one-fifth average size) 



the nuts among the dense tropical undergrowth and at the same time emitting a char- 
acteristic report which brings all the monkeys in the neighborhood rushing to the 

PARAFFIN, Paraffin Wax: a whitish waxy substance, tasteless and almost odor- 
less, obtained as a by-product in the refining of petroleum. It is employed in a great 
many trades and professions, its uses being almost innumerable. It is best known 
to the average person as an easy and efficient sealer of preserve jars, as a substitute 
for wax in ironing aud for other purposes in the family laundry, for waxing floors, etc. 
It is employed in creameries to coat the inside of wooden butter packages ; by pickle 
makers for similar treatment of barrels, kegs, etc. ; by packers for coating hams, etc., 
and in the manufacture of candles, etc. 

For the sealing of preserve glasses and bottles, paraffin is simply melted and 
poured on top of the preserve — it forms a cake which makes an air-tight seal with 
no further labor to the housewife. This use has become very popular. 

Paraffin must not be kept near steam pipes or radiators, or in the sun. See also 
Waxed Paper, 

PARCHMENT PAPER. See under Waxed Paper. 

PARMESAN : the most popular grated cheese. See Cheese. 

PARR: a young salmon. Up to the age of two years the salmon has dark mark- 
ings and is without the silvery lustre which characterizes it when mature. See also 
special article on Salmon. 

PARSLEY: a favorite kitchen herb, popular for garnishing and flavoring, for the 

latter purpose being sold both fresh and dried. Common Parsley is 

said to be native to Egypt but it is now thoroughly naturalized both 

here and in several European countries. The variety chiefly 

grown is the curly leafed type. The finest received in the Eastern 

markets comes from Bermuda. 

In addition to its flavoring qualities, parsley contains an essen- 
tial oil which is mildly stimulating. 

Hamburg Parsley, or Turnip-Rooted Parsley, is a special 
variety grown in Europe for its large, white root, which is cooked 
in the same way as the parsnip and tastes somewhat like celeriac. 

Common Parsley 

a vegetable of the parsley family, which grows wild in many parts of 
Europe and Asia. The Romans are credited with having been the first 
to cultivate it. It is one of the most nutritious roots, popular for 
table purposes and surpassed only by the beet as a food for cattle. 

In parts of England and Ireland a "wine'' is made from the 
fermented roots. 

Parsnips make their best growth very late in the fall and it is 
customary to leave part of the crop in the ground over the winter, the 
frost action improving the flavor. Dug roots should be kept in a cool 
cellar or similar place, protected both from light and air currents. 



PARTNERSHIP. A partnership exists wherever two or more persons combine their 
labor or capital, or both, to secure the profits to be produced thereby. The terms upon 
which this is to be effected are regulated by agreement between the parties and are 
generally, although not necessarily, expressed in a written instrument called "Articles 
of Partnership." 

Partners are agents for each other, and any one may bind the firm in transactions 
within the scope of the firm's business, and each one, whether he be known to the 
world or not, as in the case of a "dormant" partner, is individually liable for the 
firm's debts. That one who shares in the profits of a business must share in its losses, 
is a general principle. No arrangements among the partners themselves can alter these 
facts to the prejudice of third parties, hence no one 'should enter a partnership without 
reflecting that he commits the whole of his fortune to the integrity and intelligence 
of his associates. On the other hand, any person dealing with a partner in any matter 
within the scope of the firm's business, knows that he has the security not only of the 
firm's property, but also of the property of the individual partners. 

Although it is a general rule that only those who share in the firm's profits can 
be held liable as partners, one without share may be made liable by allowing his name 
to be used or himself to be held out to the world as a partner, so it is essential that one 
retiring from a firm should not only advertise the dissolution in the newspapers, but 
should also scud special notice of his retirement, by circular, to all persons who have 
been in the habit of dealing with the firm. 

There are statutes in a majority of slates which enable persons to contribute 
money loans or personal property as "special" partners, and limit their liability to 
their actual contribution. This is often called a "limited partnership" and the firm 
name announces it as "Brown & Smith, Limited." Legal advice is most important 
in entering into any such relation. 

PARTRIDGE. In different parts of the United States, the title "partridge" is 
given to various American birds, but in strict parlance it is applicable only to the Euro- 
pean bird of that name. Recent attempts to propagate the true partridge have en- 
couraged the expectation that it will in time be added to the list of American game 
birds. There are two principal varieties — -the Grey and the Eed-legged or "French 
Partridge." A large number of killed birds are imported every year for local consump- 
lion. Young birds may be distinguished by their tender unworn beaks and sharp toes 
and by the fine skin over their legs. 

Good general usage now applies the name "American Partridge" to the native 
"Ruffed Grouse" (see Grouse). 

PASTES. The term 'Taste" is popularly employed in a great diversity of ways. 
Among the articles so styled are (1) for culinary purposes — glutenous dough mixtures 
similar to macaroni made in fancy forms, such as letters, animals, stars, etc., generally 
used in soups; (2) in candy-making— stiff forms, such as Jujube Paste, Fig Paste, etc. ; 
(3) Fish Pastes and Meal Pastes (see Potted Meats); (4) Furniture Paste, or 
• 'ream, composed of beeswax and turpentine, etc., for cleansing and polishing furni- 
ture, and (5) an adhesive mixture generally, or chiefly, of flour and water. 

PASTILLES: a class title for lozenges, gum drops and similar confections. In 
medical practice, the word has other specific meanings. 



PASTRY: a class name for a variety of articles made of light, puffy dough, as pies, 
tarts, etc. The finest and richest kind is usually termed Puff Paste, which requires 
considerable skill, as its success largely depends on lightness of hand in kneading. 

PATES: meat preparations, both domestic and imported from France, Germany and 
elsewhere, put up in earthenware jars, tins and boxes. They are so called because 
they were originally sold in pastry or "pate" form. The most famous of all is the "Pate' 
de Foie Gras" or goose liver pate, described under Foie Gras. Other noted examples 
are the chicken and ham pates from Eouen, France ; those of truffled game and poultry 
from Perigueux, Angouleme and Nerac; woodcock, from Montreuil; duck from 
Amiens; game from Pithiviers, Chartres and Nogent-le